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RCS(1)											   RCS(1)

       rcs - change RCS file attributes

       rcs options file ...

       rcs  creates  new  RCS files or changes attributes of existing ones.  An RCS file contains
       multiple revisions of text, an access list, a change log, descriptive text, and some  con-
       trol  attributes.   For	rcs  to work, the caller's login name must be on the access list,
       except if the access list is empty, the caller is the owner of the file or the  superuser,
       or the -i option is present.

       Filenames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote working files.  Names
       are paired as explained in ci(1).  Revision numbers use the syntax described in ci(1).

       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file, but do not deposit any revision.  If the  RCS
	      file  name  has no directory component, try to place it first into the subdirectory
	      ./RCS, and then into the current directory.  If the RCS file already exists,  print
	      an error message.

	      Append  the  login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins to the access
	      list of the RCS file.

	      Append the access list of oldfile to the access list of the RCS file.

	      Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins from the  access
	      list of the RCS file.  If logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.

	      Set  the	default branch to rev.	If rev is omitted, the default branch is reset to
	      the (dynamically) highest branch on the trunk.

	      Set the comment leader to string.  An initial ci, or an rcs -i without -c,  guesses
	      the comment leader from the suffix of the working file name.

	      This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses the preceding $Log$ line's pre-
	      fix when inserting log lines during checkout (see co(1)).  However, older  versions
	      of RCS use the comment leader instead of the $Log$ line's prefix, so if you plan to
	      access a file with both old and new versions of RCS, make sure its  comment  leader
	      matches its $Log$ line prefix.

	      Set  the default keyword substitution to subst.  The effect of keyword substitution
	      is described in co(1).  Giving an explicit -k option to co, rcsdiff,  and  rcsmerge
	      overrides  this  default.   Beware rcs -kv, because -kv is incompatible with co -l.
	      Use rcs -kkv to restore the normal default keyword substitution.

	      Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock the latest  revision
	      on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch.
	      Locking prevents overlapping changes.  If someone else already holds the lock,  the
	      lock is broken as with rcs -u (see below).

	      Unlock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, unlock the latest revi-
	      sion on that branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.
	      Normally,  only  the locker of a revision can unlock it.	Somebody else unlocking a
	      revision breaks the lock.  If RCS was configured --with-mailer, then this causes	a
	      mail  message to be sent to the original locker.	The message contains a commentary
	      solicited from the breaker.  The commentary is terminated by end-of-file	or  by	a
	      line containing . by itself.

       -L     Set  locking  to strict.	Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not
	      exempt from locking for checkin.	This option should be used  for  files	that  are

       -U     Set  locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need
	      not lock a revision for checkin.	This option should not be used for files that are
	      shared.  Whether default locking is strict is determined by your system administra-
	      tor, but it is normally strict.

	      Replace revision rev's log message with msg.  If msg is  omitted,  it  defaults  to
	      "*** empty log message ***".

       -M     Do  not send mail when breaking somebody else's lock.  This option is not meant for
	      casual use; it is meant for programs that warn users by  other  means,  and  invoke
	      rcs -u only as a low-level lock-breaking operation.

	      Associate  the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  Delete the sym-
	      bolic name if both : and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name
	      is  already  associated  with  another  number.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded
	      before association.  A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for
	      the  current  latest  revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the
	      current latest revision on the default branch, normally the  trunk.   For  example,
	      rcs -nname: RCS/* associates name with the current latest revision of all the named
	      RCS files; this contrasts with rcs -nname:$ RCS/* which associates  name	with  the
	      revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files.

	      Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.

	      deletes  ("outdates") the revisions given by range.  A range consisting of a single
	      revision number means that revision.  A range consisting of a branch  number  means
	      the  latest revision on that branch.  A range of the form rev1:rev2 means revisions
	      rev1 to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means from the beginning of the  branch  con-
	      taining rev up to and including rev, and rev: means from revision rev to the end of
	      the branch containing rev.  None of the outdated revisions  can  have  branches  or

       -q     Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.

