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RN(1)											    RN(1)

NAME
       rn - new read news program

SYNOPSIS
       rn [options] [newsgroups]

DESCRIPTION
       Rn  is  a  replacement  for the readnews(1) program that was written to be as efficient as
       possible, particularly in human interaction.  Rn attempts to minimize the amount of "dead"
       time spent reading news--it tries to get things done while the user is reading or deciding
       whether to read, and attempts to get useful information onto the screen as soon as  possi-
       ble, highlighting spots that the eye makes frequent reference to, like subjects and previ-
       ously read lines.  Whether or not it's faster, it SEEMS faster.

       If no newsgroups are specified, all the newsgroups which have unread news  are  displayed,
       and then the user is asked for each one whether he wants to read it, in the order in which
       the newsgroups occur in the .newsrc file.  With a list of newsgroups, rn will start up  in
       "add"  mode,  using the list as a set of patterns to add new newsgroups and restrict which
       newsgroups are displayed.  See the discussion of the 'a' command on the	newsgroup  selec-
       tion level.

       Rn  operates  on three levels: the newsgroup selection level, the article selection level,
       and the paging level.  Each level has its own set of commands, and its own help menu.   At
       the  paging  level  (the  bottom level), rn behaves much like the more(1) program.  At the
       article selection level, you may specify which article you want next, or read them in  the
       default	order, which is either in order of arrival on your system, or by subject threads.
       At the newsgroup selection level (the top level), you may specify which newsgroup you want
       next,  or  read them in the default order, which is the order that the newsgroups occur in
       your .newsrc file.  (You will therefore want to rearrange your .newsrc  file  to  put  the
       most interesting newsgroups first.  This can be done with the 'm' command on the Newsgroup
       Selection level.  WARNING: invoking readnews/vnews (the old user  interface)  in  any  way
       (including as a news checker in your login sequence!) will cause your .newsrc to be disar-
       ranged again.)

       On any level, at ANY prompt, an 'h' may be typed for a list of available  commands.   This
       is  probably the most important command to remember, so don't you forget it.  Typing space
       to any question means to do the normal thing.  You will know what that  is  because  every
       prompt  has  a  list of several plausible commands enclosed in square brackets.	The first
       command in the list is the one which will be done if you type a space.  (All input is done
       in  cbreak mode, so carriage returns should not be typed to terminate anything except cer-
       tain multi-character commands.  Those commands will be obvious  in  the	discussion  below
       because they take an argument.)

       Upon startup, rn will do several things:

       1.  It  will  look  for your .newsrc file, which is your list of subscribed-to newsgroups.
	   If rn doesn't find a .newsrc, it will create one.  If it does find one, it  will  back
	   it up under the name ".oldnewsrc".

       2.  It  will input your .newsrc file, listing out the first several newsgroups with unread
	   news.

       3.  It will perform certain consistency checks on your .newsrc.	If your .newsrc is out of
	   date  in  any  of  several ways, rn will warn you and patch it up for you, but you may
	   have to wait a little longer for it to start up.

       4.  Rn will next check to see if any new newsgroups have been created, and  give  you  the
	   opportunity to add them to your .newsrc.

       5.  Rn goes into the top prompt level--the newsgroup selection level.

       Newsgroup Selection Level

       In this section the words "next" and "previous" refer to the ordering of the newsgroups in
       your .newsrc file.  On the newsgroup selection level, the prompt looks like this:

       ******** 17 unread articles in net.blurfl--read now? [ynq]

       and the following commands may be given at this level:

       y,SP    Do this newsgroup now.

       .command
	       Do this newsgroup now, but execute command before displaying anything.	The  com-
	       mand will be interpreted as if given on the article selection level.

       =       Do this newsgroup now, but list subjects before displaying articles.

       n       Go to the next newsgroup with unread news.

       N       Go to the next newsgroup.

       p       Go to the previous newsgroup with unread news.  If there is none, stay at the cur-
	       rent newsgroup.

       P       Go to the previous newsgroup.

       -       Go to the previously displayed newsgroup (regardless of whether it  is  before  or
	       after the current one in the list).

       1       Go to the first newsgroup.

       ^       Go to the first newsgroup with unread news.

       $       Go to the end of the newsgroups list.

       g newsgroup
	       Go  to  newsgroup.   If it isn't currently subscribed to, you will be asked if you
	       want to subscribe.

       /pattern
	       Scan forward for a newsgroup matching pattern.  Patterns do  globbing  like  file-
	       names, i.e., use ? to match a single character, * to match any sequence of charac-
	       ters, and [] to specify a list of characters to match.  ("all" may be  used  as	a
	       synonym	for  "*".)   Unlike  normal filename globbing, newsgroup searching is not
	       anchored to the front and back of the filename, i.e. "/jok" will  find  net.jokes.
	       You  may use ^ or $ to anchor the front or back of the search: "/^test$" will find
	       newsgroup test and nothing else If you want to include newsgroups  with	0  unread
	       articles,  append /r.  If the newsgroup is not found between the current newsgroup
	       and the last newsgroup, the search will wrap around to the beginning.

       ?pattern
	       Same as /, but search backwards.

       u       Unsubscribe from current newsgroup.

       l string
	       List newsgroups not subscribed to which contain the string specified.

       L       Lists the current state of the .newsrc, along with status information.

			Status	   Meaning
			<number>   Count of unread articles in newsgroup.
			READ	   No unread articles in newsgroup.
			UNSUB	   Unsubscribed newsgroup.
			BOGUS	   Bogus newsgroup.
			JUNK	   Ignored line in .newsrc
				   (e.g. readnews "options" line).

	       (A bogus newsgroup is one that is not in the list  of  active  newsgroups  in  the
	       active file, which on most systems is /usr/lib/news/active.)

       m name  Move  the named newsgroup somewhere else in the .newsrc.  If no name is given, the
	       current newsgroup is moved.  There are a number of ways to specify where you  want
	       the newsgroup--type h for help when it asks where you want to put it.

       c       Catch up--mark all unread articles in this newsgroup as read.

       o pattern
	       Only  display  those newsgroups whose name matches pattern.  Patterns are the same
	       as for the '/' command.	Multiple patterns may be separated by spaces, just as  on
	       the command line.  The restriction will remain in effect either until there are no
	       articles left in the restricted set of newsgroups, or another restriction  command
	       is given.  Since pattern is optional, 'o' by itself will remove the restriction.

       a pattern
	       Add new newsgroups matching pattern.  Newsgroups which are already in your .newsrc
	       file, whether subscribed to or not, will not be listed.	If any new newsgroups are
	       found, you will be asked for each one whether you would like to add it.	After any
	       new newsgroups have been added, the 'a' command also restricts the current set  of
	       newsgroups just like the 'o' command does.

