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X11R7.4 - man page for perlmodinstall (x11r4 section 1)

PERLMODINSTALL(1)		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		PERLMODINSTALL(1)

NAME
       perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION
       You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reusable Perl code; see perlmod for
       details.  Whenever anyone creates a chunk of Perl code that they think will be useful to
       the world, they register as a Perl developer at http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html
       so that they can then upload their code to the CPAN.  The CPAN is the Comprehensive Perl
       Archive Network and can be accessed at http://www.cpan.org/ , and searched at
       http://search.cpan.org/ .

       This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN modules and install them on
       their own computer.

       PREAMBLE

       First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your system?  Try "perl -MFoo -e 1".
       (Replace "Foo" with the name of the module; for instance, "perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1".

       If you don't see an error message, you have the module.	(If you do see an error message,
       it's still possible you have the module, but that it's not in your path, which you can
       display with "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"".)  For the remainder of this document, we'll
       assume that you really honestly truly lack an installed module, but have found it on the
       CPAN.

       So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip).  You know there's a tasty
       module inside.  There are four steps you must now take:

       DECOMPRESS the file
       UNPACK the file into a directory
       BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
       INSTALL the module.

       Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.  This is <not> a substitute for
       reading the README and INSTALL files that might have come with your module!

       Also note that these instructions are tailored for installing the module into your sys-
       tem's repository of Perl modules -- but you can install modules into any directory you
       wish.  For instance, where I say "perl Makefile.PL", you can substitute "perl Makefile.PL
       PREFIX=/my/perl_directory" to install the modules into "/my/perl_directory".  Then you can
       use the modules from your Perl programs with "use lib "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl";"
       or sometimes just "use "/my/perl_directory";".  If you're on a system that requires supe-
       ruser/root access to install modules into the directories you see when you type "perl -e
       "print qq(@INC)"", you'll want to install them into a local directory (such as your home
       directory) and use this approach.

       o   If you're on a Unix or Unix-like system,

	   You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module ( http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN
	   ) to automate the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

	   Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk space:

		gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -

	   B. UNPACK

	   Unpack the result with "tar -xof yourmodule.tar"

	   C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test

	   or

		 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory

	   to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this, you'll have to put "use lib
	   "/my/perl_directory";" near the top of the program that is to use this module.

	   D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		 make install

	   Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to install the module in your Perl 5
	   library directory.  Often, you'll need to be root.

	   That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic linking.  Most Unix systems
	   have dynamic linking -- if yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a stati-
	   cally-linked perl, and the module requires compilation, you'll need to build a new
	   Perl binary that includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be root.

       o   If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux, Solaris)

	   First, type "ppm" from a shell and see whether ActiveState's PPM repository has your
	   module.  If so, you can install it with "ppm" and you won't have to bother with any of
	   the other steps here.  You might be able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix
	   or Linux" section above as well; give it a try.  Otherwise, you'll have to follow the
	   steps below.

	      A. DECOMPRESS

	   You can use the shareware Winzip ( http://www.winzip.com ) to decompress and unpack
	   modules.

	      B. UNPACK

	   If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

	      C. BUILD

	   You'll need the "nmake" utility, available at http://download.microsoft.com/down-
	   load/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe or dmake, available on CPAN.
	   http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/

	   Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have files that end in .xs, .c, .h,
	   .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?  If it does, life is now officially tough for you, because you
	   have to compile the module yourself -- no easy feat on Windows.  You'll need a com-
	   piler such as Visual C++.  Alternatively, you can download a pre-built PPM package
	   from ActiveState.  http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 nmake test

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		 nmake install

       o   If you're using a Macintosh with "Classic" MacOS and MacPerl,

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distribution (
	   http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ), which has utilities for doing all of the
	   steps.  Read the cpan-mac directions carefully and install it.  If you choose not to
	   use cpan-mac for some reason, there are alternatives listed here.

	   After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on the untarzipme droplet, which
	   will decompress and unpack for you.

	   Or, you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander program ( http://www.aladdin-
	   sys.com/expander/ ) in combination with DropStuff with Expander Enhancer (
	   http://www.aladdinsys.com/dropstuff/ ) or the freeware MacGzip program ( http://perse-
	   phone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html ).

	   B. UNPACK

	   If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive should be extracted now.	Or, you
	   can use the freeware suntar or Tar ( http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Ar-
	   chive/cmp/ ).

	   C. BUILD

	   Check the contents of the distribution.  Read the module's documentation, looking for
	   reasons why you might have trouble using it with MacPerl.  Look for .xs and .c files,
	   which normally denote that the distribution must be compiled, and you cannot install
	   it "out of the box."  (See "PORTABILITY".)

