Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

tty(4) [bsd man page]

TTY(4)							     Kernel Interfaces Manual							    TTY(4)

tty - general terminal interface SYNOPSIS
#include <sgtty.h> DESCRIPTION
This section describes both a particular special file /dev/tty and the terminal drivers used for conversational computing. Line disciplines. The system provides different line disciplines for controlling communications lines. In this version of the system there are two disci- plines available for use with terminals: old The old (Version 7) terminal driver. This is sometimes used when using the standard shell sh(1). new The standard Berkeley terminal driver, with features for job control; this must be used when using csh(1). Line discipline switching is accomplished with the TIOCSETD ioctl: int ldisc = LDISC; ioctl(f, TIOCSETD, &ldisc); where LDISC is OTTYDISC for the standard tty driver and NTTYDISC for the ``new'' driver. The standard (currently old) tty driver is disci- pline 0 by convention. Other disciplines may exist for special purposes, such as use of communications lines for network connections. The current line discipline can be obtained with the TIOCGETD ioctl. Pending input is discarded when the line discipline is changed. All of the low-speed asynchronous communications ports can use any of the available line disciplines, no matter what hardware is involved. The remainder of this section discusses the "old" and "new" disciplines. The control terminal. When a terminal file is opened, it causes the process to wait until a connection is established. In practice, user programs seldom open these files; they are opened by getty(8) or rlogind(8C) and become a user's standard input and output file. If a process which has no control terminal opens a terminal file, then that terminal file becomes the control terminal for that process. The control terminal is thereafter inherited by a child process during a fork(2), even if the control terminal is closed. The file /dev/tty is, in each process, a synonym for a control terminal associated with that process. It is useful for programs that wish to be sure of writing messages on the terminal no matter how output has been redirected. It can also be used for programs that demand a file name for output, when typed output is desired and it is tiresome to find out which terminal is currently in use. A process can remove the association it has with its controlling terminal by opening the file /dev/tty and issuing an ioctl(f, TIOCNOTTY, 0); This is often desirable in server processes. Process groups. Command processors such as csh(1) can arbitrate the terminal between different jobs by placing related jobs in a single process group and associating this process group with the terminal. A terminal's associated process group may be set using the TIOCSPGRP ioctl(2): ioctl(fildes, TIOCSPGRP, &pgrp); or examined using TIOCGPGRP, which returns the current process group in pgrp. The new terminal driver aids in this arbitration by restricting access to the terminal by processes which are not in the current process group; see Job access control below. Modes. The terminal drivers have three major modes, characterized by the amount of processing on the input and output characters: cooked The normal mode. In this mode lines of input are collected and input editing is done. The edited line is made available when it is completed by a newline, or when the t_brkc character (normally undefined) or t_eofc character (normally an EOT, control-D, hereafter ^D) is entered. A carriage return is usually made synonymous with newline in this mode, and replaced with a newline whenever it is typed. All driver functions (input editing, interrupt generation, output processing such as tab expansion, etc.) are available in this mode. CBREAK This mode eliminates the character, word, and line editing input facilities, making the input character available to the user program as it is typed. Flow control, literal-next and interrupt processing are still done in this mode. Output processing is done. RAW This mode eliminates all input processing and makes all input characters available as they are typed; no output processing is done either. The style of input processing can also be very different when the terminal is put in non-blocking I/O mode; see the FNDELAY flag described in fcntl(2). In this case a read(2) from the control terminal will never block, but rather return an error indication (EWOULDBLOCK) if there is no input available. A process may also request that a SIGIO signal be sent it whenever input is present and also whenever output queues fall below the low- water mark. To enable this mode the FASYNC flag should be set using fcntl(2). Input editing. A UNIX terminal ordinarily operates in full-duplex mode. Characters may be typed at any time, even while output is occurring, and are only lost when the system's character input buffers become completely choked, which is rare, or when the user has accumulated the maximum allowed number of input characters that have not yet been read by some program. Currently this limit is 256 characters. In RAW mode, the terminal driver throws away all input and output without notice when the limit is reached. In CBREAK or cooked mode it refuses to accept any further input and, if in the new line discipline, rings the terminal bell. Input characters are normally accepted in either even or odd parity with the parity bit being stripped off before the character is given to