       &       Print  out  the current status of command line switches and any newsgroup restric-
	       tions.

       &switch {switch}
	       Set additional command line switches.

       &&      Print out the current macro definitions.

       &&keys commands
	       Define additional macros.

       !command
	       Escape to a subshell.  One exclamation mark (!) leaves you in your own news direc-
	       tory.   A double exclamation mark (!!) leaves you in the spool directory for news,
	       which on most systems is /usr/spool/news.  The environment variable SHELL will  be
	       used if defined.  If command is null, an interactive shell is started.

       q       Quit.

       x       Quit, restoring .newsrc to its state at startup of rn.  The .newsrc you would have
	       had if you had exited with 'q' will be  called  .newnewsrc,  in	case  you  didn't
	       really want to type 'x'.

       ^K      Edit the global KILL file.  This is a file which contains /pattern/j commands (one
	       per line) to be applied to every newsgroup as it is started up, that is,  when  it
	       is  selected  on  the newsgroup selection level.  The purpose of a KILL file is to
	       mark articles as read on the basis of some set of patterns.  This saves	consider-
	       able  wear  and	tear  on  your 'n' key.  There is also a local KILL file for each
	       newsgroup.  Because of the overhead involved in searching for articles to kill, it
	       is  better if possible to use a local KILL file.  Local KILL files are edited with
	       a '^K' on the article selection level.  There are also automatic  ways  of  adding
	       search commands to the local KILL file--see the 'K' command and the K search modi-
	       fier on the article selection level.

	       If either of the environment variables VISUAL or EDITOR is set, the specified edi-
	       tor will be invoked; otherwise a default editor (normally vi(1)) is invoked on the
	       KILL file.

       Article Selection Level

       On the article selection level, rn selects (by default) unread articles in numerical order
       (the order in which articles have arrived at your site).  If you do a subject search (^N),
       the default order is modified to be numerical order within each subject thread.	 You  may
       switch  back  and  forth between numerical order and subject thread order at will.  The -S
       switch can be used to make subject search mode the default.

       On the article selection level you are not asked whether  you  want  to	read  an  article
       before  the article is displayed; rather, rn simply displays the first page (or portion of
       a page, at low baud rates) of the article and asks if you want to  continue.   The  normal
       article	selection  prompt  comes at the END of the article (though article selection com-
       mands can be given from within the middle of the article (the  pager  level)  also).   The
       prompt at the end of an article looks like this:

       End of article 248 (of 257)--what next? [npq]

       The following are the options at this point:

       n,SP    Scan forward for next unread article.  (Note: the 'n' (next) command when typed at
	       the end of an article does not mark the article as read, since an article is auto-
	       maticaly  marked  as  read  after the last line of it is printed.  It is therefore
	       possible to type a sequence such as 'mn' and leave the article marked  as  unread.
	       The  fact  that an article is marked as read by typing 'n', 'N', '^N', 's', or 'S'
	       within the MIDDLE of the article is in fact a special case.)

       N       Go to the next article.

       ^N      Scan forward for the next article with the same subject, and make ^N default (sub-
	       ject search mode).

       p       Scan  backward for previous unread article.  If there is none, stay at the current
	       article.

       P       Go to the previous article.

       -       Go to the previously displayed article (regardless  of  whether	that  article  is
	       before or after this article in the normal sequence).

       ^P      Scan  backward for the previous article with the same subject, and make ^N default
	       (subject search mode).

       ^R      Restart the current article.

       v       Restart the current article verbosely, displaying the entire header.

       ^L      Refresh the screen.

       ^X      Restart the current article, and decrypt as a rot13 message.

       X       Refresh the screen, and decrypt as a rot13 message.

       b       Back up one page.

       q       Quit this newsgroup and go back to the newsgroup selection level.

       ^       Go to the first unread article.

       $       Go to the last article (actually, one past the last article).

       number  Go to the numbered article.

       range{,range} command{:command}
	       Apply a set of commands to a set of articles.  A range consists of either <article
	       number>	or  <article number>-<article number>.	 A dot '.' represents the current
	       article, and a dollar sign '$' represents the last article.

	       Applicable commands include 'm' (mark as unread), 'M' (delayed  mark  as  unread),
	       'j'  (mark  as read), "s dest" (save to a destination), "!command" (shell escape),
	       "=" (print the subject) and "C" (cancel).

       j       Junk the current article--mark it as read.  If this command is used from within an
	       article,  you  are left at the end of the article, unlike 'n', which looks for the
	       next article.

       m       Mark the current article as still unread.  (If you are in subject search mode  you
	       probably  want  to  use	M  instead  of	m.   Otherwise the current article may be
	       selected as the beginning of the next subject thread.)

       M       Mark the current article as still unread, but not until the newsgroup  is  exited.
	       Until  then,  the  current  article  will  be  marked as read.  This is useful for
	       returning to an article in another session, or in another newsgroup.

       /pattern
	       Scan forward for article containing pattern in the subject.  See  the  section  on
	       Regular	Expressions.   Together  with  the escape substitution facility described
	       later, it becomes easy to search for various attributes of  the	current  article,
	       such  as  subject,  article  ID,  author  name,	etc.  The previous pattern can be
	       recalled with "<esc>/".	If pattern is omitted, the previous pattern is assumed.

       /pattern/h
	       Scan forward for article containing pattern in the header.

       /pattern/a
	       Scan forward for article containing pattern anywhere in article.

       /pattern/r
	       Scan read articles also.

       /pattern/c
	       Make search case sensitive.  Ordinarily upper and lower case  are  considered  the
	       same.

       /pattern/modifiers:command{:command}
	       Apply  the  commands listed to articles matching the search command (possibly with
	       h, a, or r modifiers).  Applicable commands include  'm'  (mark	as  unread),  'M'
	       (delayed  mark  as  unread), 'j' (mark as read), "s dest" (save to a destination),
	       "!command" (shell escape), "=" (print the subject) and "C" (cancel).  If the first
	       command	is  'm'  or 'M', modifier r is assumed.  A K may be included in the modi-
	       fiers (not the commands) to cause the entire command (sans K) to be saved  to  the
	       local  KILL  file,  where it will be applied to every article that shows up in the
	       newsgroup.

