PX(1) General Commands Manual PX(1)NAME
px - Pascal interpreter
px [ obj [ argument ... ] ]
Px interprets the abstract machine code generated by pi. The first argument is the file to be interpreted, and defaults to obj; remaining
arguments are available to the Pascal program using the built-ins argv and argc. Px is also invoked by pix when running `load and go'.
If the program terminates abnormally an error message and a control flow backtrace are printed. The number of statements executed and
total execution time are printed after normal termination. The p option of pi suppresses all of this except the message indicating the
cause of abnormal termination.
obj default object file
pmon.out profile data file
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual
Most run-time error messages are self-explanatory. Some of the more unusual ones are:
Reference to an inactive file
A file other than input or output was used before a call to reset or rewrite.
Statement count limit exceeded
The limit of 500,000 executed statements (which prevents excessive looping or recursion) has been exceeded.
Bad data found on integer read
Bad data found on real read
Usually, non-numeric input was found for a number. For reals, Pascal requires digits before and after the decimal point so that num-
bers like `.1' or `21.' evoke the second diagnostic.
panic: Some message
Indicates a internal inconsistency detected in px probably due to a Pascal system bug. Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken
Calls to the procedures dispose and linelimit are ignored.
Post-mortem traceback is not limited; infinite recursion leads to almost infinite traceback.
Because interrupts sometimes find the system in the middle of a procedure or function entry or exit, the error backtrace on an interrupt is
occasionally meaningless. The current line is, however, always correct; only the call backtrace and the name of the current routine may be
3rd Berkeley DistributionPX(1)
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CTAGS(1) General Commands Manual CTAGS(1)NAME
ctags - create a tags file
ctags [ -BFatuwvx ] [ -f tagsfile ] name ...
Ctags makes a tags file for ex(1) from the specified C, Pascal, Fortran, YACC, lex, and lisp sources. A tags file gives the locations of
specified objects (in this case functions and typedefs) in a group of files. Each line of the tags file contains the object name, the file
in which it is defined, and an address specification for the object definition. Functions are searched with a pattern, typedefs with a line
number. Specifiers are given in separate fields on the line, separated by blanks or tabs. Using the tags file, ex can quickly find these
If the -x flag is given, ctags produces a list of object names, the line number and file name on which each is defined, as well as the text
of that line and prints this on the standard output. This is a simple index which can be printed out as an off-line readable function
If the -v flag is given, an index of the form expected by vgrind(1) is produced on the standard output. This listing contains the function
name, file name, and page number (assuming 64 line pages). Since the output will be sorted into lexicographic order, it may be desired to
run the output through sort -f. Sample use:
ctags -v files | sort -f > index
vgrind -x index
Normally ctags places the tag descriptions in a file called tags; this may be overridden with the -f option.
Files whose names end in .c or .h are assumed to be C source files and are searched for C routine and macro definitions. Files whose names
end in .y are assumed to be YACC source files. Files whose names end in .l are assumed to be either lisp files if their first non-blank
character is `;', `(', or `[', or lex files otherwise. Other files are first examined to see if they contain any Pascal or Fortran routine
definitions; if not, they are processed again looking for C definitions.
Other options are:
-F use forward searching patterns (/.../) (default).
-B use backward searching patterns (?...?).
-a append to tags file.
-t create tags for typedefs.
-w suppressing warning diagnostics.
-u causing the specified files to be updated in tags, that is, all references to them are deleted, and the new values are appended to the
file. (Beware: this option is implemented in a way which is rather slow; it is usually faster to simply rebuild the tags file.)
The tag main is treated specially in C programs. The tag formed is created by prepending M to the name of the file, with a trailing .c
removed, if any, and leading pathname components also removed. This makes use of ctags practical in directories with more than one pro-
tags output tags file
SEE ALSO ex(1), vi(1)AUTHOR
Ken Arnold; FORTRAN added by Jim Kleckner; Bill Joy added Pascal and -x, replacing cxref; C typedefs added by Ed Pelegri-Llopart.
Recognition of functions, subroutines and procedures for FORTRAN and Pascal is done is a very simpleminded way. No attempt is made to deal
with block structure; if you have two Pascal procedures in different blocks with the same name you lose.
The method of deciding whether to look for C or Pascal and FORTRAN functions is a hack.
Does not know about #ifdefs.
Should know about Pascal types. Relies on the input being well formed to detect typedefs. Use of -tx shows only the last line of type-
4th Berkeley Distribution May 30, 1985 CTAGS(1)