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CVS(1)											   CVS(1)

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage  is  a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-generated from an
       appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  documentation,  please  consult	the  Ced-
       erqvist	manual	(via the info CVS command or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO sec-
       tion of this manpage).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some commands
       in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands, see node
       `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:

	 cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

       cvs

	 The name of the cvs program.

       cvs_options

	 Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These are described below.

       cvs_command

	 One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have aliases  that  can  be
	 used  instead;  those aliases are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
	 are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a list of  avail-
	 able commands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

       command_options

	 Options that are specific for the command.

       command_args

	 Arguments to the commands.

	 There	is  unfortunately  some  confusion between cvs_options and command_options.  When
	 given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands.	When given  as	a
	 command_option  it  may  have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In
	 other words, do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the documenta-
	 tion instead.

Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs  can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or failed by setting its
       exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from one operating system
       to another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last com-
       mand returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if  the  exit	status	indicated
       failure.

       If  cvs	is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an
       error message and returns a failure status.  The one exception to this  is  the	cvs  diff
       command.  It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure sta-
       tus if there were differences or if there was an error.	Because this behavior provides no
       good  way  to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to
       behave like the other cvs commands.

~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an  alias
       or  some  other	means  to make sure you always specify that option.  One example (the one
       that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that  many  people  find
       the  default  output  of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either context
       diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to  cvs_commands  within  cvs,
       instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The  format  of	the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for a line that begins
       with the same name as the cvs_command being executed.  If  a  match  is	found,	then  the
       remainder  of  the  line  is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and
       added to the command arguments before any options from the command line.

       If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the
       one  used  on the command line, will be used to match against the file.	So if this is the
       contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file:

	 log -N
	 diff -uN
	 rdiff -u
	 update -Pd
	 checkout -P
	 release -d

       the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as  well  as
       cvs co foo.

       With  the  example  file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format.
       cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual.  Getting "old" format diffs would
       be  slightly  more  complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the
       "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see  node  `Global
       options' in the CVS manual).  For example the following line in .cvsrc

	 cvs -z6

       causes cvs to use compression level 6.

Global options
       The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are:

       --allow-root=rootdir

	 Specify  legal  cvsroot directory.  See `Password authentication server' in the CVS man-
	 ual.

       -a

	 Authenticate all communication between the client and the server.  Only has an effect on
	 the  cvs  client.  As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con-
	 nection (see node `GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS  manual).	 Authentication  prevents
	 certain  sorts  of  attacks  involving  hijacking  the  active tcp connection.  Enabling
	 authentication does not enable encryption.

       -b bindir

	 In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the  bindir  directory.
	 Current  versions  of	cvs  do  not  run  rcs programs; for compatibility this option is
	 accepted, but it does nothing.

       -T tempdir

	 Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located.  Overrides  the  setting
	 of  the  $TMPDIR  environment	variable  and  any precompiled directory.  This parameter
	 should be specified as an absolute pathname.  (When running  client/server,  -T  affects
	 only  the  local  process;  specifying -T for the client has no effect on the server and
	 vice versa.)

       -d cvs_root_directory

	 Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the repository.  Overrides  the
	 setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable.	See `Repository' in the CVS manual.

       -e editor

	 Use  editor  to enter revision log information.  Overrides the setting of the $CVSEDITOR
	 and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more information, see `Committing your  changes'
	 in the CVS manual.

       -f

	 Do  not  read	the  ~/.cvsrc  file.   This option is most often used because of the non-
	 orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off  dis-
	 play  of  tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on.  So if
	 you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names.

       -H

       --help

	 Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not	actually  execute
	 the  command).   If  you  don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for
	 cvs, including a list of other help options.

       -n

	 Do not change any files.  Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports;
	 do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files.

	 Note  that  cvs  will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n.  In
	 some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will  skip  some  of  the
	 processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output.

       -Q

	 Cause	the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious
	 problems.

       -q

	 Cause the command to be somewhat quiet;  informational  messages,  such  as  reports  of
	 recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.

       -r

	 Make  new  working files read-only.  Same effect as if the $CVSREAD environment variable
	 is set (see node `Environment variables' in the CVS manual).  The  default  is  to  make
	 working files writable, unless watches are on (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

       -s variable=value

	 Set a user variable (see node `Variables' in the CVS manual).

       -t

	 Trace	program  execution; display messages showing the steps of cvs activity.  Particu-
	 larly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

       -v

       --version

	 Display version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w

	 Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting of  the  $CVSREAD  environment
	 variable.   Files  are  created  read-write  by default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is
	 given.

       -x

	 Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  Only has an effect on  the
	 cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection
	 (see node `GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection  (see  node
	 `Kerberos  authenticated'  in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies that message
	 traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption support is not available by default; it  must
	 be enabled using a special configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

       -z gzip-level

	 Set  the  compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low
	 speed, high compression), or 0 to disable compression (the default).  Only has an effect
	 on the cvs client.

Common options
   Common command options
       This section describes the command_options that are available across several cvs commands.
       These options are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands  support  all
       of  these  options; each option is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  How-
       ever, when a command has one of these options you can almost  always  count  on	the  same
       behavior  of  the  option  as in other commands.  (Other command options, which are listed
       with the individual commands, may have different behavior from  one  cvs  command  to  the
       other).

       The  history  command  is  an  exception; it supports many options that conflict even with
       these standard options.

       -D date_spec

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.	date_spec is a single argument, a
	 date description specifying a date in the past.

	 The  specification  is  sticky  when you use it to make a private copy of a source file;
	 that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date  you  specified,  so
	 that  further updates in the same directory will use the same date (for more information
	 on sticky tags/dates, see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

	 -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,  history,  rdiff,  rtag,  and
	 update commands.  (The history command uses this option in a slightly different way; see
	 node `history options' in the CVS manual).

	 A wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most standard ones are ISO8601
	 (from the International Standards Organization) and the Internet e-mail standard (speci-
	 fied in RFC822 as amended by RFC1123).