	       For example, to save all articles in a given newsgroup to  the  line  printer  and
	       mark  them read, use "/^/|lpr:j".  If you say "/^/K|lpr:j", this will happen every
	       time you enter the newsgroup.

       ?pattern
	       Scan backward for article containing pattern in the subject.  May be  modified  as
	       the  forward search is: ?pattern?modifiers[:commands].  It is likely that you will
	       want an r modifier when scanning backward.

       k       Mark as read all articles with the same subject as the  current	article.   (Note:
	       there is no single character command to temporarily mark as read (M command) arti-
	       cles matching the current subject.  That can be done with "/<esc>s/M", however.)

       K       Do the same as the k command, but also add a line to the local KILL file for  this
	       newsgroup to kill this subject every time the newsgroup is started up.  For a dis-
	       cussion of KILL files, see the '^K' command below.  See also  the  K  modifier  on
	       searches above.

       ^K      Edit the local KILL file for this newsgroup.  Each line of the KILL file should be
	       a command of the form /pattern/j.  (With the exception that rn will insert a  line
	       at  the	beginning of the form "THRU <number>", which tells rn the maximum article
	       number that the KILL file has been applied to.  You may delete the  THRU  line  to
	       force a rescan of current articles.)  You may also have reason to use the m, h, or
	       a modifiers.  Be careful with the M modifier in a kill file--there are more  effi-
	       cient ways to never read an article.  You might have reason to use it if a partic-
	       ular series of articles is posted to multiple newsgroups.  In this case,  M  would
	       force you to view the article in a different newsgroup.

	       To  see	only  newgroup articles in the control newsgroup, for instance, you might
	       put

	       /^/j
	       /newgroup/m

	       which kills all subjects not containing "newgroup".  You can add  lines	automati-
	       cally  via  the	K  command and K search modifiers, but editing is the only way to
	       remove lines.  If either of the environment variables VISUAL or EDITOR is set, the
	       specified  editor  will	be  invoked;  otherwise a default editor (normally vi) is
	       invoked on the KILL file.

	       The KILL file may also contain switch setting lines beginning with '&'.	Addition-
	       ally,  any  line  beginning with 'X' is executed on exit from the newsgroup rather
	       than on entrance.  This can be used to set switches back to a default value.

       r       Reply through net mail.	The environment variables MAILPOSTER and  MAILHEADER  may
	       be  used  to modify the mailing behavior of rn (see environment section).  If on a
	       nonexistent article such as the "End of newsgroup" pseudo-article (which  you  can
	       get to with a '$' command), invokes the mailer to nobody in particular.

       R       Reply,  including the current article in the header file generated.  (See 'F' com-
	       mand below).  The YOUSAID environment variable controls the format of the attribu-
	       tion line.

       f       Submit  a followup article.  If on a nonexistent article such as the "End of news-
	       group" pseudo-article (which you can get to with a '$' command), posts an original
	       article (basenote).

       F       Submit a followup article, and include the old article, with lines prefixed either
	       by ">" or by the argument to a -F switch.  Rn will attempt to provide an  attribu-
	       tion  line  in  front  of the quoted article, generated from the From: line of the
	       article.  Unfortunately, the From: line doesn't always contain the right name; you
	       should  double  check  it against the signature and change it if necessary, or you
	       may have to apologize for quoting the wrong  person.   The  environment	variables
	       NEWSPOSTER,  NEWSHEADER and ATTRIBUTION may be used to modify the posting behavior
	       of rn (see environment section).

       C       Cancel the current article, but only if you are the contributor or superuser.

       c       Catch up in this newsgroup; i.e., mark all articles as read.

       u       Unsubscribe to this newsgroup.

       s destination
	       Save to a filename or pipe using sh.  If the first character of the destination is
	       a vertical bar, the rest of the command is considered a shell command to which the
	       article is passed through standard input.  The  command	is  subject  to  filename
	       expansion.   (See  also	the  environment variable PIPESAVER.)  If the destination
	       does not begin with a vertical bar, the rest of the command is  assumed	to  be	a
	       filename of some sort.  An initial tilde '~' will be translated to the name of the
	       home directory, and an initial environment variable substitution is also  allowed.
	       If  only  a directory name is specified, the environment variable SAVENAME is used
	       to generate the actual name.  If only a filename is specified (i.e. no directory),
	       the  environment  variable  SAVEDIR will be used to generate the actual directory.
	       If nothing is specified, then obviously both variables will be  used.   Since  the
	       current	directory  for	rn while doing a save command is your private news direc-
	       tory, saying "s ./filename" will force the file to your news directory.	Save com-
	       mands  are  also run through % interpretation, so that you can say "s %O/filename"
	       to save to the directory you were in when you ran rn, and "s  %t"  to  save  to	a
	       filename consisting of the Internet address of the sender.

	       After  generating  the  full pathname of the file to save to, rn determines if the
	       file exists already, and if so, appends to it.  Rn will attempt to determine if an
	       existing file is a mailbox or a normal file, and save the article in the same for-
	       mat.  If the output file does not yet exist, rn will by default ask you which for-
	       mat  you  want,	or  you  can  make  it skip the question with either the -M or -N
	       switch.	If the article is to be saved in mailbox format, the command to do so  is
	       generated from the environment variable MBOXSAVER.  Otherwise, NORMSAVER is used.

       S destination
	       Save  to  a filename or pipe using a preferred shell, such as csh.  Which shell is
	       used depends first on what you have the environment variable SHELL set to, and  in
	       the  absence  of that, on what your news administrator set for the preferred shell
	       when he or she installed rn.

       | command
	       Shorthand for "s | command".

       w destination
	       The same as "s destination", but saves without the header.

       W destination
	       The same as "S destination", but saves without the header.

       &       Print out the current status of command line switches.

       &switch {switch}
	       Set additional command line switches.

       &&      Print out current macro definitions.

       &&keys commands
	       Define an additional macro.

       !command
	       Escape to a subshell.  One exclamation mark (!) leaves you in your own news direc-
	       tory.   A  double  exclamation  mark (!!) leaves you in the spool directory of the
	       current newsgroup.  The environment variable SHELL will be used	if  defined.   If
	       command is null, an interactive shell is started.

