BSD 2.11 - man page for fgrep (bsd section 1)
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grep, egrep, fgrep - search a file for a pattern
grep [ option ] ... expression [ file ] ...
egrep [ option ] ... [ expression ] [ file ] ...
fgrep [ option ] ... [ strings ] [ file ]
Commands of the grep family search the input files (standard input default) for lines
matching a pattern. Normally, each line found is copied to the standard output. Grep
patterns are limited regular expressions in the style of ex(1); it uses a compact nonde-
terministic algorithm. Egrep patterns are full regular expressions; it uses a fast deter-
ministic algorithm that sometimes needs exponential space. Fgrep patterns are fixed
strings; it is fast and compact. The following options are recognized.
-v All lines but those matching are printed.
-x (Exact) only lines matched in their entirety are printed (fgrep only).
-c Only a count of matching lines is printed.
-l The names of files with matching lines are listed (once) separated by newlines.
-n Each line is preceded by its relative line number in the file.
-b Each line is preceded by the block number on which it was found. This is sometimes
useful in locating disk block numbers by context.
-i The case of letters is ignored in making comparisons -- that is, upper and lower
case are considered identical. This applies to grep and fgrep only.
-s Silent mode. Nothing is printed (except error messages). This is useful for
checking the error status.
-w The expression is searched for as a word (as if surrounded by `\<' and `\>', see
ex(1).) (grep only)
Same as a simple expression argument, but useful when the expression begins with a
The regular expression (egrep) or string list (fgrep) is taken from the file.
In all cases the file name is shown if there is more than one input file. Care should be
taken when using the characters $ * [ ^ | ( ) and \ in the expression as they are also
meaningful to the Shell. It is safest to enclose the entire expression argument in single
quotes ' '.
Fgrep searches for lines that contain one of the (newline-separated) strings.
Egrep accepts extended regular expressions. In the following description `character'
A \ followed by a single character other than newline matches that character.
The character ^ matches the beginning of a line.
The character $ matches the end of a line.
A . (period) matches any character.
A single character not otherwise endowed with special meaning matches that charac-
A string enclosed in brackets  matches any single character from the string.
Ranges of ASCII character codes may be abbreviated as in `a-z0-9'. A ] may occur
only as the first character of the string. A literal - must be placed where it
can't be mistaken as a range indicator.
A regular expression followed by an * (asterisk) matches a sequence of 0 or more
matches of the regular expression. A regular expression followed by a + (plus)
matches a sequence of 1 or more matches of the regular expression. A regular
expression followed by a ? (question mark) matches a sequence of 0 or 1 matches of
the regular expression.
Two regular expressions concatenated match a match of the first followed by a match
of the second.
Two regular expressions separated by | or newline match either a match for the
first or a match for the second.
A regular expression enclosed in parentheses matches a match for the regular
The order of precedence of operators at the same parenthesis level is  then *+? then
concatenation then | and newline.
Ideally there should be only one grep, but we don't know a single algorithm that spans a
wide enough range of space-time tradeoffs.
ex(1), sed(1), sh(1)
Exit status is 0 if any matches are found, 1 if none, 2 for syntax errors or inaccessible
Lines are limited to 256 characters; longer lines are truncated.
4th Berkeley Distribution April 29, 1985 GREP(1)
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