PI(1) General Commands Manual PI(1)NAME
pi - Pascal interpreter code translator
pi [ -blnpstuwz ] [ -i name ... ] name.p
Pi translates the program in the file name.p leaving interpreter code in the file obj in the current directory. The interpreter code can
be executed using px. Pix performs the functions of pi and px for `load and go' Pascal.
The following flags are interpreted by pi; the associated options can also be controlled in comments within the program as described in the
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual.
-b Block buffer the file output.
-i Enable the listing for any specified procedures and functions and while processing any specified include files.
-l Make a program listing during translation.
-n Begin each listed include file on a new page with a banner line.
-p Suppress the post-mortem control flow backtrace if an error occurs; suppress statement limit counting.
-s Accept standard Pascal only; non-standard constructs cause warning diagnostics.
-t Suppress runtime tests of subrange variables and treat assert statements as comments.
-u Card image mode; only the first 72 characters of input lines are used.
-w Suppress warning diagnostics.
-z Allow execution profiling with pxp by generating statement counters, and arranging for the creation of the profile data file pmon.out
when the resulting object is executed.
file.p input file
file.i include file(s)
/usr/share/pascal/pi_stringstext of the error messages
/usr/share/pascal/how_pi*basic usage explanation
obj interpreter code output
Berkeley Pascal User's Manual
pcc(1), pix(1), px(1), pxp(1), pxref(1)DIAGNOSTICS
For a basic explanation do
In the diagnostic output of the translator, lines containing syntax errors are listed with a flag indicating the point of error. Diagnos-
tic messages indicate the action which the recovery mechanism took in order to be able to continue parsing. Some diagnostics indicate only
that the input is `malformed.' This occurs if the recovery can find no simple correction to make the input syntactically valid.
Semantic error diagnostics indicate a line in the source text near the point of error. Some errors evoke more than one diagnostic to help
pinpoint the error; the follow-up messages begin with an ellipsis `...'.
The first character of each error message indicates its class:
EFatal error; no code will be generated.
wWarning - a potential problem.
sNon-standard Pascal construct warning.
If a severe error occurs which inhibits further processing, the translator will give a diagnostic and then `QUIT'.
Charles B. Haley, William N. Joy, and Ken Thompson
Formal parameters which are procedures and functions are not supported.
The keyword packed and the function dispose are recognized but have no effect.
For clarity, semantic errors should be flagged at an appropriate place in the source text, and multiple instances of the `same' semantic
error should be summarized at the end of a procedure or function rather than evoking many diagnostics.
When include files are present, diagnostics relating to the last procedure in one file may appear after the beginning of the listing of the
3rd Berkeley DistributionPI(1)
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error(1) General Commands Manual error(1)NAME
error - Analyzes and disperses compiler error messages
error [-n] [-q] [-s] [-v] [-t suffix_list] [-I ignore_file] [file]
The error program analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages produced by a number of compilers and language processors
to the source file and line where the errors occurred.
Takes the names of functions to ignore from ignore_file. If the -I option is not specified, the function names are taken from a file named
in the user's home directory. If this file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. Function names must be listed one per line in
ignore_file or in the file. Does not touch any files; all error messages are sent to the standard output. Queries the user whether or not
to touch the file. You must enter y or n, or the locale's equivalent of an affirmative or negative response, before continuing. If you do
not specify the -q option, all referenced files (except those referring to discarded error messages) are touched by default. Prints out
statistics regarding the error categorization. Does not touch files whose suffixes do not appear suffix_list. The suffix list is dot-sepa-
rated, and * wildcards may be used. For example, the suffix list allows error to touch files ending with and Overlays and sets up the vis-
ual editor vi to edit all files touched, and positions the editor at the first error in the first touched file. If vi cannot be found, try
ex or ed from standard places.
Using the error program can replace the painful, traditional methods of scribbling abbreviations of errors on paper, and permits error mes-
sages and source code to be viewed simultaneously without machinations of multiple windows in a screen editor.
The error program looks at the error messages, either from the specified file file or from the standard input, and performs the following
operations: Attempts to determine which language processor produced each error message. Determines the source file and line number to
which the error message refers. Determines if the error message is to be ignored or not. Inserts the (possibly slightly modified) error
message into the source file as a comment on the line preceding to which the line the error message refers. Sends error messages that can-
not be categorized by language processor or content to the standard output; does not insert these error messages into any file.
The error program touches source files only after all input has been read.
The error program is intended to be run with its standard input connected via a pipe to the error message source. Some language processors
put error messages on their standard error file; others put their messages on the standard output. Hence, both error sources should be
piped together into error. For example, when using the csh syntax, the following command line analyzes all the error messages produced by
whatever programs make runs when making lint: make -s lint | error -q -v
The error program knows about the error messages produced by the following programs: as cc ccom cpp f77 ld lint make pc pi
The error program knows a standard format for error messages produced by the language processors, so is sensitive to changes in these for-
mats. For all languages except Pascal, error messages are restricted to be on one line. Some error messages refer to more than one line in
more than one file; error duplicates the error message and inserts it at all of the places referenced.
The error program does one of six things with error messages: Some language processors produce short errors describing which file it is
processing. The error program uses these to determine the file name for languages that do not include the file name in each error message.
These synchronization messages are consumed entirely by error. Error messages from lint that refer to one of the two lint libraries,
/usr/libdata/lint/llib-lc and /usr/libdata/lint/llib-port are discarded, to prevent accidentally touching these libraries. Again, these
error messages are consumed entirely by error. Error messages from lint can be nullified if they refer to a specific function, which is
known to generate diagnostics which are not interesting. Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file, but are written to
the standard output. The names of lint functions to ignore are taken from either the file named in the user's home directory, or from the
file named by the -I option. If the file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. If the file does exist, there must be one func-
tion name per line. Error messages that cannot be "intuited" are grouped together, and written to the standard output before any files are
touched. These messages are not inserted into any source file. Error message that refer to a specific file, but to no specific line, are
written to the standard output when that file is touched. Error messages that can be "intuited" are candidates for insertion into the file
to which they refer.
Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into the file to which they refer. Other error messages are consumed entirely by
error or are written to the standard output. The error program inserts the error messages into the source file on the line preceding the
line the language processor found in error. Each error message is turned into a one-line comment for the language, and is internally
flagged with the string ### at the beginning of the error, and %%% at the end of the error. This makes pattern searching for errors easier
with an editor, and allows the messages to be easily removed. In addition, each error message contains the source line number for the line
to which the message refers. A reasonably formatted source program can be recompiled with the error messages still in it, without having
the error messages themselves cause future errors. For poorly formatted source programs in free format languages, such as C or Pascal, it
is possible to insert a comment into another comment, which can wreak havoc with a future compilation. To avoid this, programs with com-
ments and source on the same line should be formatted so that language statements appear before comments.
The error program catches interrupt and terminate signals, and if in the insertion phase, will orderly terminate what it is doing.
Opens the teletype directly to do user querying. Source files with links make a new copy of the file with only one link to it. Changing a
language processor's format of error messages may cause error to not understand the error message. The error program, since it is purely
mechanical, does not filter out subsequent errors caused by "floodgating" initiated by one syntactically trivial error. Humans are still
much better at discarding these related errors. Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected (error puts them before). The
alignment of the \ marking the point of error is also disturbed by error. error was designed for work on CRTs at reasonably high speed.
It is less pleasant on slow speed terminals, and has never been used on hardcopy terminals.
Function names to ignore for lint error messages. User's teletype.