	   If a module does not work on MacPerl but should, or needs to be compiled, see if the
	   module exists already as a port on the MacPerl Module Porters site (
	   http://pudge.net/mmp/ ).  For more information on doing XS with MacPerl yourself, see
	   Arved Sandstrom's XS tutorial ( http://macperl.com/depts/Tutorials/ ), and then con-
	   sider uploading your binary to the CPAN and registering it on the MMP site.

	   D. INSTALL

	   If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the installme droplet, and use the
	   module.

	   Or, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.

	   Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac format, not Unix format.  If they
	   are not then you might have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check your decompression
	   and unpacking utilities settings to make sure they are translating text files prop-
	   erly.

	   As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

	       perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>

	   on the source files.

	   Then move the files (probably just the .pm files, though there may be some additional
	   ones, too; check the module documentation) to their final destination: This will most
	   likely be in "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" (i.e., "HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:").  You can
	   add new paths to the default @INC in the Preferences menu item in the MacPerl applica-
	   tion ("$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" is added automagically).  Create whatever directory
	   structures are required (i.e., for "Some::Module", create
	   "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:" and put "Module.pm" in that directory).

	   Then run the following script (or something like it):

		#!perl -w
		use AutoSplit;
		my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
		autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);

       o   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,

	      A. DECOMPRESS

	   djtarx ( ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/v2/ ) will both uncompress and
	   unpack.

	      B. UNPACK

	   See above.

	      C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		make install

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

       o   If you're on OS/2,

	   Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either Hobbes (
	   http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo ( http://www.leo.org ), and then follow the instruc-
	   tions for Unix.

       o   If you're on VMS,

	   When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a ".tgz" extension instead of
	   ".tar.gz".  All other periods in the filename should be replaced with underscores.
	   For example, "Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz" should be downloaded as "Your-Module-1_33.tgz".

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Type

	       gzip -d Your-Module.tgz

	   or, for zipped modules, type

	       unzip Your-Module.zip

	   Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:

	       http://www.openvms.digital.com/freeware/
	       http://www.crinoid.com/utils/

	   and their source code:

	       http://www.fsf.org/order/ftp.html

	   Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-ZIP's zip/unzip package.  The for-
	   mer is a simple compression tool; the latter permits creation of multi-file archives.

	   B. UNPACK

	   If you're using VMStar:

		VMStar xf Your-Module.tar

	   Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:

		tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar

	   C. BUILD

	   Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware MMK ( available from MadGoat at
	   http://www.madgoat.com ).  Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the module:

	       perl Makefile.PL

	   Now you're ready to build:

	       mms test

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

	   D. INSTALL

	   Type

	       mms install

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

       o   If you're on MVS,

	   Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't translate from ASCII to
	   EBCDIC.

	   A. DECOMPRESS

	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html

	   B. UNPACK

	   Unpack the result with

		pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar

	   The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for Unix.  Some modules generate
	   Makefiles that work better with GNU make, which is available from
	   http://www.mks.com/s390/gnu/

PORTABILITY
       Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.  See perlport for more informa-
       tion on portability issues.  Read the documentation to see if the module will work on your
       system.	There are basically three categories of modules that will not work "out of the
       box" with all platforms (with some possibility of overlap):

       o   Those that should, but don't.  These need to be fixed; consider contacting the author
	   and possibly writing a patch.

       o   Those that need to be compiled, where the target platform doesn't have compilers read-
	   ily available.  (These modules contain .xs or .c files, usually.)  You might be able
	   to find existing binaries on the CPAN or elsewhere, or you might want to try getting
	   compilers and building it yourself, and then release the binary for other poor souls
	   to use.

       o   Those that are targeted at a specific platform.  (Such as the Win32:: modules.)  If
	   the module is targeted specifically at a platform other than yours, you're out of
	   luck, most likely.

       Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your platform but it doesn't behave as
       you'd expect, or you aren't sure whether or not a module will work under your platform.
       If the module you want isn't listed there, you can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers
       know, you can join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.

	   http://testers.cpan.org/

HEY
       If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me know.  Please don't send me mail
       asking for help on how to install your modules.	There are too many modules, and too few
       Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowledge all your questions.  Contact the
       module author instead, or post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone familiar with
       Perl on your operating system.

AUTHOR
       Jon Orwant

       orwant@medita.mit.edu

       with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help from Brandon Allbery, Charles
       Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick
       Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy,
       Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

       First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights Reserved.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this documentation pro-
       vided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this documentation under
       the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that they are marked clearly as modi-
       fied versions, that the authors' names and title are unchanged (though subtitles and addi-
       tional authors' names may be added), and that the entire resulting derived work is dis-
       tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this documentation into
       another language, under the above conditions for modified versions.

perl v5.8.9				    2007-11-17				PERLMODINSTALL(1)


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