	       You  can use escape key substitutions described later to get to many run-time val-
	       ues.  The command is also run through % interpretation, in case it is being called
	       from a range or search command.

       =       List subjects of unread articles.

       #       Print last article number.

       Pager Level

       At the pager level (within an article), the prompt looks like this:

       --MORE--(17%)

       and a number of commands may be given:

       SP      Display next page.

       x       Display next page and decrypt as a rot13 message.

       d,^D    Display half a page more.

       CR      Display one more line.

       q       Go  to  the  end  of  the  current  article (don't mark it either read or unread).
	       Leaves you at the "What next?" prompt.

       j       Junk the current article.  Mark it read and go to the end of the article.

       ^L      Refresh the screen.

       X       Refresh the screen and decrypt as a rot13 message.

       b,^B    Back up one page.

       gpattern
	       Goto (search forward for) pattern within current article.  Note that there  is  no
	       space between the command and the pattern.  If the pattern is found, the page con-
	       taining the pattern will be displayed.  Where on the page the  line  matching  the
	       pattern	goes  depends on the value of the -g switch.  By default the matched line
	       goes at the top of the screen.

       G       Search for g pattern again.

       ^G      This is a special version of the 'g' command that is for skipping  articles  in	a
	       digest.	 It is equivalent to setting "-g4" and then executing the command "g^Sub-
	       ject:".

       TAB     This is another special version of the 'g' command that is for skipping inclusions
	       of  older articles.  It is equivalent to setting "-g4" and then executing the com-
	       mand "g^[^c]", where c is the first character of the last line on the screen.   It
	       searches for the first line that doesn't begin with the same character as the last
	       line on the screen.

       !command
	       Escape to a subshell.

       The following commands skip the rest of the current article, then behave just as if  typed
       to  the "What next?" prompt at the end of the article.  See the documentation at the arti-
       cle selection level for these commands.

	   # $ & / = ? c C f F k K ^K m M r R ^R u v Y ^
	   number
	   range{,range} command{:command}

       The following commands also skip to the end of the article, but have the additional effect
       of marking the current article as read:

	   n N ^N s S | w W

       Miscellaneous facts about commands

       An  'n'	typed at either the "Last newsgroup" prompt or a "Last article" prompt will cycle
       back to the top of the newsgroup or article list, whereas  a  'q'  will	quit  the  level.
       (Note that 'n' does not mean "no", but rather "next".)  A space will of course do whatever
       is shown as the default, which will vary depending on whether  rn  thinks  you  have  more
       articles or newsgroups to read.

       The  'b'  (backup  page)  command  may  be  repeated until the beginning of the article is
       reached.  If rn is suspended (via a ^Z), then when the job is resumed, a refresh (^L) will
       automatically  be done (Berkeley-type systems only).  If you type a command such as '!' or
       's' which takes you from the middle of the article to the end, you  can	always	get  back
       into the middle by typing '^L'.

       In  multi-character  commands such as '!', 's', '/', etc, you can interpolate various run-
       time values by typing escape and a character.  To find out what you can interpolate,  type
       escape  and  'h',  or check out the single character % substitutions for environment vari-
       ables in the Interpretation and Interpolation section, which are the same.   Additionally,
       typing a double escape will cause any % substitutions in the string already typed in to be
       expanded.

       Options

       Rn has a nice set of options to allow you to tailor the interaction to your liking.   (You
       might  like to know that the author swears by "-e -m -S -/".)  These options may be set on
       the command line, via the RNINIT environment variable, via a file pointed to by the RNINIT
       variable,  or  from within rn via the & command.  Options may generally be unset by saying
       "+switch".  Options include:

       -c   checks for news without reading news.  If a list of newsgroups is given on	the  com-
	    mand  line,  only those newsgroups will be checked; otherwise all subscribed-to news-
	    groups are checked.  Whenever the -c switch is specified, a non-zero exit status from
	    rn	means  that there is unread news in one of the checked newsgroups.  The -c switch
	    does not disable the printing of newsgroups with unread news; this is  controlled  by
	    the -s switch.  (The -c switch is not meaningful when given via the & command.)

       -C<number>
	    tells  rn how often to checkpoint the .newsrc, in articles read.  Actually, this num-
	    ber says when to start thinking about doing a checkpoint if the situation  is  right.
	    If	a  reasonable  checkpointing situation doesn't arise within 10 more articles, the
	    .newsrc is checkpointed willy-nilly.

       -d<directory name>
	    sets the default save directory to something other than ~/News.  The  directory  name
	    will  be  globbed (via csh) if necessary (and if possible).  Articles saved by rn may
	    be placed in the save directory or in a subdirectory thereof depending on the command
	    that  you  give and the state of the environment variables SAVEDIR and SAVENAME.  Any
	    KILL files (see the K command in the Article Selection section) also reside  in  this
	    directory  and  its subdirectories, by default.  In addition, shell escapes leave you
	    in this directory.

       -D<flags>
	    enables debugging output.  See  common.h  for  flag  values.   Warning:  normally  rn
	    attempts  to restore your .newsrc when an unexpected signal or internal error occurs.
	    This is disabled when any debugging flags are set.

       -e   causes each page within an article to be started at the top of the screen,	not  just
	    the first page.  (It is similar to the -c switch of more(1).)  You never have to read
	    scrolling text with this switch.  This is helpful especially at  certain  baud  rates
	    because  you can start reading the top of the next page without waiting for the whole
	    page to be printed.  It works nicely in conjuction with the -m switch, especially  if
	    you use half-intensity for your highlight mode.  See also the -L switch.

       -E<name>=<val>
	    sets  the  environment  variable <name> to the value specified.  Within rn, "&-ESAVE-
	    NAME=%t" is similar to "setenv SAVENAME '%t'" in csh, or "SAVENAME='%t'; export SAVE-
	    NAME" in sh.  Any environment variables set with -E will be inherited by subprocesses
	    of rn.

       -F<string>
	    sets the prefix string for the 'F' followup command to use in prefixing each line  of
	    the  quoted  article.  For example, "-F<tab>" inserts a tab on the front of each line
	    (which will cause long lines to wrap around, unfortunately), "-F>>>>" inserts  ">>>>"
	    on	every line, and "-F" by itself causes nothing to be inserted, in case you want to
	    reformat the text, for instance.  The initial default prefix is ">".

