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X11R7.4 - man page for xauth (x11r4 section 1)

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XAUTH(1)										 XAUTH(1)

NAME
       xauth - X authority file utility

SYNOPSIS
       xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqibn ] [ command arg ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  xauth  program is used to edit and display the authorization information used in con-
       necting to the X server.  This program is usually used to  extract  authorization  records
       from  one machine and merge them in on another (as is the case when using remote logins or
       granting access to other users).  Commands (described below) may be entered interactively,
       on  the	xauth command line, or in scripts.  Note that this program does not contact the X
       server except when the generate command is used.  Normally xauth is not used to create the
       authority file entry in the first place; xdm does that.

OPTIONS
       The  following  options	may be used with xauth.  They may be given individually (e.g., -q
       -i) or may combined (e.g., -qi).

       -f authfile
	       This option specifies the name of the authority file to use.   By  default,  xauth
	       will  use the file specified by the XAUTHORITY environment variable or .Xauthority
	       in the user's home directory.

       -q      This option indicates that xauth should operate quietly and not print  unsolicited
	       status  messages.  This is the default if an xauth command is given on the command
	       line or if the standard output is not directed to a terminal.

       -v      This option indicates that xauth should operate verbosely and  print  status  mes-
	       sages  indicating  the  results of various operations (e.g., how many records have
	       been read in or written out).  This is the default if xauth  is	reading  commands
	       from its standard input and its standard output is directed to a terminal.

       -i      This  option  indicates	that  xauth should ignore any authority file locks.  Nor-
	       mally, xauth will refuse to read or edit any authority files that have been locked
	       by other programs (usually xdm or another xauth).

       -b      This  option indicates that xauth should attempt to break any authority file locks
	       before proceeding.  Use this option only to clean up stale locks.

       -n      This option indicates that xauth should not attempt to resolve any hostnames,  but
	       should simply always print the host address as stored in the authority file.

COMMANDS
       The following commands may be used to manipulate authority files:

       add displayname protocolname hexkey
	       An  authorization entry for the indicated display using the given protocol and key
	       data is added to the authorization file.   The  data  is  specified  as	an  even-
	       lengthed  string  of  hexadecimal  digits,  each pair representing one octet.  The
	       first digit of each pair gives the most significant 4 bits of the octet,  and  the
	       second  digit  of  the pair gives the least significant 4 bits.	For example, a 32
	       character hexkey would represent a 128-bit value.  A protocol name  consisting  of
	       just a single period is treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

       generate displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
	       [timeout seconds] [group group-id] [data hexdata]

	       This  command is similar to add.  The main difference is that instead of requiring
	       the user to supply the key data, it connects to the server specified  in  display-
	       name  and uses the SECURITY extension in order to get the key data to store in the
	       authorization file.  If the server cannot be contacted or if it does  not  support
	       the  SECURITY extension, the command fails.  Otherwise, an authorization entry for
	       the indicated display using the given protocol is added to the authorization file.
	       A  protocol  name consisting of just a single period is treated as an abbreviation
	       for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

	       If the trusted option is used, clients that connect using this authorization  will
	       have  full  run of the display, as usual.  If untrusted is used, clients that con-
	       nect using this authorization will be  considered  untrusted  and  prevented  from
	       stealing  or  tampering	with data belonging to trusted clients.  See the SECURITY
	       extension specification for full details on the restrictions imposed on	untrusted
	       clients.  The default is untrusted.

	       The timeout option specifies how long in seconds this authorization will be valid.
	       If the authorization remains unused (no clients are connected with it) for  longer
	       than this time period, the server purges the authorization, and future attempts to
	       connect using it will fail.  Note that the purging done by  the	server	does  not
	       delete  the  authorization entry from the authorization file.  The default timeout
	       is 60 seconds.

	       The group option specifies the application group that clients connecting with this
	       authorization should belong to.	See the application group extension specification
	       for more details.  The default is to not belong to an application group.