the program. By clearing either the EVEN or ODD bit in the flags word it is possible to have input characters with that parity discarded (see the Summary below.) In all of the line disciplines, it is possible to simulate terminal input using the TIOCSTI ioctl, which takes, as its third argument, the address of a character. The system pretends that this character was typed on the argument terminal, which must be the control terminal except for the super-user (this call is not in standard version 7 UNIX). Input characters are normally echoed by putting them in an output queue as they arrive. This may be disabled by clearing the ECHO bit in the flags word using the stty(3C) call or the TIOCSETN or TIOCSETP ioctls (see the Summary below). In cooked mode, terminal input is processed in units of lines. A program attempting to read will normally be suspended until an entire line has been received (but see the description of SIGTTIN in Job access control and of FIONREAD in Summary, both below.) No matter how many characters are requested in the read call, at most one line will be returned. It is not, however, necessary to read a whole line at once; any number of characters may be requested in a read, even one, without losing information. During input, line editing is normally done, with the erase character sg_erase (by default, DELETE) logically erasing the last character typed and the sg_kill character (default, ^U: control-U) logically erasing the entire current input line. These characters never erase beyond the beginning of the current input line or an eof. The drivers normally treat either a carriage return or a newline character as terminating an input line, replacing the return with a new- line and echoing a return and a line feed. If the CRMOD bit is cleared in the local mode word then the processing for carriage return is disabled, and it is simply echoed as a return, and does not terminate cooked mode input. In the new driver there is a literal-next character (normally ^V) which can be typed in both cooked and CBREAK mode preceding any character to prevent its special meaning to the terminal handler. The new terminal driver also provides two other editing characters in normal mode. The word-erase character, normally ^W, erases the pre- ceding word, but not any spaces before it. For the purposes of ^W, a word is defined as a sequence of non-blank characters, with tabs counted as blanks. Finally, the reprint character, normally ^R, retypes the pending input beginning on a new line. Retyping occurs auto- matically in cooked mode if characters which would normally be erased from the screen are fouled by program output. Input echoing and redisplay The terminal driver has several modes for handling the echoing of terminal input, controlled by bits in a local mode word. Hardcopy terminals. When a hardcopy terminal is in use, the LPRTERA bit is normally set in the local mode word. Characters which are log- ically erased are then printed out backwards preceded by `' and followed by `/' in this mode. CRT terminals. When a CRT terminal is in use, the LCRTBS bit is normally set in the local mode word. The terminal driver then echoes the proper number of erase characters when input is erased; in the normal case where the erase character is a ^H this causes the cursor of the terminal to back up to where it was before the logically erased character was typed. If the input has become fouled due to interspersed asynchronous output, the input is automatically retyped. Erasing characters from a CRT. When a CRT terminal is in use, the LCRTERA bit may be set to cause input to be erased from the screen with a "backspace-space-backspace" sequence when character or word deleting sequences are used. A LCRTKIL bit may be set as well, causing the input to be erased in this manner on line kill sequences as well. Echoing of control characters. If the LCTLECH bit is set in the local state word, then non-printing (control) characters are normally echoed as ^X (for some X) rather than being echoed unmodified; delete is echoed as ^?. The normal modes for use on CRT terminals are speed dependent. At speeds less than 1200 baud, the LCRTERA and LCRTKILL processing is painfully slow, and stty(1) normally just sets LCRTBS and LCTLECH; at speeds of 1200 baud or greater all of these bits are normally set. Stty(1) summarizes these option settings and the use of the new terminal driver as "newcrt." Output processing. When one or more characters are written, they are actually transmitted to the terminal as soon as previously-written characters have fin- ished typing. (As noted above, input characters are normally echoed by putting them in the output queue as they arrive.) When a process produces characters more rapidly than they can be typed, it will be suspended when its output queue exceeds some limit. When the queue has drained down to some threshold the program is resumed. Even parity is normally generated on output. The EOT character is not transmitted in cooked mode to prevent terminals that respond to it from hanging up; programs using RAW or CBREAK mode should be careful. The terminal drivers provide necessary processing for cooked and CBREAK mode output including parity generation. The driver will also optionally expand tabs into spaces, where the tab stops are assumed to be set every eight columns, and optionally convert newlines to car- riage returns followed by newline. These functions are controlled by bits in the tty flags word; see Summary