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Unix Version 7 - man page for crash (v7 section 8)

CRASH(8)				       System Manager's Manual					     CRASH(8)

NAME
crash - what to do when the system crashes
DESCRIPTION
This section gives at least a few clues about how to proceed if the system crashes. It can't pretend to be complete. Bringing it back up. If the reason for the crash is not evident (see below for guidance on `evident') you may want to try to dump the system if you feel up to debugging. At the moment a dump can be taken only on mag- tape. With a tape mounted and ready, stop the machine, load address 44, and start. This should write a copy of all of core on the tape with an EOF mark. Caution: Any error is taken to mean the end of core has been reached. This means that you must be sure the ring is in, the tape is ready, and the tape is clean and new. If the dump fails, you can try again, but some of the registers will be lost. See below for what to do with the tape. In restarting after a crash, always bring up the system single-user. This is accomplished by following the directions in boot(8) as modified for your particular installation; a single-user system is indicated by hav- ing a particular value in the switches (173030 unless you've changed init) as the system starts executing. When it is running, perform a dcheck and icheck(1) on all file systems which could have been in use at the time of the crash. If any serious file system problems are found, they should be repaired. When you are sat- isfied with the health of your disks, check and set the date if necessary, then come up multi-user. This is most easily accomplished by changing the single-user value in the switches to something else, then logging out by typing an EOT. To even boot UNIX at all, three files (and the directories leading to them) must be intact. First, the ini- tialization program /etc/init must be present and executable. If it is not, the CPU will loop in user mode at location 6. For init to work correctly, /dev/tty8 and /bin/sh must be present. If either does not exist, the symptom is best described as thrashing. Init will go into a fork/exec loop trying to create a Shell with proper standard input and output. If you cannot get the system to boot, a runnable system must be obtained from a backup medium. The root file system may then be doctored as a mounted file system as described below. If there are any problems with the root file system, it is probably prudent to go to a backup system to avoid working on a mounted file system. Repairing disks. The first rule to keep in mind is that an addled disk should be treated gently; it shouldn't be mounted unless necessary, and if it is very valuable yet in quite bad shape, perhaps it should be dumped before trying surgery on it. This is an area where experience and informed courage count for much. The problems reported by icheck typically fall into two kinds. There can be problems with the free list: duplicates in the free list, or free blocks also in files. These can be cured easily with an icheck -s. If the same block appears in more than one file or if a file contains bad blocks, the files should be deleted, and the free list reconstructed. The best way to delete such a file is to use clri(1), then remove its direc- tory entries. If any of the affected files is really precious, you can try to copy it to another device first. Dcheck may report files which have more directory entries than links. Such situations are potentially danger- ous; clri discusses a special case of the problem. All the directory entries for the file should be removed. If on the other hand there are more links than directory entries, there is no danger of spreading infection, but merely some disk space that is lost for use. It is sufficient to copy the file (if it has any entries and is useful) then use clri on its inode and remove any directory entries that do exist. Finally, there may be inodes reported by dcheck that have 0 links and 0 entries. These occur on the root device when the system is stopped with pipes open, and on other file systems when the system stops with files that have been deleted while still open. A clri will free the inode, and an icheck -s will recover any miss- ing blocks. Why did it crash? UNIX types a message on the console typewriter when it voluntarily crashes. Here is the current list of such messages, with enough information to provide a hope at least of the remedy. The message has the form `panic: ...', possibly accompanied by other information. Left unstated in all cases is the pos- sibility that hardware or software error produced the message in some unexpected way. blkdev The getblk routine was called with a nonexistent major device as argument. Definitely hardware or soft- ware error. devtab Null device table entry for the major device used as argument to getblk. Definitely hardware or software error. iinit An I/O error reading the super-block for the root file system during initialization. out of inodes A mounted file system has no more i-nodes when creating a file. Sorry, the device isn't available; the icheck should tell you. no fs A device has disappeared from the mounted-device table. Definitely hardware or software error. no imt Like `no fs', but produced elsewhere. no inodes The in-core inode table is full. Try increasing NINODE in param.h. Shouldn't be a panic, just a user error. no clock During initialization, neither the line nor programmable clock was found to exist. swap error An unrecoverable I/O error during a swap. Really shouldn't be a panic, but it is hard to fix. unlink - iget The directory containing a file being deleted can't be found. Hardware or software. out of swap space A program needs to be swapped out, and there is no more swap space. It has to be increased. This really shouldn't be a panic, but there is no easy fix. out of text A pure procedure program is being executed, and the table for such things is full. This shouldn't be a panic. trap An unexpected trap has occurred within the system. This is accompanied by three numbers: a `ka6', which is the contents of the segmentation register for the area in which the system's stack is kept; `aps', which is the location where the hardware stored the program status word during the trap; and a `trap type' which encodes which trap occurred. The trap types are: 0 bus error 1 illegal instruction 2 BPT/trace 3 IOT 4 power fail 5 EMT 6 recursive system call (TRAP instruction) 7 11/70 cache parity, or programmed interrupt 10 floating point trap 11 segmentation violation In some of these cases it is possible for octal 20 to be added into the trap type; this indicates that the processor was in user mode when the trap occurred. If you wish to examine the stack after such a trap, either dump the system, or use the console switches to examine core; the required address mapping is described below. Interpreting dumps. All file system problems should be taken care of before attempting to look at dumps. The dump should be read into the file /usr/sys/core; cp(1) will do. At this point, you should execute ps -alxk and who to print the process table and the users who were on at the time of the crash. You should dump ( od(1)) the first 30 bytes of /usr/sys/core. Starting at location 4, the registers R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, SP and KDSA6 (KISA6 for 11/40s) are stored. If the dump had to be restarted, R0 will not be correct. Next, take the value of KA6 (location 022(8) in the dump) multiplied by 0100(8) and dump 01000(8) bytes starting from there. This is the per-process data associated with the process running at the time of the crash. Relabel the addresses 140000 to 141776. R5 is C's frame or display pointer. Stored at (R5) is the old R5 pointing to the previous stack frame. At (R5)+2 is the saved PC of the calling procedure. Trace this calling chain until you obtain an R5 value of 141756, which is where the user's R5 is stored. If the chain is broken, you have to look for a plausible R5, PC pair and continue from there. Each PC should be looked up in the system's name list using adb(1) and its `:' command, to get a reverse calling order. In most cases this procedure will give an idea of what is wrong. A more complete discussion of system debugging is impossible here.
SEE ALSO
clri(1), icheck(1), dcheck(1), boot(8) CRASH(8)


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