       -g<line>
	    tells rn which line of the screen you want searched-for strings to show  up  on  when
	    you  search  with the 'g' command within an article.  The lines are numbered starting
	    with 1.  The initial default is "-g1", meaning the first line of the screen.  Setting
	    the line to less than 1 or more than the number of lines on the screen will set it to
	    the last line of the screen.

       -h<string>
	    hides (disables the printing  of)  all  header  lines  beginning  with  string.   For
	    instance, -hexp will disable the printing of the "Expires:" line.  Case is insignifi-
	    cant.  If <string> is null, all header lines except Subject are hidden, and  you  may
	    then use +h to select those lines you want to see.	You may wish to use the baud-rate
	    switch modifier below to hide more lines at lower baud rates.

       -H<string>
	    works just like -h except that instead of setting the hiding flag for a header  line,
	    it	sets the magic flag for that header line.  Certain header lines have magic behav-
	    ior that can be controlled this way.  At present, the following actions are caused by
	    the  flag for the particular line: the Newsgroups line will only print when there are
	    multiple newsgroups, the Subject line will be underlined, and the Expires  line  will
	    always  be	suppressed  if there is nothing on it.	In fact, all of these actions are
	    the default, and you must use +H to undo them.

       -i=<number>
	    specifies how long (in lines) to consider the initial page	of  an	article--normally
	    this  is determined automatically depending on baud rate.  (Note that an entire arti-
	    cle header will always be printed regardless of the specified  initial  page  length.
	    If	you  are working at low baud rate and wish to reduce the size of the headers, you
	    may hide certain header lines with the -h switch.)

       -l   disables the clearing of the screen at the beginning of each  article,  in	case  you
	    have a bizarre terminal.

       -L   tells  rn  to leave information on the screen as long as possible by not blanking the
	    screen between pages, and by using clear to end-of-line.  (The more(1)  program  does
	    this.)   This feature works only if you have the requisite termcap capabilities.  The
	    switch has no effect unless the -e switch is set.

       -m=<mode>
	    enables the marking of the last line of the previous page printed, to help	the  user
	    see  where	to  continue reading.  This is most helpful when less than a full page is
	    going to be displayed.  It may also be used in conjunction with  the  -e  switch,  in
	    which case the page is erased, and the first line (which is the last line of the pre-
	    vious page) is highlighted.  If -m=s is specified, the standout mode  will	be  used,
	    but  if  -m=u  is specified, underlining will be used.  If neither =s or =u is speci-
	    fied, standout is the default.  Use +m to disable highlighting.

       -M   forces mailbox format in creating new save files.  Ordinarily  you	are  asked  which
	    format you want.

       -N   forces  normal  (non-mailbox)  format in creating new save files.  Ordinarily you are
	    asked which format you want.

       -r   causes rn to restart in the last newsgroup read during a previous  session	with  rn.
	    It	is  equivalent to starting up normally and then getting to the newsgroup with a g
	    command.

       -s   with no argument suppresses the initial  listing  of  newsgroups  with  unread  news,
	    whether  -c  is  specified	or  not.   Thus  -c  and  -s can be used together to test
	    "silently" the status of news from within your .login file.  If -s is followed  by	a
	    number,  the  initial  listing  is suppressed after that many lines have been listed.
	    Presuming that you have your .newsrc sorted into order of interest, -s5 will tell you
	    the 5 most interesting newsgroups that have unread news.  This is also a nice feature
	    to use in your .login file, since it not only tells you whether there is unread news,
	    but  also how important the unread news is, without having to wade through the entire
	    list of unread newsgroups.	If no -s switch is given -s5 is assumed, so just  putting
	    "rn -c" into your .login file is fine.

       -S<number>
	    causes  rn	to  enter  subject search mode (^N) automatically whenever a newsgroup is
	    started up with <number> unread articles or more.  Additionally, it  causes  any  'n'
	    typed  while  in subject search mode to be interpreted as '^N' instead.  (To get back
	    out of subject search mode, the best command is probably '^'.)  If <number> is  omit-
	    ted, 3 is assumed.

       -t   puts  rn into terse mode.  This is more cryptic but useful for low baud rates.  (Note
	    that your system administrator may have compiled rn with either verbose or terse mes-
	    sages  only to save memory.)  You may wish to use the baud-rate switch modifier below
	    to enable terse mode only at lower baud rates.

       -T   allows you to type ahead of rn.  Ordinarily rn will eat  typeahead	to  prevent  your
	    autorepeating  space  bar  from  doing a very frustrating thing when you accidentally
	    hold it down.  If you don't have a repeating space bar, or you  are  working  at  low
	    baud rate, you can set this switch to prevent this behavior.  You may wish to use the
	    baud-rate switch modifier below to disable typeahead only at lower baud rates.

       -v   sets verification mode for commands.  When set, the command being  executed  is  dis-
	    played  to	give some feedback that the key has actually been typed.  Useful when the
	    system is heavily loaded and you give a command that takes a while to start up.

       -/   sets SAVEDIR to "%p/%c" and SAVENAME to "%a", which means that  by	default  articles
	    are  saved in a subdirectory of your private news directory corresponding to the name
	    of the the current newsgroup, with the filename being the article  number.	 +/  sets
	    SAVEDIR  to  "%p"  and SAVENAME to "%^C", which by default saves articles directly to
	    your private news directory, with the filename being the name of  the  current  news-
	    group,  first  letter  capitalized.   (Either +/ or -/ may be default on your system,
	    depending on the feelings of your news administrator when he,  she	or  it	installed
	    rn.)   You	may,  of course, explicitly set SAVEDIR and SAVENAME to other values--see
	    discussion in the environment section.

       Any switch may be selectively applied according to the current baud-rate.   Simply  prefix
       the  switch  with +speed to apply the switch at that speed or greater, and -speed to apply
       the switch at that speed or less.  Examples: -1200-hposted suppresses the Posted  line  at
       1200  baud or less; +9600-m enables marking at 9600 baud or more.  You can apply the modi-
       fier recursively to itself also: +300-1200-t sets terse mode from 300 to 1200 baud.

       Similarly, switches may be selected based on terminal type:

	    -=vt100+T	   set +T on vt100
	    -=tvi920-ETERM=mytvi     get a special termcap entry
	    -=tvi920-ERNMACRO=%./.rnmac.tvi
			   set up special keymappings
	    +=paper-v	   set verify mode if not hardcopy

       Some switch arguments, such as environment variable values, may require	spaces	in  them.
       Such  spaces should be quoted via ", ', or \ in the conventional fashion, even when passed
       via RNINIT or the & command.