	       The data option specifies data that the server should use to generate  the  autho-
	       rization.  Note that this is not the same data that gets written to the authoriza-
	       tion file.  The interpretation of this data depends on the authorization protocol.
	       The hexdata is in the same format as the hexkey described in the add command.  The
	       default is to send no data.

       [n]extract filename displayname...
	       Authorization entries for each of the specified displays are written to the  indi-
	       cated file.  If the nextract command is used, the entries are written in a numeric
	       format suitable for non-binary transmission (such as secure electronic mail).  The
	       extracted entries can be read back in using the merge and nmerge commands.  If the
	       filename consists of just a single dash, the entries will be written to the  stan-
	       dard output.

       [n]list [displayname...]
	       Authorization  entries  for  each of the specified displays (or all if no displays
	       are named) are printed on the standard output.  If  the	nlist  command	is  used,
	       entries	will  be shown in the numeric format used by the nextract command; other-
	       wise, they are shown in a textual format.  Key data is  always  displayed  in  the
	       hexadecimal format given in the description of the add command.

       [n]merge [filename...]
	       Authorization  entries  are  read from the specified files and are merged into the
	       authorization database, superceding any matching existing entries. If  the  nmerge
	       command	is  used, the numeric format given in the description of the extract com-
	       mand is used.  If a filename consists of just a single dash,  the  standard  input
	       will be read if it hasn't been read before.

       remove displayname...
	       Authorization entries matching the specified displays are removed from the author-
	       ity file.

       source filename
	       The specified file is treated as a script containing xauth  commands  to  execute.
	       Blank  lines and lines beginning with a sharp sign (#) are ignored.  A single dash
	       may be used to indicate the standard input, if it hasn't already been read.

       info    Information describing the authorization file, whether or  not  any  changes  have
	       been made, and from where xauth commands are being read is printed on the standard
	       output.

       exit    If any modifications have been  made,  the  authority  file  is	written  out  (if
	       allowed),  and  the  program exits.  An end of file is treated as an implicit exit
	       command.

       quit    The program exits, ignoring any modifications.  This may also be  accomplished  by
	       pressing the interrupt character.

       help [string]
	       A description of all commands that begin with the given string (or all commands if
	       no string is given) is printed on the standard output.

       ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on the standard output.

DISPLAY NAMES
       Display names for the add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge, and remove commands use the same
       format  as the DISPLAY environment variable and the common -display command line argument.
       Display-specific information (such as the  screen  number)  is  unnecessary  and  will  be
       ignored.   Same-machine	connections  (such  as local-host sockets, shared memory, and the
       Internet Protocol hostname localhost) are referred to  as  hostname/unix:displaynumber  so
       that local entries for different machines may be stored in one authority file.

EXAMPLE
       The  most common use for xauth is to extract the entry for the current display, copy it to
       another machine, and merge it into the user's authority file on the remote machine:

	       %  xauth extract - $DISPLAY | rsh otherhost xauth merge -

       The following command contacts the server :0 to create an  authorization  using	the  MIT-
       MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.  Clients that connect with this authorization will be untrusted.
	    %  xauth generate :0 .

ENVIRONMENT
       This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

       XAUTHORITY
	       to get the name of the authority file to use if the -f option isn't used.

       HOME    to get the user's home directory if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

FILES
       $HOME/.Xauthority
	       default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

BUGS
       Users  that  have unsecure networks should take care to use encrypted file transfer mecha-
       nisms to copy authorization entries between machines.  Similarly,  the  MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
       protocol  is not very useful in unsecure environments.  Sites that are interested in addi-
       tional security may need to use encrypted authorization mechanisms such as Kerberos.

       Spaces are currently not allowed in the protocol name.  Quoting could  be  added  for  the
       truly perverse.

AUTHOR
       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11				   xauth 1.0.3					 XAUTH(1)
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