	 ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

	   1972-09-24
	   1972-09-24 20:05

	 There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs accepts many of them, but you  proba-
	 bly don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

	 In  addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also allows some of the
	 fields to be omitted.	For example:

	   24 Sep 1972 20:05
	   24 Sep

	 The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a  specific  timezone  is
	 specified.

	 These	two date formats are preferred.  However, cvs currently accepts a wide variety of
	 other date formats.  They are intentionally not  documented  here  in	any  detail,  and
	 future versions of cvs might not accept all of them.

	 One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people who are accustomed to having
	 the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is January 4, not April 1.

	 Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret  spa-
	 ces as argument separators.  A command using the -D flag can look like this:

	   $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo

       -f

	 When  you  specify  a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files
	 that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the  date)  that  you  specified.
	 Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or
	 date.	(The most recent revision of the file will be used).

	 Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in  some  file,  not
	 necessary  in	every  file).	This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you
	 mistype a tag name.

	 -f is available with these  commands:	annotate,  checkout,  export,  rdiff,  rtag,  and
	 update.

	 WARNING:   The  commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different
	 behavior for those commands.  See `commit options' in	the  CVS  manual,  and	`Removing
	 files' in the CVS manual.

       -k kflag

	 Alter the default processing of keywords.  See `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual,
	 for the meaning of kflag.  Your kflag specification is sticky when you use it to  create
	 a  private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the checkout or
	 update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag with the file, and continues to  use
	 it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise.

	 The  -k  option is available with the add, checkout, diff, rdiff, import and update com-
	 mands.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through  subdirecto-
	 ries.

	 Available  with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors,
	 export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.

       -n

	 Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified to run in the modules  database
	 (see node `modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it).

	 This  is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of
	 a cvs command!

	 Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands.

       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See `Removing directories' in the CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard  output,  rather  than  writing
	 them in the current directory.  Available with the checkout and update commands.

       -R

	 Process directories recursively.  This is on by default.

	 Available  with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors,
	 export, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

       -r tag

	 Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default head revision.  As
	 well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always
	 available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and  BASE
	 refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory.

	 The  tag  specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your
	 own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update  com-
	 mands,  until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node
	 `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

	 The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in `Tags' in the CVS  man-
	 ual, or the name of a branch, as described in `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.
	 When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted  as  the
	 most recent revision on that branch.

	 Specifying  the  -q  global  option along with the -r command option is often useful, to
	 suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag.

	 This is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left  of
	 a cvs command!

	 -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag,
	 and update commands.

       -W

	 Specify file names that should be filtered.  You can use this	option	repeatedly.   The
	 spec  can  be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap-
	 pers file.  Available with the following commands: import, and update.

add
   Add files and directories to the repository
       o Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files...

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: repository, working directory.

	 The add command is used to present new files and directories for addition into  the  cvs
	 repository.   When add is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the reposi-
	 tory immediately.  When used on a file, only the working directory is updated.   Changes
	 to the repository are not made until the commit command is used on the newly added file.

	 The  add  command  also resurrects files that have been previously removed.  This can be
	 done before or after the commit command is used to finalize the removal of files.   Res-
	 urrected  files  are  restored into the working directory at the time the add command is
	 executed.

add options
       These standard options are supported by add (see node `Common options' in the CVS  manual,
       for a complete description of them):

       -k kflag

	 Process  keywords  according  to  kflag.   See `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.
	 This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working  directory	will  use
	 the  same  kflag.  The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  For more
	 information on the status command, see node `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual.

       -m message

	 Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

add examples
   Adding a directory
	 $ mkdir doc
	 $ cvs add doc
	 Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository

   Adding a file
	 $ >TODO
	 $ cvs add TODO
	 cvs add: scheduling file `TODO' for addition
	 cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently

   Undoing a remove command
	 $ rm -f makefile
	 $ cvs remove makefile
	 cvs remove: scheduling `makefile' for removal
	 cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently
	 $ cvs add makefile
	 U makefile
	 cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected

admin
   Administration
       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: rcs

	 This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative  facilities.   Some  of  them  have
	 questionable  usefulness  for	cvs but exist for historical purposes.	Some of the ques-
	 tionable options are likely to disappear in the future.  This command does  work  recur-
	 sively, so extreme care should be used.

	 On  unix,  if	there  is  a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs
	 admin (except for the cvs admin -k command, which can be run by  anybody).   This  group
	 should  exist on the server, or any system running the non-client/server cvs.	To disal-
	 low cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On  NT,  the  cvsadmin
	 feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.

admin options
       Some  of  these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical pur-
       poses.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect!

       -Aoldfile

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile to the access  list
	 of the rcs file.

       -alogins

	 Might	not  work together with cvs.  Append the login names appearing in the comma-sepa-
	 rated list logins to the access list of the rcs file.

       -b[rev]

	 Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches;
	 sticky  tags (see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which
	 branch you want to work on.  There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert  to  the
	 vendor's  version  when using vendor branches (see node `Reverting local changes' in the
	 CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and its argument.

       -cstring

	 Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by	current  versions
	 of  cvs  or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it.  See `Keyword
	 substitution' in the CVS manual.

       -e[logins]

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing  in  the  comma-sepa-
	 rated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omitted, erase the
	 entire access list.  There can be no space between -e and its argument.

       -I

	 Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.  This option	does  not
	 work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs.

       -i

	 Useless  with	cvs.   This  creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a
	 revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node `Adding files' in  the
	 CVS manual).

       -ksubst

	 Set  the  default  keyword substitution to subst.  See `Keyword substitution' in the CVS
	 manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs  checkout  over-
	 rides this default.

       -l[rev]

	 Lock  the  revision  with number rev.	If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on
	 that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch.   There
	 can be no space between -l and its argument.

	 This  can  be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of
	 the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one  user  can  be
	 editing a given file at a time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the
	 README file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of	contrib).
	 According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default).

       -L

	 Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt
	 from locking for checkin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discus-
	 sion under the -l option above.

       -mrev:msg

	 Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

       -Nname[:[rev]]

	 Act  like  -n,  except  override  any	previous  assignment of name.  For use with magic
	 branches, see `Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual.