below. Finally, in the new terminal driver, there is a output flush character, normally ^O, which sets the LFLUSHO bit in the local mode word, causing subsequent output to be flushed until it is cleared by a program or more input is typed. This character has effect in both cooked and CBREAK modes and causes pending input to be retyped if there is any pending input. An ioctl to flush the characters in the input or output queues, TIOCFLUSH, is also available. Flow control. There are two characters (the stop character, normally ^S, and the start character, normally ^Q) which cause output to be suspended and resumed respectively. Extra stop characters typed when output is already stopped have no effect, unless the start and stop characters are made the same, in which case output resumes. A bit in the flags word may be set to put the terminal into TANDEM mode. In this mode the system produces a stop character (default ^S) when the input queue is in danger of overflowing, and a start character (default ^Q) when the input has drained sufficiently. This mode is useful when the terminal is actually another machine that obeys those conventions. If software flow control is not sufficient (it begins failing above 4800 bits per second on slow systems) RTS/CTS flow control is now available. Hardware flow control causes RTS to be dropped when the remote system (modem) should cease sending and to be raised when addi- tional data can be accepted. If the remote system drops CTS then the local host ceases sending data until the CTS is raised. Hardware flow control is enabled via the TIOCLBIS (or TIOCLBIC or TIOCLSET) function and the bit LRTSCTS. Line control and breaks. There are several ioctl calls available to control the state of the terminal line. The TIOCSBRK ioctl will set the break bit in the hard- ware interface causing a break condition to exist; this can be cleared (usually after a delay with sleep(3)) by TIOCCBRK. Break conditions in the input are reflected as a null character in RAW mode or as the interrupt character in cooked or CBREAK mode. The TIOCCDTR ioctl will clear the data terminal ready condition; it can be set again by TIOCSDTR. When the carrier signal from the dataset drops (usually because the user has hung up his terminal) a SIGHUP hangup signal is sent to the processes in the distinguished process group of the terminal; this usually causes them to terminate. The SIGHUP can be suppressed by set- ting the LNOHANG bit in the local state word of the driver. Access to the terminal by other processes is then normally revoked, so any further reads will fail, and programs that read a terminal and test for end-of-file on their input will terminate appropriately. It is possible to ask that the phone line be hung up on the last close with the TIOCHPCL ioctl; this is normally done on the outgoing lines and dialups. Interrupt characters. There are several characters that generate interrupts in cooked and CBREAK mode; all are sent to the processes in the control group of the terminal, as if a TIOCGPGRP ioctl were done to get the process group and then a killpg(2) system call were done, except that these charac- ters also flush pending input and output when typed at a terminal (a`'la TIOCFLUSH). The characters shown here are the defaults; the field names in the structures (given below) are also shown. The characters may be changed. ^C t_intrc (ETX) generates a SIGINT signal. This is the normal way to stop a process which is no longer interesting, or to regain con- trol in an interactive program. ^ t_quitc (FS) generates a SIGQUIT signal. This is used to cause a program to terminate and produce a core image, if possible, in the file core in the current directory. ^Z t_suspc (EM) generates a SIGTSTP signal, which is used to suspend the current process group. ^Y t_dsuspc (SUB) generates a SIGTSTP signal as ^Z does, but the signal is sent when a program attempts to read the ^Y, rather than when it is typed. Job access control. When using the new terminal driver, if a process which is not in the distinguished process group of its control terminal attempts to read from that terminal its process group is sent a SIGTTIN signal. This signal normally causes the members of that process group to stop. If, however, the process is ignoring SIGTTIN, has SIGTTIN blocked, or is in the middle of process creation using vfork(2)), the read will return -1 and set errno to EIO. When using the new terminal driver with the LTOSTOP bit set in the local modes, a process is prohibited from writing on its control termi- nal if it is not in the distinguished process group for that terminal. Processes which are holding or ignoring SIGTTOU signals or which are in the middle of a vfork(2) are excepted and allowed to produce output. Terminal/window sizes. In order to accommodate terminals and workstations with variable-sized windows, the terminal driver provides a mechanism for obtaining and setting the current terminal size. The driver does not use this information internally, but only stores it and provides a uniform access mechanism. When the size is changed, a SIGWINCH signal is sent to the terminal's process group so that knowledgeable programs may detect size changes. This facility was added in 4.3BSD and is not available in earlier versions of the system. Summary of modes. Unfortunately, due to the evolution of the terminal driver, there are 4 different structures which contain various portions of the driver data. The first of these (sgttyb) contains that part of