       Regular Expressions

       The patterns used in article searching are regular  expressions	such  as  those  used  by
       ed(1).	In addition, \w matches an alphanumeric character and \W a nonalphanumeric.  Word
       boundaries may be matched by \b, and  non-boundaries  by  \B.   The  bracketing	construct
       \( ... \)  may  also  be  used, and \digit matches the digit'th substring, where digit can
       range from 1 to 9.  \0 matches whatever the last bracket match matched.	Up to 10 alterna-
       tives  may  given  in a pattern, separated by \|, with the caveat that \( ... \| ... \) is
       illegal.

       Interpretation and Interpolation

       Many of the strings that rn handles are	subject  to  interpretations  of  several  types.
       Under  filename	expansion,  an initial "~/" is translated to the name of your home direc-
       tory, and "~name" is translated to the login directory for the user  specified.	 Filename
       expansion  will	also expand an initial environment variable, and also does the backslash,
       uparrow and percent expansion mentioned below.

       All interpreted strings go through backslash, uparrow  and  percent  interpretation.   The
       backslash  escapes  are the normal ones (such as \n, \t, \nnn, etc.).  The uparrow escapes
       indicate control codes in the normal  fashion.	Backslashes  or  uparrows  to  be  passed
       through	should	be  escaped  with  backslash.  The special percent escapes are similar to
       printf percent escapes.	These cause the substitution of various run-time values into  the
       string.	The following are currently recognized:

       %a      Current article number.

       %A      Full  name  of  current	article (%P/%c/%a).  (On a Eunice system with the LINKART
	       option, %P/%c/%a returns the name of the article in the current	newsgroup,  while
	       %A  returns  the  real  name of the article, which may be different if the current
	       article was posted to multiple newsgroups.)

       %b      Destination of last save command, often a mailbox.

       %B      The byte offset to the beginning of the part of the article to be  saved,  set  by
	       the  save command.  The 's' and 'S' commands set it to 0, and the 'w' and 'W' com-
	       mands set it to the byte offset of the body of the article.

       %c      Current newsgroup, directory form.

       %C      Current newsgroup, dot form.

       %d      Full name of newsgroup directory (%P/%c).

       %D      "Distribution:" line from the current article.

       %f      "From:" line from the current article, or the "Reply-To:" line if  there  is  one.
	       This differs from %t in that comments (such as the full name) are not stripped out
	       with %f.

       %F      "Newsgroups:" line for a new article, constructed  from	"Newsgroups:"  and  "Fol-
	       lowup-To:" lines of current article.

       %h      Name  of  the  header  file to pass to the mail or news poster, containing all the
	       information that the poster program needs in the form of a message header.  It may
	       also contain a copy of the current article.  The format of the header file is con-
	       trolled by the MAILHEADER and NEWSHEADER environment variables.

       %H      Host name (your machine's name).

       %i      "Message-I.D.:" line from the current article, with <> guaranteed.

       %I      The reference indication mark (see the -F switch.)

       %l      The news administrator's login name, if any.

       %L      Login name (yours).

       %m      The current mode of rn, for use in conditional macros.

		    i	 Initializing.
		    n	 Newsgroup selection level.
		    a	 Article selection level (What next?).
		    p	 Pager level (MORE prompt).
		    A	 Add this newsgroup?
		    C	 Catchup confirmation.
		    D	 Delete bogus newsgroups?
		    M	 Use mailbox format?
		    R	 Resubscribe to this newsgroup?

	       Note that yes/no questions are all upper-case modes.  If, for example, you  wanted
	       to  disallow  defaults  on  all	yes/no	questions, you could define the following
	       macro:

	       \040 %(%m=[A-Z]?h: )

       %M      The number of articles marked to return via the 'M' command.  If the same  article
	       is Marked multiple times, "%M" counts it multiple times in the current implementa-
	       tion.

       %n      "Newsgroups:" line from the current article.

       %N      Full name (yours).

       %o      Organization (yours).

       %O      Original working directory (where you ran rn from).

       %p      Your private news directory, normally ~/News.

       %P      Public news spool directory, normally /usr/spool/news.

       %r      Last reference on references line of current article (parent article id).

       %R      References list for a new article, constructed from the references and article  ID
	       of the current article.

       %s      Subject, with all Re's and (nf)'s stripped off.

       %S      Subject, with one "Re:" stripped off.

       %t      "To:"  line derived from the "From:" and "Reply-To:" lines of the current article.
	       This always returns an Internet format address.

       %T      "To:" line derived from the "Path:" line of the current article to produce a  uucp
	       path.

       %u      The number of unread articles in the current newsgroup.

       %U      The  number  of unread articles in the current newsgroup, not counting the current
	       article.

       %x      The news library directory.

       %X      The rn library directory.

       %z      The length of the current article in bytes.

       %~      Your home directory.

       %.      The directory containing your dot files, which is your home directory  unless  the
	       environment variable DOTDIR is defined when rn is invoked.

       %$      Current process number.

       %/      Last search string.

       %%      A percent sign.

       %{name} or %{name-default}
	       The environment variable "name".

       %[name] The  value  of  header line "Name:" from the current article.  The "Name: " is not
	       included.  For example "%D" and "%[distribution]" are equivalent.  The  name  must
	       be spelled out in full.

       %`command`
	       Inserts the output of the command, with any embedded newlines translated to space.

       %""prompt""
	       Prints prompt on the terminal, then inputs one string, and inserts it.

       %(test_text=pattern?then_text:else_text)
	       If  test_text  matches pattern, has the value then_text, otherwise else_text.  The
	       ":else_text" is optional, and if absent, interpolates the null string.  The =  may
	       be  replaced with != to negate the test.  To quote any of the metacharacters ('=',
	       '?', ':', or ')'), precede with a backslash.

       %digit  The digits 1 through 9 interpolate the string matched by the nth  bracket  in  the
	       last  pattern  match that had brackets.	If the last pattern had alternatives, you
	       may not know the number of the bracket you want--%0 will give you the last bracket
	       matched.

       Modifiers:  to  capitalize  the	first  letter,	insert '^': "%^C" produces something like
       "Net.jokes".  Inserting '_' causes the first letter following the last '/' to be  capital-
       ized: "%_c" produces "net/Jokes".

