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XSERVER(1)									       XSERVER(1)

NAME
       Xserver - X Window System display server

SYNOPSIS
       X [option ...]

DESCRIPTION
       X  is the generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is frequently a link or
       a copy of the appropriate server binary for driving the most frequently used server  on	a
       given machine.

STARTING THE SERVER
       The  X  server  is  usually started from the X Display Manager program xdm(1) or a similar
       display manager program.  This utility is run from the system boot files and takes care of
       keeping	the  server  running,  prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up the
       user sessions.

       Installations that run more than one window system may need to use  the	xinit(1)  utility
       instead	of  a  display	manager.   However, xinit is to be considered a tool for building
       startup scripts and is not intended  for  use  by  end  users.	Site  administrators  are
       strongly urged to use a display manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be  started directly by the user, though this method is usually
       reserved for testing and is not recommended for normal operation.  On some platforms,  the
       user  must  have special permission to start the X server, often because access to certain
       devices (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When the X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If you are running on a
       workstation  whose  console  is	the  display, you may not be able to log into the console
       while the server is running.

OPTIONS
       Many X servers have device-specific command line options.  See the manual  pages  for  the
       individual servers for more details; a list of server-specific manual pages is provided in
       the SEE ALSO section below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options described below.  Some X servers  may
       have  alternative ways of providing the parameters described here, but the values provided
       via the command line options should override values specified via other mechanisms.

       :displaynumber
	       The X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default is 0.  If  multiple
	       X  servers  are	to  run simultaneously on a host, each must have a unique display
	       number.	See the DISPLAY NAMES section of the X(7) manual page  to  learn  how  to
	       specify which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
	       sets  pointer acceleration (i.e. the ratio of how much is reported to how much the
	       user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables access by  any  host,  and
	       permits	any  host  to  modify the access control list.	Use with extreme caution.
	       This option exists primarily for running test suites remotely.

       -audit level
	       sets the audit trail level.  The default  level	is  1,	meaning  only  connection
	       rejections  are reported.  Level 2 additionally reports all successful connections
	       and disconnects.  Level	4  enables  messages  from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if
	       present,  including  generation and revocation of authorizations and violations of
	       the security policy.  Level 0 turns off the audit trail.  Audit lines are sent  as
	       standard error output.

       -auth authorization-file
	       specifies  a  file  which  contains  a collection of authorization records used to
	       authenticate access.  See also the xdm(1) and Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.

       -br     sets the default root window to solid black instead of  the  standard  root  weave
	       pattern.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
	       sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -cc class
	       sets the visual class for the root window of color screens.  The class numbers are
	       as specified in the X protocol.	Not obeyed by all servers.

       -co filename
	       sets name of RGB color database.  The default is /usr/local/share/X11/rgb.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
	       specifies the types of fonts for which the server should attempt to  use  deferred
	       glyph  loading.	whichfonts can be all (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit
	       fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
	       sets the resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be used when the server
	       cannot determine the screen size(s) from the hardware.

       dpms    enables	DPMS  (display	power management services), where supported.  The default
	       state is platform and configuration specific.

       -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default state is  platform
	       and configuration specific.

       -extensionextensionName
	       disables  named	extension.   If an unknown extension name is specified, a list of
	       accepted extension names is printed.

       +extensionextensionName
	       enables named extension.   If an unknown extension name is specified,  a  list  of
	       accepted extension names is printed.

       -f volume
	       sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
	       sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
	       sets the default font.

       -fp fontPath
	       sets  the  search path for fonts.  This path is a comma separated list of directo-
	       ries which the X server searches for font databases.  See  the  FONTS  section  of
	       this manual page for more information and the default list.

       -help   prints a usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
	       sets the maximum big request to size MB.

       -nolisten trans-type
	       disables  a  transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can be disabled with
	       -nolisten tcp.  This option may be issued multiple times to disable  listening  to
	       different transport types.

       -noreset
	       prevents a server reset when the last client connection is closed.  This overrides
	       a previous -terminate command line option.

       -p minutes
	       sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish all of  its  well-
	       known sockets (connection points for clients), but establishes at least one.  This
	       option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all of its  well-known  sockets
	       (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on auto-repeat.

       -retro  starts the stipple with the classic stipple and cursor visible.	The default is to
	       start with a black root window, and to suppress display of the  cursor  until  the
	       first  time  an application calls XDefineCursor().  For the Xorg server, this also
	       changes the default for the DontZap option to FALSE.   For  kdrive  servers,  this
	       implies -zap.

       -s minutes
	       sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables save under support on all screens.

       -t number
	       sets  pointer acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e. after how many pixels pointer
	       acceleration should take effect).

       -terminate
	       causes the server to terminate at server reset,	instead  of  continuing  to  run.
	       This overrides a previous -noreset command line option.