the information largely common between version 6 and version 7 UNIX systems. The second contains additional control characters added in version 7. The third is a word of local state added in 4BSD, and the fourth is another structure of special characters added for the new driver. In the future a single structure may be made available to programs which need to access all this information; most programs need not concern themselves with all this state. Basic modes: sgtty. The basic ioctls use the structure defined in <sgtty.h>: struct sgttyb { char sg_ispeed; char sg_ospeed; char sg_erase; char sg_kill; shortsg_flags; }; The sg_ispeed and sg_ospeed fields describe the input and output speeds of the device according to the following table, which corresponds to the DEC DH-11 interface. If other hardware is used, impossible speed changes are ignored. Symbolic values in the table are as defined in <sgtty.h>. B0 0 (hang up dataphone) B50 1 50 baud B75 2 75 baud B110 3 110 baud B134 4 134.5 baud B150 5 150 baud B200 6 200 baud B300 7 300 baud B600 8 600 baud B1200 9 1200 baud B1800 10 1800 baud B2400 11 2400 baud B4800 12 4800 baud B9600 13 9600 baud EXTA 14 External A EXTB 15 External B Code conversion and line control required for IBM 2741's (134.5 baud) must be implemented by the user's program. The half-duplex line dis- cipline required for the 202 dataset (1200 baud) is not supplied; full-duplex 212 datasets work fine. The sg_erase and sg_kill fields of the argument structure specify the erase and kill characters respectively. (Defaults are DELETE and ^U.) The sg_flags field of the argument structure contains several bits that determine the system's treatment of the terminal: XTABS 0004000 Expand tabs on output EVENP 0000200 Even parity allowed on input ODDP 0000100 Odd parity allowed on input RAW 0000040 Raw mode: wake up on all characters, 8-bit interface CRMOD 0000020 Map CR into LF; output LF as CR-LF ECHO 0000010 Echo (full duplex) CBREAK 0000002 Return each character as soon as typed TANDEM 0000001 Automatic inbound xon/xoff flow control XTABS, causes tabs to be replaced by the appropriate number of spaces on output. The flags for even and odd parity control parity checking on input and generation on output in cooked and CBREAK mode (unless LPASS8 is enabled, see below). Even parity is generated on output unless ODDP is set and EVENP is clear, in which case odd parity is generated. Input characters with the wrong parity, as determined by EVENP and ODDP, are ignored in cooked and CBREAK mode. RAW disables all processing save output flushing with LFLUSHO; full 8 bits of input are given as soon as it is available; all 8 bits are passed on output. A break condition in the input is reported as a null character. If the input queue overflows in raw mode all data in the input and output queues are discarded; this applies to both new and old drivers. CRMOD causes input carriage returns to be turned into new-lines, and output and echoed new-lines to be output as a carriage return followed by a line feed. CBREAK is a sort of half-cooked (rare?) mode. Programs can read each character as soon as typed, instead of waiting for a full line; all processing is done except the input editing: character and word erase and line kill, input reprint, and the special treatment of and EOT are disabled. TANDEM mode causes the system to produce a stop character (default ^S) whenever the input queue is in danger of overflowing, and a start character (default ^Q) when the input queue has drained sufficiently. It is useful for flow control when the `terminal' is really another computer which understands the conventions. Note: The same ``stop'' and ``start'' characters are used for both directions of flow control; the t_stopc character is accepted on input as the character that stops output and is produced on output as the character to stop input, and the t_startc character is accepted on input as the character that restarts output and is produced on output as the character to restart input. Basic ioctls A large number of ioctl(2) calls apply to terminals. Some have the general form: #include <sgtty.h> ioctl(fildes, code, arg) struct sgttyb *arg; The applicable codes are: TIOCGETP Fetch the basic parameters associated with the terminal, and store in the pointed-to sgttyb structure. TIOCSETP Set the parameters according to the pointed-to sgttyb structure. The interface delays until output is quiescent, then throws away any unread characters, before changing the modes. TIOCSETN Set the parameters like TIOCSETP but do not delay or flush input. Input is not preserved, however, when changing to or from RAW. With the following codes arg is ignored. TIOCEXCL Set "exclusive-use" mode: no further opens are permitted until the file has been closed. TIOCNXCL Turn off "exclusive-use" mode. TIOCHPCL When the file is closed for the last time, hang up the terminal. This is useful when the line is associated with an ACU used to place outgoing calls. With the following codes arg is a pointer to an int. TIOCGETD arg is a pointer to an int into which is placed the current line discipline number. TIOCSETD arg is a pointer to an int whose value becomes the current line discipline number. TIOCFLUSH If the int pointed to by arg has a zero value, all characters waiting in input or output queues are flushed. Otherwise, the value of the int is for the FREAD and FWRITE bits defined in <sys/file.h>; if the FREAD bit is set, all characters waiting in input queues are flushed, and