ENVIRONMENT
       The  following  environment variables are paid attention to by rn.  In general the default
       values assumed for these variables by rn are reasonable, so if you are using  rn  for  the
       first time, you can safely ignore this section.	Note that the defaults below may not cor-
       respond precisely to the defaults on your system.  To find the actual defaults  you  would
       need to look in config.h and common.h in the rn source directory, and the file INIT in the
       rn library.

       Those variables marked (%) are subject to % interpolation, and those marked (~)	are  sub-
       ject to both % interpolation and ~ interpretation.

       ATTRIBUTION (%)
	       Gives  the  format of the attribution line in front of the quoted article included
	       by an F command.

	       Default: In article %i %f writes:

       CANCEL (~)
	       The shell command used to cancel an article.

	       Default: inews -h < %h

       CANCELHEADER (%)
	       The format of the file to pass to the CANCEL command in order to cancel	an  arti-
	       cle.

	       Default:
	       Newsgroups: %n
	       Subject: cmsg cancel %i
	       References: %R
	       Reply-To: %L@%H.UUCP (%N)
	       Distribution: %D
	       Organization: %o

	       %i cancelled from rn.

       DOTDIR  Where  to  find	your  dot  files,  if they aren't in your home directory.  Can be
	       interpolated using "%.".

	       Default: $HOME

       EDITOR (~)
	       The name of your editor, if VISUAL is undefined.

	       Default: whatever your news administrator compiled in, usually vi.

       FIRSTLINE (%)
	       Controls the format of the line displayed at the top of an article.  Warning: this
	       may go away.

	       Default:  Article  %a %(%U%M!=^00$?(%U more%(%M!=^0$? + %M Marked to return)\) )in
	       %C:, more or less.

       HIDELINE
	       If defined, contains a regular expression which matches article lines to  be  hid-
	       den,  in  order,  for instance, to suppress quoted material.  A recommended string
	       for this purpose is "^>...", which doesn't hide lines with only '>', to give  some
	       indication  that  quoted material is being skipped.  If you want to hide more than
	       one pattern, you can use "|" to separate the alternatives.  You can view the  hid-
	       den lines by restarting the article with the 'v' command.

	       There  is  some	overhead  involved in matching each line of the article against a
	       regular expression.  You might wish to use a baud-rate  modifier  to  enable  this
	       feature only at low baud rates.

	       Default: undefined

       HOME    Your home directory.  Affects ~ interpretation, and the location of your dot files
	       if DOTDIR is not defined.

	       Default: $LOGDIR

       KILLGLOBAL (~)
	       Where to find the KILL file to apply to every newsgroup.  See the '^K' command  at
	       the newsgroup selection level.

	       Default: %p/KILL

       KILLLOCAL (~)
	       Where  to  find the KILL file for the current newsgroup.  See the commands 'K' and
	       '^K' at the article selection level, and the search modifier 'K'.

	       Default: %p/%c/KILL

       LOGDIR  Your home directory if HOME is undefined.  Affects ~ interpretation, and the loca-
	       tion of your dot files if DOTDIR is not defined.

	       Default: none.

	       Explanation: you must have either $HOME or $LOGDIR.

       LOGNAME Your login name, if USER is undefined.  May be interpolated using "%L".

	       Default: value of getlogin().

       MAILCALL (~)
	       What to say when there is new mail.

	       Default: (Mail)

       MAILFILE (~)
	       Where to check for mail.

	       Default: /usr/spool/mail/%L

       MAILHEADER (%)
	       The format of the header file for replies.  See also MAILPOSTER.

	       Default:

	       To: %T
	       Subject: %(%i=^$?:Re: %S
	       Newsgroups: %n
	       In-Reply-To: %i)
	       %(%[references]!=^$?References\: %[references]
	       )Organization: %o
	       Cc:
	       Bcc: \n\n

       MAILPOSTER (~)
	       The shell command to be used by the reply commands (r and R) in order to allow you
	       to enter and deliver the response.  Rn will not itself call  upon  an  editor  for
	       replies--this is a function of the program called by rn.  See also MAILHEADER.

	       Default: Rnmail -h %h

       MBOXSAVER (~)
	       The shell command to save an article in mailbox format.

	       Default: %X/mbox.saver %A %P %c %a %B %C "%b" \
	       "From: %T %`date`"

	       Explanation:  the first seven arguments are the same as for NORMSAVER.  The eighth
	       argument to the shell script is the new From: line for the article, including  the
	       posting	date,  derived	either directly from the Posted: line, or not-so-directly
	       from the Date: line.  Header munging at its finest.

       NAME    Your full name.	May be interpolated using "%N".

	       Default: name from /etc/passwd, or ~/.fullname.

       NEWSHEADER (%)
	       The format of the header file for followups.  See also NEWSPOSTER.

	       Default:

	       Newsgroups: %(%F=^$?%C:%F)
	       Subject: %(%S=^$?%"00ubject: ":Re: %S)
	       Summary:
	       Expires:
	       %(%R=^$?:References: %R
	       )Sender:
	       Reply-To: %L@%H.UUCP (%N)
	       Followup-To:
	       Distribution: %(%i=^$?%"0istribution: ":%D)
	       Organization: %o
	       Keywords: \n\n

       NEWSPOSTER (~)
	       The shell command to be used by the followup commands (f and F) in order to  allow
	       you  to	enter  and post a followup news article.  Rn will not itself call upon an
	       editor for followups--this is a function of the program called by  rn.	See  also
	       NEWSHEADER.

	       Default: Pnews -h %h

       NORMSAVER (~)
	       The shell command to save an article in the normal (non-mailbox) format.

	       Default: %X/norm.saver %A %P %c %a %B %C "%b"

       ORGANIZATION
	       Either the name of your organization, or the name of a file containing the name of
	       your organization.  May be interpolated using "%o".

	       Default: whatever your news administrator compiled in.

       PAGESTOP
	       If defined, contains a regular  expression  which  matches  article  lines  to  be
	       treated	as  form-feeds.   There are at least two things you might want to do with
	       this.  To cause page breaks between articles in a digest, you might define  it  as
	       "^--------".   To  force  a  page break before a signature, you could define it as
	       "^-- $".  (Then, when you see "--" at the bottom of the page,  you  can	skip  the
	       signature if you so desire by typing 'n' instead of space.)  To do both, you could
	       use "^--".  If you want to break on more than one pattern, you can use "|" to sep-
	       arate the alternatives.

