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BOOT(8) 										  BOOT(8)

       boot - startup procedures

       A  PDP11/45  and  PDP11/70  UNIX system is started by a two-stage process.  The first is a
       primary bootstrap which is able to read in relatively small stand-alone programs; the sec-
       ond (called boot) is used to read in the system itself.

       The  primary  bootstrap must reside in the otherwise unused block zero of the boot device.
       It can be read in and started by the standard ROM programs, or if necessary by keying in a
       small  startup routine.	This program is capable of loading type 407 executable files (not
       shared, not separate I&D).  The user types on the system console the name of  the  program
       wished,	in  this case boot, followed by a carriage return; the named program is retrieved
       from the file system that starts at block 0 of drive 0 of the boot device.  No  prompt  is
       given,  no  diagnostic  results	if the file cannot be found, and no provision is made for
       correcting typographical errors.

       The second step, called boot, actually brings in the system.  When read	into  location	0
       and executed, boot sets up memory management, relocates itself into high memory, and types
       a `:' on the console.  Then it reads from the console a device specification  (see  below)
       followed  immediately  by  a  pathname.	 Boot  finds  the corresponding file on the given
       device, loads that file into memory location zero, sets up memory management as	required,
       and  calls  the program by executing a `trap' instruction.  Normal line editing characters
       can be used.

       Conventionally, the name of the secondary boot program is `/boot' and the name of the cur-
       rent version of the system is `/unix'.  Then, the recipe is:

       1)     Load  block  0  of the boot device by fiddling with the console keys as appropriate
	      for your hardware.  If you have no appropriate ROM, some programs suitable for man-
	      ual use are given below.

       2)     Type boot.

       3)     When the prompt is given, type
	      depending on whether you are loading from an RP04/5/6 or an RP03 respectively.  The
	      first 0 indicates the physical unit number; the second indicates the  block  number
	      of the beginning of the logical file system to be searched.  (See below).

       When the system is running, it types a `#' prompt.  After doing any file system checks and
       setting the date (date(8)) a multi-user system is brought up by typing an EOT  (control-d)
       in response to the `#' prompt.

       Device specifications.  A device specification has the following form:


       where  device  is  the  type  of the device to be searched, unit is the unit number of the
       device, and offset is the block offset of the file system on the device.  Device is one of
       the following
	    rp	 RP03
	    hp	 RP04/5/6
	    rk	 RK05
       For example, the specification


       indicates an RP03 disk, unit 1, and the file system found starting at block 7000 (cylinder

       ROM programs.  The following programs to call the primary bootstrap may	be  installed  in
       read-only  memories or manually keyed into main memory.	Each program is position-indepen-
       dent but should be placed well above location 0 so it will not be overwritten.  Each reads
       a  block  from the beginning of a device into core location zero.  The octal words consti-
       tuting the program are listed on the left.

       RK (drive 0):
	  012700      mov     $rkda,r0
	  005040      clr     -(r0)	     / rkda cleared by start
	  010040      mov     r0,-(r0)
	  012740      mov     $5,-(r0)
	  105710  1:  tstb    (r0)
	  002376      bge     1b
	  005007      clr     pc

       RP (drive 0)
	  012700      mov     $rpmr,r0
	  005040      clr     -(r0)
	  005040      clr     -(r0)
	  005040      clr     -(r0)
	  010040      mov     r0,-(r0)
	  012740      mov     $5,-(r0)
	  105710  1:  tstb    (r0)
	  002376      bge     1b
	  005007      clr     pc

       /unix - system code
       /usr/mdec/rpuboot, /usr/mdec/hpuboot - copies of primary bootstrap
       /boot - second stage bootstrap


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