if the FWRITE bit is set, all characters waiting in output queues are flushed. The remaining calls are not available in vanilla version 7 UNIX. In cases where arguments are required, they are described; arg should otherwise be given as 0. TIOCSTI the argument points to a character which the system pretends had been typed on the terminal. TIOCSBRK the break bit is set in the terminal. TIOCCBRK the break bit is cleared. TIOCSDTR data terminal ready is set. TIOCCDTR data terminal ready is cleared. TIOCSTOP output is stopped as if the ``stop'' character had been typed. TIOCSTART output is restarted as if the ``start'' character had been typed. TIOCGPGRP arg is a pointer to an int into which is placed the process group ID of the process group for which this terminal is the control terminal. TIOCSPGRP arg is a pointer to an int which is the value to which the process group ID for this terminal will be set. TIOCOUTQ returns in the int pointed to by arg the number of characters queued for output to the terminal. FIONREAD returns in the long pointed to by arg the number of characters immediately readable from the argument descriptor. This works for files, pipes, and terminals. Tchars The second structure associated with each terminal specifies characters that are special in both the old and new terminal interfaces: The following structure is defined in <sys/ioctl.h>, which is automatically included in <sgtty.h>: struct tchars { char t_intrc; /* interrupt */ char t_quitc; /* quit */ char t_startc; /* start output */ char t_stopc; /* stop output */ char t_eofc; /* end-of-file */ char t_brkc; /* input delimiter (like nl) */ }; The default values for these characters are ^C, ^, ^Q, ^S, ^D, and -1. A character value of -1 eliminates the effect of that character. The t_brkc character, by default -1, acts like a new-line in that it terminates a `line,' is echoed, and is passed to the program. The `stop' and `start' characters may be the same, to produce a toggle effect. It is probably counterproductive to make other special charac- ters (including erase and kill) identical. The applicable ioctl calls are: TIOCGETC Get the special characters and put them in the specified structure. TIOCSETC Set the special characters to those given in the structure. Local mode The third structure associated with each terminal is a local mode word. The bits of the local mode word are: LCRTBS 000001 Backspace on erase rather than echoing erase LPRTERA 000002 Printing terminal erase mode LCRTERA 000004 Erase character echoes as backspace-space-backspace LMDMBUF 000020 Stop/start output when carrier drops LLITOUT 000040 Suppress output translations LTOSTOP 000100 Send SIGTTOU for background output LFLUSHO 000200 Output is being flushed LNOHANG 000400 Don't send hangup when carrier drops LRTSCTS 001000 RTS/CTS flow control LCRTKIL 002000 BS-space-BS erase entire line on line kill LPASS8 004000 Pass all 8 bits through on input, in any mode LCTLECH 010000 Echo input control chars as ^X, delete as ^? LPENDIN 020000 Retype pending input at next read or input character LDECCTQ 040000 Only ^Q restarts output after ^S, like DEC systems LNOFLSH 100000 Inhibit flushing of pending I/O when an interrupt character is typed. The applicable ioctl functions are: TIOCLBIS arg is a pointer to an int whose value is a mask containing the bits to be set in the local mode word. TIOCLBIC arg is a pointer to an int whose value is a mask containing the bits to be cleared in the local mode word. TIOCLSET arg is a pointer to an int whose value is stored in the local mode word. TIOCLGET arg is a pointer to an int into which the current local mode word is placed. Local special chars The final control structure associated with each terminal is the ltchars structure which defines control characters for the new terminal driver. Its structure is: struct ltchars { char t_suspc; /* stop process signal */ char t_dsuspc; /* delayed stop process signal */ char t_rprntc; /* reprint line */ char t_flushc; /* flush output (toggles) */ char t_werasc; /* word erase */ char t_lnextc; /* literal next character */ }; The default values for these characters are ^Z, ^Y, ^R, ^O, ^W, and ^V. A value of -1 disables the character. The applicable ioctl functions are: TIOCSLTC arg is a pointer to an ltchars structure which defines the new local special characters. TIOCGLTC arg is a pointer to an ltchars structure into which is placed the current set of local special characters. Window/terminal sizes Each terminal has provision for storage of the current terminal or window size in a winsize structure, with format: struct winsize { unsigned short ws_row; /* rows, in characters */ unsigned short ws_col; /* columns, in characters */ unsigned short ws_xpixel; /* horizontal size, pixels */ unsigned short ws_ypixel; /* vertical size, pixels */ }; A value of 0 in any field is interpreted as ``undefined;'' the entire structure is zeroed on final close. The applicable ioctl functions are: TIOCGWINSZ arg is a pointer to a struct winsize into which will be placed the current terminal or window size information. TIOCSWINSZ arg is a pointer to a struct winsize which will be used to set the current terminal or window size information. If the new informa- tion is different than the old information, a SIGWINCH signal will be sent to the terminal's process group. FILES
/dev/tty /dev/tty* /dev/console SEE ALSO
csh(1), stty(1), tset(1), ioctl(2), sigvec(2), stty(3C), getty(8) 4th Berkeley Distribution April 10, 1997 TTY(4)
Man Page