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RA(4)											    RA(4)

       ra - MSCP disk controller interface

	    NRAC ra_controllers # NRAD controllers
	    NRAD ra_drives	# RX33/50, RC25, RD51/52/53/54, RA60/80/81/82

	    #Name Unit# Addr   Vector Br Handler(s)	 # Comments
	    ra	  ?	172150 154    5  raintr 	 # uda50, rqdx1/2/3

       major device number(s):
	    raw: 14
	    block: 5
       minor device encoding:
	    bits 0007 specify partition of RA drive
	    bits 0070 specify RA drive
	    bits 0300 specify RA controller

       This  is a driver for the DEC UDA-50 disk controller and for other compatible controllers.
       The UDA-50 communicates with the host through a packet oriented protocol termed	the  Mass
       Storage Control Protocol (MSCP).  Consult the file <pdp/mscp.h> for a detailed description
       of this protocol.

       Files with minor device numbers 0 through 7 refer to various portions of  drive	0;  minor
       devices	8  through 15 refer to drive 1, etc.  The standard device names begin with ``ra''
       followed by the drive number and then a letter a-h for partitions 0-7  respectively.   The
       character ? stands here for a drive number in the range 0-7.

       The  block  files  access  the disk via the system's normal buffering mechanism and may be
       read and written without regard to physical disk records.  There is also a `raw' interface
       which  provides for direct transmission between the disk and the user's read or write buf-
       fer.  A single read or write call results in exactly one I/O operation and  therefore  raw
       I/O  is considerably more efficient when many words are transmitted.  The names of the raw
       files conventionally begin with an extra `r.'

       In raw I/O the buffer must begin on a word (even) boundary, and counts should be a  multi-
       ple  of	512  bytes (a disk sector).  Likewise seek calls should specify a multiple of 512

       This driver configures the drive type of each drive when it is  first  opened.	Partition
       information is read from the disklabel.	If there is no label or the label is corrupt then
       the 'a' partition is used to span the entire drive.

       The ra?a partition is normally used for the root file system, the ra?b partition as a swap
       area, and the ra?c partition for pack-pack copying (it maps the entire disk).

       /dev/MAKEDEV	   script to create special files

       hk(4),  ram(4),	rk(4), rl(4), rp(4), rx(4), si(4), xp(4), dtab(5), autoconfig(8), diskla-

       rasa %o, state %d.  (Additional status information given after a  hard  i/o  error.)   The
       values of the UDA-50 status register and the internal driver state are printed.

       ra%d:  interrupt  in  unknown state %d ignored.	An interrupt was received when the driver
       was in an unknown internal state.  Indicates a hardware problem or a driver bug.

       ra%d: fatal error (%o).	The UDA-50 indicated a ``fatal error'' in the status returned  to
       the host.  The contents of the status register are displayed.

       ra%d,%d:  OFFLINE.   (Additional status information given after a hard i/o error.)  A hard
       i/o error occurred because the drive was not on-line.  The attached unit  number  and  the
       MSCP unit numbers are printed.

       status  %o.   (Additional  status  information  given after a hard i/o error.)  The status
       information returned from the UDA-50 is tacked onto the end  of	the  hard  error  message
       printed on the console.

       ra:  unknown  packet  opcode=0%o.   An  MSCP  packet of unknown type was received from the
       UDA-50.	Check the cabling to the controller.

       The following errors are interpretations of MSCP error messages returned by the UDA-50  to
       the host.

       ra: %s error, controller error, event 0%o.

       ra: %s error, host memory access error, event 0%o, addr 0%o.

       ra: %s error, disk transfer error, unit %d, grp 0x%x, hdr 0x%x.

       ra: %s error, SDI error, unit %d, event 0%o, hdr 0x%x.

       ra: %s error, small disk error, unit %d, event 0%o, cyl %d.

       ra: %s error, unknown error, unit %d, format 0%o, event 0%o.

       In raw I/O read and write(2) truncate file offsets to 512-byte block boundaries, and write
       scribbles on the tail of incomplete blocks.  Thus, in programs that are likely  to  access
       raw devices, read, write and lseek(2) should always deal in 512-byte multiples.

3rd Berkeley Distribution		September 6, 1987				    RA(4)
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