       -nname[:[rev]]

	 Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It is normally better
	 to  use  cvs  tag  or	cvs rtag instead.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are
	 omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already	associated  with  another
	 number.   If  rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting of a
	 branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch.  A :
	 with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally
	 the trunk.  For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revi-
	 sion  of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$ which associates name
	 with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in  the  corresponding  working
	 files.

       -orange

	 Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

	 Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing
	 (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

	 If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice before using  it--
	 there	is  no	way  short  of	restoring the latest backup to undo this command!  If you
	 delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven  for-
	 bid)  a  cvs  bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
	 deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a	copy  of  the  repository
	 first.

	 Specify range in one of the following ways:

	 rev1::rev2

	   Collapse  all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences
	   associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For  example,  after
	   -o  1.3::1.5  one  can  retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get
	   from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences  between  1.3	and  1.4.
	   Other  examples:  -o  1.3::1.4  and	-o  1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no
	   intermediate revisions to remove.

	 ::rev

	   Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev  itself.
	   The	branchpoint  and rev are left intact.  For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision
	   1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in  between,  but	leaves	1.3  and  1.3.2.6
	   intact.

	 rev::

	   Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev.  Revision rev
	   is left intact but the head revision is deleted.

	 rev

	   Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4.

	 rev1:rev2

	   Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch.  One	will  not
	   be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between.  For example, the
	   command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions up
	   to,	and  including,  the  tag  R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files that have not
	   changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision  num-
	   ber	assigned  to  the  tags  R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be impossible to
	   retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In  most  cases
	   you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.

	 :rev

	   Delete  revisions  from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including
	   rev.

	 rev:

	   Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the  end  of  the  branch
	   containing rev.

	   None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

	   If  any  of	the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of
	   the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete	any  revisions.   If  you
	   really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the sym-
	   bolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o.	If one specifies the non-::  syn-
	   taxes,  then  cvs  will  delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to
	   nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is preserved  for  compatibility  with  previous
	   versions  of  cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be
	   like the :: case.

	   Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if	it  is	a
	   branch.  See `Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual for an explanation.

	   Make  sure  that  no-one  has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate.  Strange
	   things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back  in.	For  this
	   reason,  this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revi-
	   sion undoing the bogus change instead (see node `Merging two  revisions'  in  the  CVS
	   manual).

       -q

	 Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -sstate[:rev]

	 Useful  with  cvs.   Set  the state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If rev is a
	 branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the
	 latest  revision on the default branch.  Any identifier is acceptable for state.  A use-
	 ful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for  released).
	 By  default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created.  The state is
	 visible in the output from cvs log (see node `log' in the CVS manual), and in the  $Log$
	 and $State$ keywords (see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that cvs
	 uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node `Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a
	 file  to  or  from  the  dead	state  use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node
	 `Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.

       -t[file]

	 Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from the contents of the named  file	into  the
	 RCS  file,  deleting  the  existing  text.  The file pathname may not begin with -.  The
	 descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node `log' in the CVS  man-
	 ual).	There can be no space between -t and its argument.

	 If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by
	 a line containing . by itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

       -t-string

	 Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the  rcs  file,  deleting
	 the existing text.  There can be no space between -t and its argument.

       -U

	 Set  locking  to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not
	 lock a revision for checkin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis-
	 cussion under the -l option above.

       -u[rev]

	 See  the  option  -l  above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs.  Unlock the
	 revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, unlock  the  latest  revision  on  that
	 branch.   If  rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only
	 the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a  revision  breaks  the
	 lock.	 This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notification (see node `Get-
	 ting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There can be no space between -u and its argument.

       -Vn

	 In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write  an  rcs  file  which	would  be
	 acceptable  to  rcs  version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an
	 error.

       -xsuffixes

	 In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the
	 rcs  files.   However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v,
	 so this option has never done anything useful.

annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Synonym: blame

       o Changes: nothing.

	 For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with  information
	 on the last modification for each line.

annotate options
       These  standard	options  are  supported by annotate (see node `Common options' in the CVS
       manual for a complete description of them):

       -l

	 Local directory only, no recursion.

       -R

	 Process directories recursively.

       -f

	 Use head revision if tag/date not found.

       -F

	 Annotate binary files.

       -r revision

	 Annotate file as of specified revision/tag.

       -D date

	 Annotate file as of specified date.

annotate example
       For example:

	 $ cvs annotate ssfile
	 Annotations for ssfile
	 ***************
	 1.1	      (mary	27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
	 1.2	      (joe	28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

       The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line 1 line was  checked  in  by
       mary  on  March	27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying
       the ssfile line 1 line.	This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been
       deleted	or  replaced;  you need to use cvs diff for that (see node `diff' in the CVS man-
       ual).

       The options to cvs annotate are listed in `Invoking CVS' in the CVS  manual,  and  can  be
       used  to  select  the  files and revisions to annotate.	The options are described in more
       detail there and in `Common options' in the CVS manual.

checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: working directory.

       o Synonyms: co, get

	 Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified  by
	 modules.   You  must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since
	 most of them operate on your working directory.

	 The modules are either symbolic names for some  collection  of  source  directories  and
	 files,  or  paths  to	directories  or  files in the repository.  The symbolic names are
	 defined in the modules file.  See `modules' in the CVS manual.

	 Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively  create  directories  and
	 populate  them  with the appropriate source files.  You can then edit these source files
	 at any time (regardless of whether other  software  developers  are  editing  their  own
	 copies  of  the  sources);  update  them to include new changes applied by others to the
	 source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository.

	 Note that checkout is used to create directories.  The top-level  directory  created  is
	 always  added	to the directory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name
	 as the specified module.  In the case of a module alias, the created  sub-directory  may
	 have  a  different  name,  but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that
	 checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted  into  your
	 private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option).

	 The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see
	 node `Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment  variable
	 is  specified	(see  node  `Environment  variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is in
	 effect for that file (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

	 Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout  is
	 also  permitted.   This  is similar to specifying the -d option to the update command in
	 the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will  appear  in
	 your  work area.  However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a directory
	 name.	Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory  (where
	 you  originally  ran  checkout  from),  so before you run checkout to update an existing
	 directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory.