       -to seconds
	       sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST, XTrap, XTestExtension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces the default backing-store of all windows to be WhenMapped.  This is a back-
	       door way of getting backing-store to apply to all windows.   Although  all  mapped
	       windows will have backing store, the backing store attribute value reported by the
	       server for a window will be the last value established by a  client.   If  it  has
	       never  been  set by a client, the server will report the default value, NotUseful.
	       This behavior is required by the X protocol, which allows the server to exceed the
	       client's  backing store expectations but does not provide a way to tell the client
	       that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets the default root window to solid white instead of  the  standard  root  weave
	       pattern.

       -x extension
	       loads the specified extension at init.  This is a no-op for most implementations.

       [+-]xinerama
	       enables(+)  or  disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The default state is platform
	       and configuration specific.

SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS
       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
	       sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number of  kilobytes.	A
	       value  of  zero makes the data size as large as possible.  The default value of -1
	       leaves the data space limit unchanged.

       -lf files
	       sets the number-of-open-files limit of the server  to  the  specified  number.	A
	       value  of  zero	makes  the  limit  as large as possible.  The default value of -1
	       leaves the limit unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
	       sets the stack space limit of the server to the specified number of kilobytes.	A
	       value  of zero makes the stack size as large as possible.  The default value of -1
	       leaves the stack space limit unchanged.

       -logo   turns on the X Window System logo display in the screen-saver.  There is currently
	       no way to change this from a client.

       nologo  turns  off  the	X  Window System logo display in the screen-saver.  There is cur-
	       rently no way to change this from a client.

       -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation policy that will be used by  the
	       render extension.

	       default selects the default policy defined for the display depth of the X server.

	       mono    don't use any color cell.

	       gray    use a gray map of 13 color cells for the X render extension.

	       color   use a color cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64 color cells).

       -dumbSched
	       disables smart scheduling on platforms that support the smart scheduler.

       -schedInterval interval
	       sets the smart scheduler's scheduling interval to interval milliseconds.

XDMCP OPTIONS
       X  servers  that support XDMCP have the following options.  See the X Display Manager Con-
       trol Protocol specification for more information.

       -query hostname
	       enables XDMCP and sends Query packets to the specified hostname.

       -broadcast
	       enable XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets  to  the  network.   The  first
	       responding display manager will be chosen for the session.

       -multicast [address [hop count]]
	       Enable  XDMCP  and  multicast  BroadcastQuery  packets to the  network.	The first
	       responding display manager is chosen for the session.  If an address is specified,
	       the  multicast is sent to that address.	If no address is specified, the multicast
	       is sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count  is  specified,
	       it  is used as the maximum hop count for the multicast.	If no hop count is speci-
	       fied, the multicast is set to a maximum of 1 hop, to prevent  the  multicast  from
	       being routed beyond the local network.

       -indirect hostname
	       enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to the specified hostname.

       -port port-number
	       uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of the default.  This
	       option must be specified before any -query, -broadcast, -multicast,  or	-indirect
	       options.

       -from local-address
	       specifies  the  local  address  to connect from (useful if the connecting host has
	       multiple network interfaces).  The local-address may  be  expressed  in	any  form
	       acceptable to the host platform's gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes the server to terminate (rather than reset) when the XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
	       XDMCP has an additional display qualifier used in resource lookup for display-spe-
	       cific options.  This option sets that value, by default	it  is	"MIT-Unspecified"
	       (not a very useful value).

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
	       When  testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1, a private key is shared between the server and
	       the manager.  This option sets the value of that private data (not that it is very
	       private, being on the command line!).

       -displayID display-id
	       Yet  another XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display manager to identify
	       each display so that it can locate the shared key.

XKEYBOARD OPTIONS
       X servers that support  the  XKEYBOARD  (a.k.a.	"XKB")	extension  accept  the	following
       options.   All  layout files specified on the command line must be located in the XKB base
       directory or a subdirectory, and specified as the relative path from the XKB  base  direc-
       tory.  The default XKB base directory is /usr/local/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]kb  enables(+) or disables(-) the XKEYBOARD extension.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ] ] ] ]
	       enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
	       base directory for keyboard layout files.  This option is not available for setuid
	       X servers (i.e., when the X server's real and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay milliseconds
	       sets the autorepeat delay (length of time in  milliseconds  that  a  key  must  be
	       depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
	       sets  the  autorepeat  interval (length of time in milliseconds that should elapse
	       between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
	       loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS
       The X server supports client connections via a platform-dependent subset of the	following
       transport  types:  TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets, DECnet, and several varieties of SVR4 local
       connections.  See the DISPLAY NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn how to  spec-
       ify which transport type clients should try to use.

GRANTING ACCESS
       The  X server implements a platform-dependent subset of the following authorization proto-
       cols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-2,  SUN-DES-1,	and  MIT-
       KERBEROS-5.   See  the  Xsecurity(7) manual page for information on the operation of these
       protocols.

       Authorization data required by the above protocols is passed to the server  in  a  private
       file  named  with  the -auth command line option.  Each time the server is about to accept
       the first connection after a reset (or when the server is starting), it reads  this  file.
       If  this  file  contains  any  authorization  records, the local host is not automatically
       allowed access to the server, and only clients which send one of the authorization records
       contained in the file in the connection setup information will be allowed access.  See the
       Xau manual page for a description of the binary format of this  file.   See  xauth(1)  for
       maintenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.