	       There  is  some	overhead  involved in matching each line of the article against a
	       regular expression.  You might wish to use a baud-rate  modifier  to  enable  this
	       feature only at low baud rates.

	       Default: undefined

       PIPESAVER (%)
	       The  shell  command  to execute in order to accomplish a save to a pipe ("s | com-
	       mand" or "w | command").  The command typed by the user is substituted in as %b.

	       Default: %(%B=^0$?<%A:tail +%Bc %A |) %b

	       Explanation: if %B is 0, the command is "<%A %b", otherwise the command	is  "tail
	       +%Bc %A | %b".

       RNINIT  Default	values	for  switches may be passed to rn by placing them in RNINIT.  Any
	       switch that is set in RNINIT may be overruled on the command line, or via the  '&'
	       command from within rn.	Binary-valued switches that are set with "-switch" may be
	       unset using "+switch".

	       If RNINIT begins with a '/' it is assumed to be the  name  of  a  file  containing
	       switches.   If  you  want to set many environment variables but don't want to keep
	       them all in your environment, or if the use of any of  these  variables	conflicts
	       with  other programs, you can use this feature along with the -E switch to set the
	       environment variables upon startup.

	       Default: " ".

       RNMACRO (~)
	       The name of the file containing macros and key mappings.  See the MACROS section.

	       Default: %./.rnmac

       SAVEDIR (~)
	       The name of the directory to save to, if the  save  command  does  not  specify	a
	       directory name.

	       Default:
		  If -/ is set: %p/%c
		  If +/ is set: %p

       SAVENAME (%)
	       The  name  of  the  file to save to, if the save command contains only a directory
	       name.

	       Default:
		  If -/ is set: %a
		  If +/ is set: %^C

       SHELL   The name of your preferred shell.  It will be used by the '!', 'S'  and	'W'  com-
	       mands.

	       Default: whatever your news administrator compiled in.

       SUBJLINE (%)
	       Controls  the  format  of  the  lines  displayed by the '=' command at the article
	       selection level.

	       Default: %s

       TERM    Determines which termcap entry to use, unless TERMCAP contains the entry.

       TERMCAP Holds either the name of your termcap file, or a termcap entry.

	       Default: /etc/termcap, normally.

       USER    Your login name.  May be interpolated using "%L".

	       Default: $LOGNAME

       VISUAL (~)
	       The name of your editor.

	       Default: $EDITOR

       YOUSAID (%)
	       Gives the format of the attribution line in front of the quoted	article  included
	       by an R command.

	       Default: In article %i you write:

MACROS
       When rn starts up, it looks for a file containing macro definitions (see environment vari-
       able RNMACRO).  Any sequence of commands may be bound to any  sequence  of  keys,  so  you
       could  remap your entire keyboard if you desire.  Blank lines or lines beginning with # in
       the macro file are considered comments; otherwise rn looks for  two  fields  separated  by
       white space.  The first field gives the sequence of keystrokes that trigger the macro, and
       the second field gives the sequence of commands to execute.  Both fields are subject to	%
       interpolation,  which will also translate backslash and uparrow sequences.  (The keystroke
       field is interpreted at startup time, but the command field is interpreted at macro execu-
       tion  time  so  that  you  may refer to % values in a macro.)  For example, if you want to
       reverse the roles of carriage return and space in rn

       ^J   \040
       ^M   \040
       \040 ^J

       will do just that.  By default, all characters in the command field are interpreted as the
       canonical  rn  characters,  i.e.  no macro expansion is done.  Otherwise the above pair of
       macros would cause an infinite loop.  To force  macro  expansion  in  the  command  field,
       enclose the macro call with ^( ... ^) thusly:

       @s   |mysavescript
       @w   w^(@s^)

       You  can use the %() conditional construct to construct macros that work differently under
       different circumstances.  In particular, the current mode (%m) of rn could be used to make
       a command that only works at a particular level.  For example,

       ^[[O %(%m=p?\040)

       will only allow the macro to work at the pager level.

       %(%{TERM}=vt100?^[[O)	/^J

       will  do  the binding only if the terminal type is vt100, though if you have many of these
       it would be better to have separate files for each terminal.

       If you want to bind a macro to a function key that puts a common garbage  character  after
       the sequence (such as the carriage return on the end of Televideo 920 function sequences),
       DO NOT put the carriage return into all the sequences or you  will  waste  a  CONSIDERABLE
       amount  of  internal storage.  Instead of "^AF^M", put "^AF+1", which indicates to rn that
       it should gobble up one character after the F.

AUTHOR
       Larry Wall <lwall@sdcrdcf.UUCP>
       Regular expression routines are borrowed from emacs, by James Gosling.

FILES
       %./.newsrc  status of your news reading

       %./.oldnewsrc
		   backup copy of your .newsrc from start of session

       %./.rnlock  lock file so you don't screw up your .newsrc

       %./.rnlast  info from last run of rn

       %./.rnsoft  soft pointers into /usr/lib/active to speed startup, synchronous with .newsrc

       %./.rnhead  temporary header file to pass to a mailer or news poster

       %./.rnmac   macro and keymap definitions

       %p	   your news save directory, usually ~/News

       %x/active   the list of active newsgroups, usually /usr/lib/news/active

       %P	   the public news spool directory, usually /usr/spool/news

       %X/INIT	   system-wide default switches

SEE ALSO
       newsrc(5), more(1), readnews(1), Pnews(1), Rnmail(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Generally self-documenting, as they say.

BUGS
       The -h switch can only hide header lines that rn knows about.

       The '-' command doesn't cross newsgroup boundaries,  and  only  undoes  the  last  article
       selection.

       If  you	edit your .newsrc while rn is running, rn will happily wipe out your changes when
       it decides to write out the .newsrc file.

       Rn doesn't do certain things (like ordering articles on	posting  date)	that  the  author
       feels should be handled by inews.

       Marking	of duplicate articles as read in cross-referenced newsgroups will not work unless
       the Xref patch is installed in inews.

       If you get carried away with % or escape substitutions, you can overflow buffers.

       There should be no fixed limit on the number of newsgroups.

       Some of the more esoteric features may be missing on machines with limited address space.

					      LOCAL					    RN(1)
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