	 For the output produced by the checkout command, see node `update  output'  in  the  CVS
	 manual.

checkout options
       These  standard	options  are  supported by checkout (see node `Common options' in the CVS
       manual for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
	 See `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -f

	 Only  useful  with  the  -D  date  or	-r  tag flags.	If no matching revision is found,
	 retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See `Keyword  substitution'  in	the  CVS  manual.
	 This  option  is  sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use
	 the same kflag.  The status command can be  viewed  to  see  the  sticky  options.   See
	 `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -n

	 Do  not  run  any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file;
	 see node `modules' in the CVS manual).

       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See `Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.

       -R

	 Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See `Sticky tags' in the  CVS
	 manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

	 In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout:

       -A

	 Reset	any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.	Does not reset sticky -k options on modi-
	 fied files.  See `Sticky tags'  in  the  CVS  manual  for  more  information  on  sticky
	 tags/dates.

       -c

	 Copy  the  module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying
	 any files or directories in your working directory.

       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the  module  name.
	 In  general,  using  this  flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the
	 checkout command without the -d flag.

	 There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient  when  checking  out	a
	 single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty interme-
	 diate directories.  In this case only, cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those
	 empty directories.

	 For  example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir
	 foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside.	Similarly,  given  a  module  bar
	 which	has  subdirectory  baz	wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir
	 bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

	 Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same module  definitions  above,
	 cvs  co  -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs
	 co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

       -j tag

	 With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j  option
	 to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

	 With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified
	 with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor	revision  is  the  common
	 ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec-
	 ified in the -j option.

	 In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when  used
	 with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
	 date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 See `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

       -N

	 Only useful together with -d dir.  With this option, cvs  will  not  ``shorten''  module
	 paths in your working directory when you check out a single module.  See the -d flag for
	 examples and a discussion.

       -s

	 Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status  string.   See
	 `modules'  in	the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the mod-
	 ules file to set the module status.

checkout examples
       Get a copy of the module tc:

	 $ cvs checkout tc

       Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

	 $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit
   Check files into the repository
       o Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: ci

	 Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into  the
	 source repository.

	 If  you  don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working cur-
	 rent directory are examined.  commit is careful to change in the repository  only  those
	 files	that  you  have  really changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify the -R
	 option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they  have  changed;
	 you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current directory only.

	 commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions in the
	 source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the speci-
	 fied files must be made current first with update (see node `update' in the CVS manual).
	 commit does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for  you  to  do
	 when the time is right.

	 When  all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be
	 written to one or more logging programs (see node `modules' in the CVS manual,  and  see
	 node  `loginfo'  in  the  CVS	manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository.
	 This log message can be retrieved with the log command; see node `log' in the	CVS  man-
	 ual.	You  can  specify the log message on the command line with the -m message option,
	 and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the -F file  option  to  specify	that  the
	 argument file contains the log message.

commit options
       These  standard options are supported by commit (see node `Common options' in the CVS man-
       ual for a complete description of them):

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -R

	 Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

       -r revision

	 Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the  main  trunk
	 that  is higher than any existing revision number (see node `Assigning revisions' in the
	 CVS manual).  You cannot commit to a specific revision on a branch.

	 commit also supports these options:

       -F file

	 Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.

       -f

	 Note that this is not the standard behavior of the  -f  option  as  defined  in  `Common
	 options' in the CVS manual.

	 Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file.  If
	 the current revision of file is 1.7, then the following two commands are equivalent:

	   $ cvs commit -f file
	   $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

	 The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs to  commit  a  new
	 revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R.

       -m message

	 Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

commit examples
   Committing to a branch
       You  can  commit  to  a	branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r
       option.	To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag  commands  (see
       node  `Branching  and merging' in the CVS manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be
       used to base your sources on the newly created branch.  From that  point  on,  all  commit
       changes	made  within  these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revi-
       sion, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way.  For example, if you had to
       create  a  patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already
       under development, you might do:

	 $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cd product_module
	 [[ hack away ]]
	 $ cvs commit

       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

   Creating the branch after editing
       Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revi-
       sion  you  happened  to checkout last week.  If others in your group would like to work on
       this software with you, but without disturbing main-line  development,  you  could  commit
       your change to a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize
       the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution.  The scenario might look like:

	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs update -r EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit

       The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on  all	files.	 Note  that  your
       changes	to  the files will never be removed by the update command.  The commit will auto-
       matically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky.  You could also do  like
       this:

	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit -r EXPR1

       but  then,  only  those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag.
       If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may acciden-
       tally end up on the main trunk.

       To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do

	 $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff
   Show differences between revisions
       o Synopsis:  diff  [-lR]  [-k kflag] [format_options] [[-r rev1 | -D date1] [-r rev2 |  -D
	 date2]] [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

	 The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files.  The default action is
	 to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any dif-
	 ferences that are found.

	 If any file names are given, only those files are  compared.	If  any  directories  are
	 given, all files under them will be compared.

	 The  exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node
	 `Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node `Common options' in the CVS  manual
       for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use  the  most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this affects the com-
	 parison.

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Compare with revision tag.  Zero, one or two -r options can  be  present.   With  no  -r
	 option,  the  working file will be compared with the revision it was based on.  With one
	 -r, that revision will be compared to your current working file.  With  two  -r  options
	 those	two revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome
	 in any way).

	 One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above.

	 The following options specify the format of the output.  They have the same  meaning  as
	 in  GNU  diff.   Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter
	 preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name preceded by --.

       -lines

	 Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not specify an output format
	 by  itself;  it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u.  This option is obso-
	 lete.	For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

       -a

	 Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not  seem  to  be
	 text.

       -b

	 Ignore  trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space
	 characters to be equivalent.

       -B

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

       --binary

	 Read and write data in binary mode.

       --brief

	 Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

       -c

	 Use the context output format.

       -C lines

       --context[=lines]

	 Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three  if
	 lines	is  not given.	For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of
	 context.

