PI(1) General Commands Manual PI(1)NAME
pi - Pascal interpreter code translator
pi [ -blnpstuwz ] [ -i name ... ] name.p
Pi translates the program in the file name.p leaving interpreter code in the file obj in the current directory. The interpreter code can
be executed using px. Pix performs the functions of pi and px for `load and go' Pascal.
The following flags are interpreted by pi; the associated options can also be controlled in comments within the program as described in the
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual.
-b Block buffer the file output.
-i Enable the listing for any specified procedures and functions and while processing any specified include files.
-l Make a program listing during translation.
-n Begin each listed include file on a new page with a banner line.
-p Suppress the post-mortem control flow backtrace if an error occurs; suppress statement limit counting.
-s Accept standard Pascal only; non-standard constructs cause warning diagnostics.
-t Suppress runtime tests of subrange variables and treat assert statements as comments.
-u Card image mode; only the first 72 characters of input lines are used.
-w Suppress warning diagnostics.
-z Allow execution profiling with pxp by generating statement counters, and arranging for the creation of the profile data file pmon.out
when the resulting object is executed.
file.p input file
file.i include file(s)
/usr/share/pascal/pi_stringstext of the error messages
/usr/share/pascal/how_pi*basic usage explanation
obj interpreter code output
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual
pcc(1), pix(1), px(1), pxp(1), pxref(1)DIAGNOSTICS
For a basic explanation do
In the diagnostic output of the translator, lines containing syntax errors are listed with a flag indicating the point of error. Diagnos-
tic messages indicate the action which the recovery mechanism took in order to be able to continue parsing. Some diagnostics indicate only
that the input is `malformed.' This occurs if the recovery can find no simple correction to make the input syntactically valid.
Semantic error diagnostics indicate a line in the source text near the point of error. Some errors evoke more than one diagnostic to help
pinpoint the error; the follow-up messages begin with an ellipsis `...'.
The first character of each error message indicates its class:
EFatal error; no code will be generated.
wWarning - a potential problem.
sNon-standard Pascal construct warning.
If a severe error occurs which inhibits further processing, the translator will give a diagnostic and then `QUIT'.
Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken Thompson
Formal parameters which are procedures and functions are not supported.
The keyword packed and the function dispose are recognized but have no effect.
For clarity, semantic errors should be flagged at an appropriate place in the source text, and multiple instances of the `same' semantic
error should be summarized at the end of a procedure or function rather than evoking many diagnostics.
When include files are present, diagnostics relating to the last procedure in one file may appear after the beginning of the listing of the
3rd Berkeley DistributionPI(1)
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error(1) General Commands Manual error(1)Name
error - analyze and disperse compiler error messages
error [-n] [-s] [-q] [-v] [-t suffixlist] [-I ignorefile] [name]
The command analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages produced by a number of compilers and language processors to
the source file and line where the errors occurred. It permits error messages and source code to be viewed simultaneously without using
multiple windows in a screen editor.
The command looks at the error messages, either from the specified file name or from the standard input. It attempts to determine the fol-
lowing: which language processor produced each error message, to which source file and line number the error message refers, and if the
error message is to be ignored or not. It also inserts the error message into the source file as a comment on the line preceding the one
where the error occurred.
Error messages that cannot be categorized by language processor or content are not inserted into any file, but are sent to the standard
output. The command touches source files only after all input has been read. By specifying the -q query option, the user is asked to con-
firm any potentially dangerous (such as touching a file) or verbose action.
If the -t touch option and associated suffix list is given, restricts itself to touching only those files with suffixes in the suffix list.
Error also can be asked (by specifying -v) to invoke on the files in which error messages were inserted; this prevents the need to remember
the names of the files with errors.
The command is intended to be run with its standard input connected via a pipe to the error message source. Some language processors put
error messages on their standard error file; others put their messages on the standard output. Hence, both error sources should be piped
together into For example, when using the csh syntax,
make -s lint |& error -q -v
analyzes all the error messages produced by whatever programs runs when making lint.
The command knows about the error messages produced by the following: and The command knows a standard format for error messages produced
by the language processors, so it is sensitive to changes in these formats. For all languages except Pascal, error messages are restricted
to be on one line. Some error messages refer to more than one line in more than one file. The command duplicates the error message and
inserts it at all of the places referenced.
The command does one of six things with error messages.
synchronize Some language processors produce short errors describing which file it is processing. The command uses these to deter-
mine the file name for languages that don't include the file name in each error message. These synchronization mes-
sages are consumed entirely by
discard Error messages from that refer to one of the two libraries, /usr/lib/llib-lc and /usr/lib/llib-port are discarded, to
prevent accidently touching these libraries. Again, these error messages are consumed entirely by
nullify Error messages from can be nullified if they refer to a specific function, which is known to generate diagnostics which
are not interesting. Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file, but are written to the standard
output. The names of functions to ignore are taken from either the file named in the users's home directory, or from
the file named by the -I option. If the file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. If the file does exist,
there must be one function name per line.
not file specific Error messages that can't be discerned are grouped together, and written to the standard output before any files are
touched. They will not be inserted into any source file.
file specific Error message that refer to a specific file, but to no specific line, are written to the standard output when that file
true errors Error messages that can be intuited are candidates for insertion into the file to which they refer.
Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into the file they refer to. Other error messages are consumed entirely by or are
written to the standard output. The command inserts the error messages into the source file on the line preceding the line the language
processor found in error. Each error message is turned into a one line comment for the language, and is internally flagged with the string
``###'' at the beginning of the error, and ``%%%'' at the end of the error. This makes pattern searching for errors easier with an editor,
and allows the messages to be easily removed.
In addition, each error message contains the source line number for the line to which the message refers. A reasonably formatted source
program can be recompiled with the error messages still in it, without having the error messages themselves cause future errors. For
poorly formatted source programs in free format languages, such as C or Pascal, it is possible to insert a comment into another comment,
which can wreak havoc with a future compilation. To avoid this, programs with comments and source on the same line should be formatted so
that language statements appear before comments.
The command catches interrupt and terminate signals, and if in the insertion phase, terminates what it is doing.
Options available with are the following:
-I ignorefile Ignore the functions listed in the specified file (next argument).
-n Does not touch files and sends error messages to the standard output.
-q Prompts before touching the source file. A ``y'' or ``n'' to the question is necessary to continue. Absence of the -q
option implies that all referenced files (except those referring to discarded error messages) are to be touched.
-S Shows error in unsorted order from the error file.
-s Displays statistics for each error type.
-T Terse output.
-t suffixlist Does not touch those files that match the specified suffix. The suffix list is dot separated, and ``*'' wildcards
work. Thus the suffix list:
allows error to touch files ending with ``.c'', ``.y'', ``.foo*'' and ``.h''.
-v Invokes the editor on each file that had been touched.
Opens the teletype directly to do user querying.
Source files with links make a new copy of the file with only one link to it.
Changing a language processor's format of error messages may cause to not understand the error message.
The command, since it is purely mechanical, does not filter out subsequent errors caused by `floodgating' initiated by one syntactically
Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected (error puts them before). The alignment of the `|' marking the point of error is
also disturbed by
The command was designed for work on CRT's at reasonably high speed. It does not work as well on slow speed terminals, and has never been
used on hard-copy terminals.
function names to ignore for lint error messages