       The  X  server  also  uses a host-based access control list for deciding whether or not to
       accept connections from clients on a particular machine.  If no other authorization mecha-
       nism  is  being used, this list initially consists of the host on which the server is run-
       ning as well as any machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the display num-
       ber of the server.  Each line of the file should contain either an Internet hostname (e.g.
       expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a DECnet hostname in double colon format (e.g. hydra::) or a complete
       name  in the format family:name as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There should be
       no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:

	       joesworkstation
	       corporate.company.com
	       star::
	       inet:bigcpu
	       local:

       Users can add or remove hosts from this list and enable or disable  access  control  using
       the xhost command from the same machine as the server.

       If  the	X FireWall Proxy (xfwp) is being used without a sitepolicy, host-based authoriza-
       tion must be turned on for clients to be able to connect to the X server via the xfwp.  If
       xfwp  is  run  without  a configuration file and thus no sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is
       using an X server where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based authorization  checks,
       when  a client tries to connect to this X server via xfwp, the X server will deny the con-
       nection.  See xfwp(1) for more information about this proxy.

       The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of window operation  permissions  or
       place  any restrictions on what a client can do; if a program can connect to a display, it
       has full run of the screen.  X servers that support the	SECURITY  extension  fare  better
       because clients can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to connect; see
       the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions are imposed on untrusted clients  that
       curtail the mischief they can do.  See the SECURITY extension specification for a complete
       list of these restrictions.

       Sites that have better authentication and authorization systems might wish to make use  of
       the hooks in the libraries and the server to provide additional security models.

SIGNALS
       The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This  signal  causes  the  server  to  close  all  existing  connections, free all
	       resources, and restore all defaults.  It is sent by the display	manager  whenever
	       the  main  user's  main	application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to
	       force the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.	When  the  server
	       starts,	it  checks  to	see if it has inherited SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the
	       usual SIG_DFL.  In this case, the server sends a SIGUSR1  to  its  parent  process
	       after it has set up the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses this feature to rec-
	       ognize when connecting to the server is possible.

FONTS
       The X server can obtain fonts from directories and/or from  font  servers.   The  list  of
       directories and font servers the X server uses when trying to open a font is controlled by
       the font path.

       The default font path  is  /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/misc/,  /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/,
       /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/OTF,				 /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/,
       /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/, /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/ .

       A special kind of directory can be specified  using  the  catalogue:  prefix.  Directories
       specified  this	way  can  contain symlinks pointing to the real font directories. See the
       FONTPATH.D section for details.

       The font path can be set with the -fp option or by xset(1) after the server has started.

FONTPATH.D
       You can specify a special kind of font path in the form	catalogue:<dir>.   The	directory
       specified after the catalogue: prefix will be scanned for symlinks and each symlink desti-
       nation will be added as a local fontfile FPE.

       The symlink can be suffixed by attributes such as 'unscaled', which will be passed through
       to  the	underlying  fontfile  FPE.  The  only  exception  is  the  newly introduced 'pri'
       attribute, which will be used for ordering the font paths specified by the symlinks.

       An example configuration:

	   75dpi:unscaled:pri=20 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi
	   ghostscript:pri=60 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
	   misc:unscaled:pri=10 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
	   type1:pri=40 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
	   type1:pri=50 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1

       This will add /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc as the first FPE with the attribute the	attribute
       unscaled etc. This is functionally equivalent to setting the following font path:

	   /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled,
	   /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,
	   /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1,
	   /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1,
	   /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript

FILES
       /etc/Xn.hosts		     Initial access control list for display number n

       /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/misc,/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi,/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi
				     Bitmap font directories

       /usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/TTF,/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/Type1
				     Outline font directories

       /usr/local/share/X11/rgb.txt  Color database

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn	     Unix domain socket for display number n

       /tmp/rcXn		     Kerberos 5 replay cache for display number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs		     Error log file for display number n if run from init(8)

       /usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-errors
				     Default error log file if the server is run from xdm(1)

SEE ALSO
       General information: X(7)

       Protocols: X Window System Protocol, The X Font Service Protocol, X Display  Manager  Con-
       trol Protocol

       Fonts:	bdftopcf(1),  mkfontdir(1),  mkfontscale(1),  xfs(1),  xlsfonts(1),  xfontsel(1),
       xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Security: Xsecurity(7), xauth(1), Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1),  xfwp(1),  Security	Extension
       Specification

       Starting the server: xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started: xset(1), xsetroot(1), xhost(1)

       Server-specific man pages: Xorg(1), Xdmx(1), Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), XDarwin(1), XWin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the Porting Layer for the X v11 Sample Server

AUTHORS
       The  sample  server  was  originally  written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond Drewry, Philip
       Karlton, and Todd Newman, from Digital Equipment Corporation, with support  from  a  large
       cast.   It  has	since been extensively rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from
       MIT.  Dave Wiggins took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.

X Version 11				xorg-server 1.6.0			       XSERVER(1)
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