       --changed-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-
	 else format.  See `Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

       -d

	 Change  the  algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This makes diff slower
	 (sometimes much slower).

       -e

       --ed

	 Make output that is a valid ed script.

       --expand-tabs

	 Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment  of  tabs  in  the  input
	 files.

       -f

	 Make  output  that  looks  vaguely  like  an ed script but has changes in the order they
	 appear in the file.

       -F regexp

	 In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last  pre-
	 ceding line that matches regexp.

       --forward-ed

	 Make  output  that  looks  vaguely  like  an ed script but has changes in the order they
	 appear in the file.

       -H

	 Use heuristics to speed handling of large  files  that  have  numerous  scattered  small
	 changes.

       --horizon-lines=lines

	 Do  not  discard  the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of
	 the common suffix.

       -i

	 Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent.

       -I regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

       --ifdef=name

	 Make merged if-then-else output using name.

       --ignore-all-space

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.

       --ignore-blank-lines

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

       --ignore-case

	 Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same.

       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

       --ignore-space-change

	 Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white  space
	 characters to be equivalent.

       --initial-tab

	 Output  a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format.
	 This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

       -L label

	 Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers.

       --label=label

	 Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers.

       --left-column

	 Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format.

       --line-format=format

	 Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else format.  See `Line formats' in  the
	 CVS manual.

       --minimal

	 Change  the  algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This makes diff slower
	 (sometimes much slower).

       -n

	 Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of  lines
	 affected.

       -N

       --new-file

	 In  directory	comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present
	 but empty in the other directory.

       --new-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second  file  in  if-then-else
	 format.  See `Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

       --new-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format.  See
	 `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       --old-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the  first  file  in  if-then-else
	 format.  See `Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

       --old-line-format=format

	 Use  format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format.  See
	 `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       -p

	 Show which C function each change is in.

       --rcs

	 Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of  lines
	 affected.

       --report-identical-files

       -s

	 Report when two files are the same.

       --show-c-function

	 Show which C function each change is in.

       --show-function-line=regexp

	 In  context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last pre-
	 ceding line that matches regexp.

       --side-by-side

	 Use the side by side output format.

       --speed-large-files

	 Use heuristics to speed handling of large  files  that  have  numerous  scattered  small
	 changes.

       --suppress-common-lines

	 Do not print common lines in side by side format.

       -t

	 Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in  the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input
	 files.

       -T

	 Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context  format.
	 This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

       --text

	 Treat	all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be
	 text.

       -u

	 Use the unified output format.

       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else  for-
	 mat.  see node `Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format.  see node `Line
	 formats' in the CVS manual.

       -U lines

       --unified[=lines]

	 Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three  if
	 lines	is  not given.	For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of
	 context.

       -w

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.

       -W columns

       --width=columns

	 Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

       -y

	 Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
       Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that  allow  if-
       then-else  input,  including  programming languages and text formatting languages.  A line
       group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original  version
       from  the  repository,  and  outputs  a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by
       \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \

	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    myfile

       The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose,
       because it spells out the default line group formats.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \

	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    --unchanged-group-format='%=' \

	    --changed-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 \begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    myfile

       Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers containing line
       numbers in a ``plain English'' style.

	 cvs diff \

	    --unchanged-group-format='' \

	    --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
	 %<' \

	    --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
	 %>' \

	    --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
	 %<-------- to:
	 %>' \

	    myfile

       To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below.  You can  specify  up
       to  four  line  group  formats, one for each kind of line group.  You should quote format,
       because it typically contains shell metacharacters.

       --old-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file.  The default  old
	 group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is
	 a format that outputs the line group as-is.

       --new-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file.  The default new
	 group	format	is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a
	 format that outputs the line group as-is.

       --changed-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files.	The default changed group
	 format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats.

       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 These	line groups contain lines common to both files.  The default unchanged group for-
	 mat is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

	 In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion  specifica-
	 tions start with % and have one of the following forms.

       %<

	 stands  for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
	 formatted according to the old line format (see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual).

       %>

	 stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
	 formatted according to the new line format.

       %=

	 stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
	 formatted according to the unchanged line format.

       %%

	 stands for %.

       %c'C'

	 where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe.
	 For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else for-
	 mat, which a colon would normally terminate.

       %c'\O'

	 where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code
	 O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

       Fn

	 where	F  is  a  printf  conversion specification and n is one of the following letters,
	 stands for n's value formatted with F.

	 e

	   The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

	 f

	   The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1.

	 l

	   The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

	 m

	   The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1.

	 n

	   The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

	 E, F, L, M, N

	   Likewise, for lines in the new file.

	   The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o,  %x,  or	%X,  specifying  decimal,
	   octal,  lower  case hexadecimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively.  After
	   the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;
	   an  integer	specifying  the minimum field width; and a period followed by an optional
	   integer specifying the minimum number of digits.  For example, %5dN prints the  number
	   of  new  lines  in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format
	   "%5d".

       (A=B?T:E)

	 If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  constant  or	a  single
	 letter  interpreted  as  above.  This format spec is equivalent to T if A's value equals
	 B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E.

	 For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the  number  of
	 lines	in  the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other-
	 wise.

Line formats
       Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part  of  a  line
       group in if-then-else format.

       For  example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the
       left of the text.  The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for  added  lines,
       and  a  space  for unchanged lines.  The formats contain newline characters where newlines
       are desired on output.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-line-format='-%l
	 ' \

	    --new-line-format='|%l
	 ' \

	    --unchanged-line-format=' %l
	 ' \

	    myfile

       To specify a line format, use one of the following  options.   You  should  quote  format,
       since it often contains shell metacharacters.

       --old-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the first file.

       --new-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the second file.

       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 formats lines common to both files.

       --line-format=format

	 formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously.

	 In  a	line  format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications
	 start with % and have one of the following forms.

       %l

	 stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if  any).   This
	 format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

       %L

	 stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any).	If a line
	 is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness.

       %%

	 stands for %.

