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CI(1)											    CI(1)

NAME
       ci - check in RCS revisions

SYNOPSIS
       ci [options] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       ci stores new revisions into RCS files.	Each file name matching an RCS suffix is taken to
       be an RCS file.	All others are assumed to be working files containing new revisions.   ci
       deposits  the  contents	of  each working file into the corresponding RCS file.	If only a
       working file is given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS  subdirectory
       and then in the working file's directory.  For more details, see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except if the access list
       is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner of the file.  To append a  new  revi-
       sion  to an existing branch, the tip revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.
       Otherwise, only a new branch can be created.  This restriction is  not  enforced  for  the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).  A lock held by someone else
       can be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless the -f option is given, ci checks whether the revision to be deposited differs from
       the preceding one.  If not, instead of creating a new revision ci reverts to the preceding
       one.  To revert, ordinary ci removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps and  ci -u
       removes any lock, and then they both generate a new working file much as if co -l or co -u
       had been applied to the preceding revision.  When reverting, any -n and -s  options  apply
       to the preceding revision.

       For  each revision deposited, ci prompts for a log message.  The log message should summa-
       rize the change and must be terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.
       If several files are checked in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the
       standard input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same  log  message
       for all files.  See also -m.

       If  the	RCS  file  does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents of the working
       file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The access	list  is  initialized  to
       empty.  Instead of the log message, ci requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev  of the deposited revision can be given by any of the options -f, -i, -I,
       -j, -k, -l, -M, -q, -r, or -u.  rev can be symbolic, numeric, or mixed.	Symbolic names in
       rev must already be defined; see the -n and -N options for assigning names during checkin.
       If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from keyword values in the working file.

       If rev begins with a period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended  to
       it.   If  rev  is  a  branch number followed by a period, then the latest revision on that
       branch is used.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest one on the branch to  which
       rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev	is  a  branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is appended to that
       branch.	The level number is obtained by incrementing the  tip  revision  number  of  that
       branch.	 If  rev indicates a non-existing branch, that branch is created with the initial
       revision numbered rev.1.

       If rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the caller's last lock.
       If  the	caller	has  locked the tip revision of a branch, the new revision is appended to
       that branch.  The new revision number is obtained by incrementing the tip revision number.
       If  the	caller	locked	a  non-tip  revision, a new branch is started at that revision by
       incrementing the highest branch number at that revision.  The default initial  branch  and
       level numbers are 1.

       If  rev is omitted and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and locking is not set to
       strict, then the revision is appended to the default branch (normally the trunk;  see  the
       -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception: On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not inserted.

OPTIONS
       -rrev  Check in revision rev.

       -r     The bare -r option (without any revision) has an unusual meaning in ci.  With other
	      RCS commands, a bare -r option specifies the most recent revision  on  the  default
	      branch, but with ci, a bare -r option reestablishes the default behavior of releas-
	      ing a lock and removing the working file, and is used to override any default -l or
	      -u options established by shell aliases or scripts.

       -l[rev]
	      works  like  -r, except it performs an additional co -l for the deposited revision.
	      Thus, the deposited revision is immediately checked out again and locked.  This  is
	      useful  for  saving  a revision although one wants to continue editing it after the
	      checkin.

       -u[rev]
	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not	locked.   This	lets  one
	      read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The  -l,	bare -r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and silently override each
	      other.  For example, ci -u -r is equivalent to ci -r because bare -r overrides -u.

       -f[rev]
	      forces a deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not different	from  the
	      preceding one.

       -k[rev]
	      searches the working file for keyword values to determine its revision number, cre-
	      ation date, state, and  author  (see  co(1)),  and  assigns  these  values  to  the
	      deposited  revision,  rather  than  computing  them  locally.   It also generates a
	      default login message noting the login of the caller and the actual  checkin  date.
	      This  option  is useful for software distribution.  A revision that is sent to sev-
	      eral sites should be checked in with the -k option at these sites to  preserve  the
	      original	number,  date,	author,  and state.  The extracted keyword values and the
	      default log message can be overridden with the options -d,  -m,  -s,  -w,  and  any
	      option that carries a revision number.

       -q[rev]
	      quiet  mode;  diagnostic	output	is not printed.  A revision that is not different
	      from the preceding one is not deposited, unless -f is given.

       -i[rev]
	      initial checkin; report an error if the RCS file already exists.	This avoids  race
	      conditions in certain applications.

       -j[rev]
	      just  checkin  and  do  not  initialize;	report	an error if the RCS file does not
	      already exist.

       -I[rev]
	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the standard input is
	      not a terminal.

       -d[date]
	      uses  date  for the checkin date and time.  The date is specified in free format as
	      explained in co(1).  This is useful for lying about the checkin date, and for -k if
	      no  date is available.  If date is empty, the working file's time of last modifica-
	      tion is used.