	      Set  the	state attribute of the revision rev to state.  If rev is a branch number,
	      assume the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted,  assume  the  latest
	      revision	on the default branch.	Any identifier is acceptable for state.  A useful
	      set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released).
	      By default, ci(1) sets the state of a revision to Exp.

	      Write  descriptive  text	from  the  contents  of the named file into the RCS file,
	      deleting the existing text.  The file name cannot begin with -.  If file	is  omit-
	      ted,  obtain  the  text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
	      containing . by itself.  Prompt for the text if interaction is  possible;  see  -I.
	      With -i, descriptive text is obtained even if -t is not given.

	      Write  descriptive  text	from  the string into the RCS file, deleting the existing

       -T     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file unless a revision is removed.   This
	      option  can suppress extensive recompilation caused by a make(1) dependency of some
	      copy of the working file on the RCS file.  Use this option with care; it	can  sup-
	      press  recompilation  even  when	it  is needed, i.e. when a change to the RCS file
	      would mean a change to keyword strings in the working file.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

	      Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone Use zone as the default time zone.  This option has no effect; it  is  present  for
	      compatibility with other RCS commands.

       At  least  one  explicit option must be given, to ensure compatibility with future planned
       extensions to the rcs command.

       The -brev option generates an RCS file that cannot be parsed by RCS version 3 or earlier.

       The -ksubst options (except -kkv) generate an RCS file that cannot be parsed by	RCS  ver-
       sion 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS version n by discarding information that
       would confuse version n.

       RCS version 5.5 and earlier does not support the -x option, and requires a ,v suffix on an
       RCS file name.

       rcs  accesses  files  much  as  ci(1) does, except that it uses the effective user for all
       accesses, it does not write the working file or its directory, and it does not  even  read
       the working file unless a revision number of $ is specified.

	      Options  prepended  to the argument list, separated by spaces.  A backslash escapes
	      spaces within an option.	The RCSINIT options are prepended to the  argument  lists
	      of most RCS commands.  Useful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, -x, and -z.

	      An  integer  lim,  measured in kilobytes, specifying the threshold under which com-
	      mands will try to use memory-based operations for processing the	RCS  file.   (For
	      RCS  files  of  size  lim  kilobytes  or	greater, RCS will use the slower standard
	      input/output routines.)  Default value is 256.

       TMPDIR Name of the temporary directory.	If not set, the  environment  variables  TMP  and
	      TEMP  are inspected instead and the first value found is taken; if none of them are
	      set, a host-dependent default is used, typically /tmp.

       The RCS file name and the revisions outdated are written to the	diagnostic  output.   The
       exit status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.9.0; Release Date: 2014-06-10.
       Copyright (C) 2010-2013 Thien-Thi Nguyen.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.

       co(1), ci(1), ident(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5).

       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7
       (July 1985), 637-654.

       The full documentation for RCS is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info(1) and  RCS
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

	      info rcs

       should give you access to the complete manual.  Additionally, the RCS homepage:


       has news and links to the latest release, development site, etc.

       A  catastrophe  (e.g.  a system crash) can cause RCS to leave behind a semaphore file that
       causes later invocations of RCS to claim that the RCS file is in use.  To fix this, remove
       the semaphore file.  A semaphore file's name typically begins with , or ends with _.

       The  separator  for  revision  ranges in the -o option used to be - instead of :, but this
       leads to confusion when symbolic names contain -.   For	backwards  compatibility  rcs  -o
       still supports the old - separator, but it warns about this obsolete use.

       Symbolic  names	need  not  refer  to existing revisions or branches.  For example, the -o
       option does not remove symbolic names for the outdated  revisions;  you	must  use  -n  to
       remove the names.

GNU RCS 5.9.0				    2014-06-10					   RCS(1)
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