       %c'C'

	 where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe.
	 For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

       %c'\O'

	 where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code
	 O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

       Fn

	 where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted  with
	 F.   For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d".  see node
	 `Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

	 The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

	 If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line  up  on  output,
	 you  should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by pre-
	 ceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

	 Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different  formats.
	 For  example,	the following command uses a format similar to diff's normal format.  You
	 can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-line-format='< %l
	 ' \

	    --new-line-format='> %l
	 ' \

	    --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
	 %<' \

	    --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %>' \

	    --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %<--
	 %>' \

	    --unchanged-group-format='' \

	    myfile

diff examples
       The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and  1.19	of  back-
       end.c.	Due  to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend
       on keyword substitution are ignored.

	 $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

       Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0.   To
       see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:

	 $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

       A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:

	 $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

       If  you	are  maintaining  ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit
       your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry.  All local	modifications  that  have
       not yet been committed will be printed.

	 $ cvs diff -u | less

export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d dir] module...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: current directory.

	 This  command	is  a  variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for
	 module without the cvs administrative directories.  For example, you might use export to
	 prepare  source for shipment off-site.  This command requires that you specify a date or
	 tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to  others
	 (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

	 One  often  would  like  to  use  -kv	with  cvs export.  This causes any keywords to be
	 expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword  revision
	 information.	But  be  aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files cor-
	 rectly.  Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident  com-
	 mand (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings.  If
	 you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv.


export options
       These standard options are supported by export (see node `Common options' in the CVS  man-
       ual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.

       -f

	 If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -n

	 Do not run any checkout program.

       -R

	 Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported:

       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the  module  name.
	 See  `checkout  options'  in the CVS manual for complete details on how cvs handles this
	 flag.

       -k subst

	 Set keyword expansion mode (see node `Substitution modes' in the CVS manual).

       -N

	 Only useful together with -d dir.  See `checkout options' in the CVS manual for complete
	 details on how cvs handles this flag.

history
   Show status of files and users
       o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       o Changes: nothing.

	 cvs  can keep a history file that tracks each use of the checkout, commit, rtag, update,
	 and release commands.	You can use history to display this information in  various  for-
	 mats.

	 Logging must be enabled by creating the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history.

	 history  uses	-f,  -l,  -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal use inside cvs
	 (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
       Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of report is generated:

       -c

	 Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified).

       -e

	 Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with all record  types.   Of
	 course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if
	 you are writing a script which can only handle certain  record  types,  you'll  want  to
	 specify -x.

       -m module

	 Report  on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the com-
	 mand line.)

       -o

	 Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.

       -T

	 Report on all tags.

       -x type

	 Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history.  The types are indi-
	 cated by single letters, which you may specify in combination.

	 Certain commands have a single record type:

	 F

	   release

	 O

	   checkout

	 E

	   export

	 T

	   rtag

	   One of five record types may result from an update:

	 C

	   A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging).

	 G

	   A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

	 U

	   A working file was copied from the repository.

	 P

	   A working file was patched to match the repository.

	 W

	   The	working  copy  of  a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the
	   repository).

	   One of three record types results from commit:

	 A

	   A file was added for the first time.

	 M

	   A file was modified.

	 R

	   A file was removed.

	   The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without	requiring  option
	   arguments:

       -a

	 Show  data  for  all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing his-
	 tory).

       -l

	 Show last modification only.

       -w

	 Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where  his-
	 tory is executing.

	 The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument:

       -b str

	 Show  data back to a record containing  the  string str  in  either the module name, the
	 file name, or the repository path.

       -D date

	 Show data since date.	This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date,  which
	 selects the newest revision older than date.

       -f file

	 Show  data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command
	 line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line.

       -n module

	 Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the  same  com-
	 mand line).

       -p repository

	 Show data for a particular source repository  (you can specify several -p options on the
	 same command line).

       -r rev

	 Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in indi-
	 vidual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag.

       -t tag

	 Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.  This differs from the -r
	 flag above in that it reads only the history file,  not  the  rcs  files,  and  is  much
	 faster.

       -u name

	 Show records for user name.

       -z timezone

	 Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC.

import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       o Changes: repository.

	 Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a
	 source vendor) into your source repository directory.	You can use this command both for
	 initial  creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the out-
	 side source.  See `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual for a discussion on this subject.

	 The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the  cvs
	 root directory for repositories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it.

	 When  you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source reposi-
	 tory (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict  in  the  two
	 branches  of  development;  use  checkout  -j	to  reconcile  the differences, as import
	 instructs you to do.

	 If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node `cvsignore' in  the	CVS  manual),  it
	 does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the filename (see node `import output' in
	 the CVS manual for a complete description of the output).

	 If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifi-
	 cations  in  that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be
	 performed on the file/directory before being imported.  See `Wrappers' in the	CVS  man-
	 ual.

	 The  outside  source  is  saved  in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1.  Updates are
	 leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection  of  source
	 will  be  revision  1.1.1.1,  then files from the first imported update will be revision
	 1.1.1.2, and so on.

	 At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to identify the  collection
	 of  source.   vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must also
	 specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files  at  the  leaves  created
	 each  time you execute import.  The releasetag should be new, not previously existing in
	 the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release,

	 Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it.   In  particular,
	 it  does  not set up that directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work with
	 the sources import them first and then check them out into a  different  directory  (see
	 node `Getting the source' in the CVS manual).

import options
       This  standard  option is supported by import (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual
       for a complete description):

       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 There are the following additional special options.

       -b branch

	 See `Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

       -d

	 Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time.

       -k subst

	 Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply to all files  cre-
	 ated  during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository.
	 See `Substitution modes' in the CVS manual for a list of valid -k settings.

       -I name

	 Specify file names that should be ignored  during  import.   You  can	use  this  option
	 repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify
	 `-I !'.

	 name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the  .cvsignore
	 file.	See `cvsignore' in the CVS manual.

       -W spec

	 Specify  file	names  that  should  be  filtered during import.  You can use this option
	 repeatedly.

	 spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in  the	.cvswrap-
	 pers file. see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

import output
       import  keeps  you  informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by
       one character indicating the status of the file:

       U file

	 The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revi-
	 sion has been created (if necessary).