       -M[rev]
	      Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date of  the	retrieved
	      revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does not alter f's modification time, even if
	      f's contents change due to keyword substitution.	Use this option with care; it can
	      confuse make(1).

       -m[msg]
	      uses  the  string  msg  as the log message for all revisions checked in.	If msg is
	      omitted, it defaults to "*** empty log message ***".  By convention,  log  messages
	      that  start  with  #  are  comments and are ignored by programs like GNU Emacs's vc
	      package.	Also, log messages that start with {clumpname} (followed by white  space)
	      are meant to be clumped together if possible, even if they are associated with dif-
	      ferent files; the {clumpname} label is used only for clumping, and is  not  consid-
	      ered to be part of the log message itself.

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of the checked-in revision.	ci prints
	      an error message if name is already assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a previous assignment of name.

       -sstate
	      sets the state of the checked-in revision to the	identifier  state.   The  default
	      state is Exp.

       -tfile writes  descriptive  text  from  the  contents of the named file into the RCS file,
	      deleting the existing text.  The file cannot begin with -.

       -t-string
	      Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS  file,  deleting  the  existing
	      text.

	      The  -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an initial checkin; it is
	      silently ignored otherwise.

	      During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci obtains the text  from  standard
	      input,  terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  The user is
	      prompted for the text if interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t option is ignored.

       -T     Set the RCS file's modification time to the new revision's time if the former  pre-
	      cedes  the latter and there is a new revision; preserve the RCS file's modification
	      time otherwise.  If you have locked a revision, ci usually updates the  RCS  file's
	      modification  time  to the current time, because the lock is stored in the RCS file
	      and removing the lock requires changing the RCS file.  This can create an RCS  file
	      newer  than  the working file in one of two ways: first, ci -M can create a working
	      file with a date before the current time; second, when reverting	to  the  previous
	      revision	the  RCS file can change while the working file remains unchanged.  These
	      two cases can cause excessive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency  of  the
	      working  file  on the RCS file.  The -T option inhibits this recompilation by lying
	      about the RCS file's date.  Use this option with care; it can  suppress  recompila-
	      tion  even  when	a  checkin of one working file should affect another working file
	      associated with the same RCS file.  For example, suppose the  RCS  file's  time  is
	      01:00,  the  (changed) working file's time is 02:00, some other copy of the working
	      file has a time of 03:00, and the current time is 04:00.	Then  ci -d -T	sets  the
	      RCS  file's  time to 02:00 instead of the usual 04:00; this causes make(1) to think
	      (incorrectly) that the other copy is newer than the RCS file.

       -wlogin
	      uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Useful for lying  about
	      the author, and for -k if no author is available.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

       -xsuffixes
	      specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches any file name end-
	      ing in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any file name of the form  RCS/frag  or
	      frag1/RCS/frag2.	The -x option can specify a list of suffixes separated by /.  For
	      example, -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.	If  two  or  more
	      suffixes	are  specified, they are tried in order when looking for an RCS file; the
	      first one that works is used for that file.  If no RCS file is  found  but  an  RCS
	      file  can  be  created,  the  suffixes  are tried in order to determine the new RCS
	      file's name.  The default for suffixes is installation-dependent;  normally  it  is
	      ,v/  for	hosts like Unix that permit commas in file names, and is empty (i.e. just
	      the empty suffix) for other hosts.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default
	      time  zone  for date in the -ddate option.  The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC
	      offset, or the special string LT for local time.	The default  is  an  empty  zone,
	      which  uses  the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone indication and
	      with slashes separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output  in  ISO
	      8601  format  with time zone indication.	For example, if local time is January 11,
	      1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time  is  output
	      as follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which are always UTC.

FILE NAMING
       Pairs  of RCS files and working files can be specified in three ways (see also the example
       section).

       1) Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS file name	is  of	the  form
       frag1/workfileX	and  the working file name is of the form frag2/workfile where frag1/ and
       frag2/ are (possibly different or empty) file names, workfile is a file name, and X is  an
       RCS suffix.  If X is empty, frag1/ must start with RCS/ or must contain /RCS/.

       2)  Only the RCS file is given.	Then the working file is created in the current directory
       and its name is derived from the RCS file name by removing frag1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X in  turn,  looking
       for  an	RCS  file of the form frag2/RCS/workfileX or (if the former is not found and X is
       nonempty) frag2/workfileX.

       If the RCS file is specified without a file name in 1) and 2), ci looks for the	RCS  file
       first in the directory ./RCS and then in the current directory.

       ci reports an error if an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an unusual reason, even if
       the RCS file's name is just one of several possibilities.  For example, to suppress use of
       RCS  commands  in a directory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual attempts
       to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

EXAMPLES
       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdirectory RCS with  an
       RCS  file  io.c,v.   Then  each	of  the  following  commands check in a copy of io.c into
       RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision, removing io.c.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci  io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c  io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the current directory  contains
       a  subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each of the following commands checks in a
       new revision.

	      ci  io.c;    ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

FILE MODES
       An RCS file created by ci inherits the read and execute permissions from the working file.
       If  the RCS file exists already, ci preserves its read and execute permissions.	ci always
       turns off all write permissions of RCS files.