       N file

	 The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

       C file

	 The  file  already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have
	 to merge the changes.

       I file

	 The file is being ignored (see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

       L file

	 The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores  symbolic  links.   People  periodically
	 suggest  that	this  behavior	should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
	 should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent.	(Various options in  the  modules
	 file  can  be	used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node `mod-
	 ules' in the CVS manual.)

import examples
       See `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and `From files' in the CVS manual.

log
   Print out log information for files
       o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: nothing.

	 Display log information for files.  log used to call the  rcs	utility  rlog.	 Although
	 this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the
	 output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

	 The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision
	 on  the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things.  For each revision, the
	 revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log  message  are
	 printed.   All times are displayed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).  (Other parts of
	 cvs print times in the local timezone).

	 log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside  cvs  (see  node  `Common
	 options' in the CVS manual).

log options
       By  default, log prints all information that is available.  All other options restrict the
       output.	Note that the revision selection options (-b, -d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect,
       other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunc-
       tion with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-h, -R, and  -t)
       unless the -S option is also specified.

       -b

	 Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch
	 on the trunk.

       -d dates

	 Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the  range  given  by  the
	 semicolon-separated  list of dates.  The date formats accepted are those accepted by the
	 -D option to many other cvs commands (see node `Common  options'  in  the  CVS  manual).
	 Dates can be combined into ranges as follows:

	 d1<d2

	 d2>d1

	   Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.

	 <d

	 d>

	   Select all revisions dated d or earlier.

	 d<

	 >d

	   Select all revisions dated d or later.

	 d

	   Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

	   The	> or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than
	   an exclusive one.

	   Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).

       -h

	 Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the  working	directory,  head,
	 default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.	(Default is to run recursively).

       -N

	 Do  not  print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very useful when your
	 site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information,  the
	 log information is presented without tags at all.

       -n

	 Print	the  list  of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your .cvsrc
	 file has a log -N entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags.

       -R

	 Print only the name of the rcs file.

       -rrevisions

	 Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions	of  revi-
	 sions and ranges.  The following table explains the available range formats:

	 rev1:rev2

	   Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).

	 rev1::rev2

	   The same, but excluding rev1.

	 :rev

	 ::rev

	   Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.

	 rev:

	   Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev.

	 rev::

	   Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev.

	 branch

	   An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.

	 branch1:branch2

	 branch1::branch2

	   A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range.

	 branch.

	   The latest revision in branch.

	   A  bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally
	   the trunk.  There can be no space between the -r option and its argument.

       -S

	 Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.

       -s states

	 Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the  states  given
	 in  the  comma-separated  list states.  Individual states may be any text string, though
	 cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead.  See `admin options' in the CVS  manual
	 for more information.

       -t

	 Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.

       -wlogins

	 Print	information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the
	 comma-separated list logins.  If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed.   There
	 can be no space between the -w option and its argument.

	 log  prints  the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w,
	 intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Contributed examples are gratefully accepted.

rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: patch

	 Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed  directly
	 into  the  patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.  (This
	 is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository,  and  doesn't
	 require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device.

	 You  can  specify  (using  the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two
	 revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file  reflects
	 differences  between  that  revision  or  date and the current head revisions in the rcs
	 file.

	 Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then
	 it  may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old
	 sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories.

rdiff options
       These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual
       for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.

       -f

	 If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

       -l

	 Local; don't descend subdirectories.

       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In addition to the above, these options are available:

       -c

	 Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

       -s

	 Create a summary change report instead of a patch.   The  summary  includes  information
	 about files that were changed or added between the releases.  It is sent to the standard
	 output device.  This is useful for finding out, for example, which  files  have  changed
	 between two dates or revisions.

       -t

	 A  diff  of  the  top two revisions is sent to the standard output device.  This is most
	 useful for seeing what the last change to a file was.

       -u

	 Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.	Remember that old versions of  the  patch
	 program  can't  handle  the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net
	 you should probably not use -u.

       -V vn

	 Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the	expansion  format
	 changed  with	rcs  version  5).  Note that this option is no longer accepted.  cvs will
	 always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does.

rdiff examples
       Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4
       of  the	tc  compiler.	You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be
       fixed with a command such as this:

	 $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
	 > Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net

       Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch  called  R_1_3fix  for  bug  fixes.
       R_1_3_1	corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago.  Now, you want to see
       how much development has been done on the branch.  This command can be used:

	 $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
	 cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
	 File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
	 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
	 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       o release [-d] directories...

       o Requires: Working directory.

       o Changes: Working directory, history log.

	 This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout.   Since  cvs  doesn't
	 lock  files,  it  isn't  strictly  necessary to use this command.  You can always simply
	 delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing  changes  you	may  have
	 forgotten,  and  you  leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node `history file' in
	 the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

	 Use cvs release to avoid these  problems.   This  command  checks  that  no  uncommitted
	 changes  are  present;  that  you  are executing it from immediately above a cvs working
	 directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository
	 defined in the module database.

	 If  all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attest-
	 ing to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log.

release options
       The release command supports one command option:

       -d

	 Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds.	If this flag is not given
	 your files will remain in your working directory.

	 WARNING:   The  release command deletes all directories and files recursively.  This has
	 the very serious side-effect that any directory created inside checked-out sources,  and
	 not  added  to the repository (using the add command; see node `Adding files' in the CVS
	 manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty!

release output
       Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is
       not up-to-date.

       U file

       P file

	 There	exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified
	 your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing).

       A file

	 The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet  been  com-
	 mitted  to  the  repository.	If  you delete your copy of the sources this file will be
	 lost.

       R file

	 The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has  not	yet  been
	 removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal.  See `commit'
	 in the CVS manual.

       M file

	 The file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be  a  newer  revision
	 inside the repository.

       ? file

	 file  is  in  your  working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source
	 repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see  the  description  of
	 the  -I option, and see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working
	 sources, this file will be lost.

release examples
       Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.

	 $ cd ..	 # You must stand immediately above the

			 # sources when you issue cvs release.
	 $ cvs release -d tc
	 You have [0] altered files in this repository.
	 Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
	 $

remove
   Remove files from active use
       o Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: working directory.

	 The remove command is used to remove unwanted files from active use.  The user  normally
	 deletes  the files from the working directory prior to invocation of the remove command.
	 Only the working directory is updated.  Changes to the repository are not made until the
	 commit command is run.

	 The  remove  command does not delete files from from the repository.  cvs keeps all his-
	 torical data in the repository so that it is possible to reconstruct previous states  of
	 the projects under revision control.

	 To undo cvs remove or to resurrect files that were previously removed, see node `add' in
	 the CVS manual.

remove options
       These standard options are supported by remove (see node `Common options' in the CVS  man-
       ual for a complete description of them):

       -l

	 Local;  run only in current working directory.  See `Recursive behavior' in the CVS man-
	 ual.

       -R

	 Process directories recursively.  See `Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

	 In addition, these options are also supported:

       -f

	 Note that this is not the standard behavior of the  -f  option  as  defined  in  `Common
	 options' in the CVS manual.

	 Delete files before removing them.

	 Entire  directory  hierarchies are easily removed using -f, but take note that it is not
	 as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies as it is to remove them.

remove examples
   Removing a file
	 $ cvs remove remove.me
	 cvs remove: file `remove.me' still in working directory
	 cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first
	 $ rm -f remove.me
	 $ cvs remove remove.me
	 cvs remove: scheduling `remove.me' for removal
	 cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

	 $ ls remove.it
	 remove.it
	 $ cvs remove -f remove.it
	 cvs remove: scheduling `remove.it' for removal
	 cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

   Removing entire directories
	 $ tree -d a
	 a
	 |-- CVS
	 `-- b

	     `-- CVS

	 3 directories
	 $ cvs remove -f a
	 cvs remove: Removing a
	 cvs remove: Removing a/b
	 cvs remove: scheduling `a/b/c' for removal
	 cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
       o update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r	tag|-D	date]  [-W  spec]
	 files...

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: working directory.

	 After	you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common reposi-
	 tory, other developers will continue changing the central source.  From  time	to  time,
	 when  it  is convenient in your development process, you can use the update command from
	 within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied  to  the
	 source repository since your last checkout or update.

update options
       These  standard	options  are  available with update (see node `Common options' in the CVS
       manual for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
	 See `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -f

	 Only  useful  with  the  -D  date  or	-r  tag flags.	If no matching revision is found,
	 retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See `Keyword  substitution'  in	the  CVS  manual.
	 This  option  is  sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use
	 the same kflag.  The status command can be  viewed  to  see  the  sticky  options.   See
	 `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

       -l

	 Local;  run only in current working directory.  See `Recursive behavior' in the CVS man-
	 ual.

       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See `Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.

       -R

	 Update directories recursively (default).  See `Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

       -r rev

	 Retrieve revision/tag rev.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See `Sticky tags' in
	 the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

	 These special options are also available with update.

       -A

	 Reset	any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.	Does not reset sticky -k options on modi-
	 fied files.  See `Sticky tags'  in  the  CVS  manual  for  more  information  on  sticky
	 tags/dates.

       -C

	 Overwrite  locally  modified  files  with clean copies from the repository (the modified
	 file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

       -d

	 Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the  working
	 directory.   Normally,  update  acts  only  on  directories  and files that were already
	 enrolled in your working directory.

	 This is useful for updating directories that were created in the  repository  since  the
	 initial  checkout;  but  it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliberately avoided
	 certain directories in the repository when you created your  working  directory  (either
	 through  use  of  a  module  name or by listing explicitly the files and directories you
	 wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will create those directories,  which
	 may not be what you want.

       -I name

	 Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) during the update.  You
	 can specify -I more than once on the command line to specify several  files  to  ignore.
	 Use  -I  !  to  avoid	ignoring any files at all.  See `cvsignore' in the CVS manual for
	 other ways to make cvs ignore some files.

       -Wspec

	 Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can	use  this  option
	 repeatedly.

	 spec  can  be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap-
	 pers file.  See `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

       -jrevision

	 With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j  option
	 to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

	 With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified
	 with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor	revision  is  the  common
	 ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec-
	 ified in the -j option.

	 Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname  to  merge  changes
	 from  a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the branch.  See `Merg-
	 ing adds and removals' in the CVS manual for more information.

	 In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when  used
	 with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
	 date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 See `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
       update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each  file,
       preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

       U file

	 The  file  was  brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This is done for any
	 file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for files that
	 you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in the repository.

       P file

	 Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.	This accomplishes
	 the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

       A file

	 The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be  added  to  the
	 source  repository  when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you that the
	 file needs to be committed.

       R file

	 The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and	will  be  removed
	 from  the  source repository when you run commit on the file.	This is a reminder to you
	 that the file needs to be committed.

       M file

	 The file is modified in  your	working  directory.

	 M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either there were no mod-
	 ifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw
	 it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were
	 merged successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

	 cvs  will  print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of your working
	 file (as it looked before you ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file  is
	 printed while update runs.

       C file

	 A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to file with changes from the
	 source repository.  file (the copy in your working  directory)  is  now  the  result  of
	 attempting  to  merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
	 working directory, with the name .#file.revision where revision  is  the  revision  that
	 your  modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as described in `Conflicts exam-
	 ple' in the CVS manual.  (Note that some systems automatically purge  files  that  begin
	 with  .# if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy of
	 your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)   Under  vms,  the  file  name
	 starts with __ rather than .#.

       ? file

	 file  is  in  your  working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source
	 repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see  the  description  of
	 the -I option, and see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original	author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix in the
	      volume6 release of December, 1986.  Credited with much of the cvs conflict  resolu-
	      tion algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder  and designer of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the original
	      work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and author
	      of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
	      Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The  most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist et
       al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get it with the info CVS command  or  it
       may  be	available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format), cvs.ps (PostScript), cvs.texinfo
       (Texinfo source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to	CVS,  development
       of CVS, and more, see:

	   http://cvs.nongnu.org

 ci(1),  co(1),  cvs(5),  cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1),
 rlog(1).

											   CVS(1)
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