FILES
       Temporary files are created in the directory containing the working file, and also in  the
       temporary directory (see TMPDIR under ENVIRONMENT).  A semaphore file or files are created
       in the directory containing the RCS file.  With a nonempty  suffix,  the  semaphore  names
       begin  with  the  first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify an suffix whose
       first character could be that of a working file name.  With an empty suffix, the semaphore
       names end with _ so working file names should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS file or working file.  Normally, ci unlinks the file and creates a
       new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or more symbolic links to an RCS file,  it
       unlinks	the destination file instead.  Therefore, ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to
       any working file it changes; and hard links to RCS files  are  ineffective,  but  symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The effective user must be able to search and write the directory containing the RCS file.
       Normally, the real user must be able to read the RCS and working files and to  search  and
       write  the  directory containing the working file; however, some older hosts cannot easily
       switch between real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user is used  for
       all  accesses.	The  effective user is the same as the real user unless your copies of ci
       and co have setuid privileges.  As described in the next section, these	privileges  yield
       extra  security	if the effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the directory contain-
       ing  the  files;  only  users  with  write access to the directory can use RCS commands to
       change its RCS files.  For example, in hosts that  allow  a  user  to  belong  to  several
       groups, one can make a group's RCS directories writable to that group only.  This approach
       suffices for informal projects, but it means that any group member can arbitrarily  change
       the  group's  RCS  files,  and  can even remove them entirely.  Hence more formal projects
       sometimes distinguish between an RCS administrator, who can change the RCS files at  will,
       and  other project members, who can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise change the
       RCS files.

SETUID USE
       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions, a set of users can
       employ setuid privileges as follows.

       o Check	that the host supports RCS setuid use.	Consult a trustworthy expert if there are
	 any doubts.  It is best if the seteuid system call works as described in  Posix  1003.1a
	 Draft	5, because RCS can switch back and forth easily between real and effective users,
	 even if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if	the  setuid  system  call
	 supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails
	 only if the real or effective user is root.  If RCS detects any failure  in  setuid,  it
	 quits immediately.

       o Choose  a  user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set of users.	Only A can invoke
	 the rcs command on the users' RCS files.  A should not be root or any	other  user  with
	 special powers.  Mutually suspicious sets of users should use different administrators.

       o Choose a file name B to be a directory of files to be executed by the users.

       o Have  A set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A by copying the com-
	 mands from their standard installation directory D as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       o Have each user prepend B to their command search path as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       o Have A create each RCS directory R with write access only to A as follows:

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       o If you want to let only certain users read the RCS files, put the users into a group  G,
	 and have A further protect the RCS directory as follows:

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       o Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R, to ensure that A owns them.

       o An  RCS  file's  access  list	limits	who can check in and lock revisions.  The default
	 access list is empty, which grants checkin access to anyone who can read the  RCS  file.
	 If you want limit checkin access, have A invoke rcs -a on the file; see rcs(1).  In par-
	 ticular, rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       o Have A initialize any new RCS files with rcs -i before initial checkin,  adding  the  -a
	 option if you want to limit checkin access.

       o Give  setuid  privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them to rcs or to any
	 other command.

       o Do not use other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid  is  trickier	than  you
	 think!

ENVIRONMENT
       RCSINIT
	      Options  prepended  to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A backslash escapes
	      spaces within an option.	The RCSINIT options are prepended to the  argument  lists
	      of most RCS commands.  Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

       RCS_MEM_LIMIT
	      An  integer  lim,  measured in kilobytes, specifying the threshold under which com-
	      mands will try to use memory-based operations for processing the	RCS  file.   (For
	      RCS  files  of  size  lim  kilobytes  or	greater, RCS will use the slower standard
	      input/output routines.)  Default value is 256.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not set, the  environment  variables  TMP  and
	      TEMP  are inspected instead and the first value found is taken; if none of them are
	      set, a host-dependent default is used, typically /tmp.

DIAGNOSTICS
       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working file, and the number  of	both  the
       deposited  and  the preceding revision.	The exit status is zero if and only if all opera-
       tions were successful.

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.0; Release Date: 2014-06-10.
       Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

SEE ALSO
       co(1), emacs(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1),
       setuid(2), rcsfile(5).

       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7
       (July 1985), 637-654.

       The full documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info(1) and  RCS
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

	      info rcs

       should give you access to the complete manual.  Additionally, the RCS homepage:

	      http://www.gnu.org/software/rcs/

       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

GNU RCS 5.9.0				    2014-06-10					    CI(1)
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