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usb_ep_queue(9) [suse man page]

USB_EP_QUEUE(9) 					      Kernel Mode Gadget API						   USB_EP_QUEUE(9)

usb_ep_queue - queues (submits) an I/O request to an endpoint. SYNOPSIS
int usb_ep_queue(struct usb_ep * ep, struct usb_request * req, gfp_t gfp_flags); ARGUMENTS
ep the endpoint associated with the request req the request being submitted gfp_flags GFP_* flags to use in case the lower level driver couldn't pre-allocate all necessary memory with the request. DESCRIPTION
This tells the device controller to perform the specified request through that endpoint (reading or writing a buffer). When the request completes, including being canceled by usb_ep_dequeue, the request's completion routine is called to return the request to the driver. Any endpoint (except control endpoints like ep0) may have more than one transfer request queued; they complete in FIFO order. Once a gadget driver submits a request, that request may not be examined or modified until it is given back to that driver through the completion callback. Each request is turned into one or more packets. The controller driver never merges adjacent requests into the same packet. OUT transfers will sometimes use data that's already buffered in the hardware. Drivers can rely on the fact that the first byte of the request's buffer always corresponds to the first byte of some USB packet, for both IN and OUT transfers. Bulk endpoints can queue any amount of data; the transfer is packetized automatically. The last packet will be short if the request doesn't fill it out completely. Zero length packets (ZLPs) should be avoided in portable protocols since not all usb hardware can successfully handle zero length packets. (ZLPs may be explicitly written, and may be implicitly written if the request 'zero' flag is set.) Bulk endpoints may also be used for interrupt transfers; but the reverse is not true, and some endpoints won't support every interrupt transfer. (Such as 768 byte packets.) Interrupt-only endpoints are less functional than bulk endpoints, for example by not supporting queueing or not handling buffers that are larger than the endpoint's maxpacket size. They may also treat data toggle differently. Control endpoints ... after getting a setup callback, the driver queues one response (even if it would be zero length). That enables the status ack, after transfering data as specified in the response. Setup functions may return negative error codes to generate protocol stalls. (Note that some USB device controllers disallow protocol stall responses in some cases.) When control responses are deferred (the response is written after the setup callback returns), then usb_ep_set_halt may be used on ep0 to trigger protocol stalls. Depending on the controller, it may not be possible to trigger a status-stage protocol stall when the data stage is over, that is, from within the response's completion routine. For periodic endpoints, like interrupt or isochronous ones, the usb host arranges to poll once per interval, and the gadget driver usually will have queued some data to transfer at that time. Returns zero, or a negative error code. Endpoints that are not enabled report errors; errors will also be reported when the usb peripheral is disconnected. AUTHOR
David Brownell <> Author. COPYRIGHT
Kernel Hackers Manual 2.6. July 2010 USB_EP_QUEUE(9)

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USB_SUBMIT_URB(9)						   USB Core APIs						 USB_SUBMIT_URB(9)

usb_submit_urb - issue an asynchronous transfer request for an endpoint SYNOPSIS
int usb_submit_urb(struct urb * urb, gfp_t mem_flags); ARGUMENTS
urb pointer to the urb describing the request mem_flags the type of memory to allocate, see kmalloc for a list of valid options for this. DESCRIPTION
This submits a transfer request, and transfers control of the URB describing that request to the USB subsystem. Request completion will be indicated later, asynchronously, by calling the completion handler. The three types of completion are success, error, and unlink (a software-induced fault, also called "request cancellation"). URBs may be submitted in interrupt context. The caller must have correctly initialized the URB before submitting it. Functions such as usb_fill_bulk_urb and usb_fill_control_urb are available to ensure that most fields are correctly initialized, for the particular kind of transfer, although they will not initialize any transfer flags. Successful submissions return 0; otherwise this routine returns a negative error number. If the submission is successful, the complete callback from the URB will be called exactly once, when the USB core and Host Controller Driver (HCD) are finished with the URB. When the completion function is called, control of the URB is returned to the device driver which issued the request. The completion handler may then immediately free or reuse that URB. With few exceptions, USB device drivers should never access URB fields provided by usbcore or the HCD until its complete is called. The exceptions relate to periodic transfer scheduling. For both interrupt and isochronous urbs, as part of successful URB submission urb->interval is modified to reflect the actual transfer period used (normally some power of two units). And for isochronous urbs, urb->start_frame is modified to reflect when the URB's transfers were scheduled to start. Not all isochronous transfer scheduling policies will work, but most host controller drivers should easily handle ISO queues going from now until 10-200 msec into the future. For control endpoints, the synchronous usb_control_msg call is often used (in non-interrupt context) instead of this call. That is often used through convenience wrappers, for the requests that are standardized in the USB 2.0 specification. For bulk endpoints, a synchronous usb_bulk_msg call is available. REQUEST QUEUING
URBs may be submitted to endpoints before previous ones complete, to minimize the impact of interrupt latencies and system overhead on data throughput. With that queuing policy, an endpoint's queue would never be empty. This is required for continuous isochronous data streams, and may also be required for some kinds of interrupt transfers. Such queuing also maximizes bandwidth utilization by letting USB controllers start work on later requests before driver software has finished the completion processing for earlier (successful) requests. As of Linux 2.6, all USB endpoint transfer queues support depths greater than one. This was previously a HCD-specific behavior, except for ISO transfers. Non-isochronous endpoint queues are inactive during cleanup after faults (transfer errors or cancellation). RESERVED BANDWIDTH TRANSFERS
Periodic transfers (interrupt or isochronous) are performed repeatedly, using the interval specified in the urb. Submitting the first urb to the endpoint reserves the bandwidth necessary to make those transfers. If the USB subsystem can't allocate sufficient bandwidth to perform the periodic request, submitting such a periodic request should fail. For devices under xHCI, the bandwidth is reserved at configuration time, or when the alt setting is selected. If there is not enough bus bandwidth, the configuration/alt setting request will fail. Therefore, submissions to periodic endpoints on devices under xHCI should never fail due to bandwidth constraints. Device drivers must explicitly request that repetition, by ensuring that some URB is always on the endpoint's queue (except possibly for short periods during completion callacks). When there is no longer an urb queued, the endpoint's bandwidth reservation is canceled. This means drivers can use their completion handlers to ensure they keep bandwidth they need, by reinitializing and resubmitting the just-completed urb until the driver longer needs that periodic bandwidth. MEMORY FLAGS
The general rules for how to decide which mem_flags to use are the same as for kmalloc. There are four different possible values; GFP_KERNEL, GFP_NOFS, GFP_NOIO and GFP_ATOMIC. GFP_NOFS is not ever used, as it has not been implemented yet. GFP_ATOMIC is used when (a) you are inside a completion handler, an interrupt, bottom half, tasklet or timer, or (b) you are holding a spinlock or rwlock (does not apply to semaphores), or (c) current->state != TASK_RUNNING, this is the case only after you've changed it. GFP_NOIO is used in the block io path and error handling of storage devices. All other situations use GFP_KERNEL. Some more specific rules for mem_flags can be inferred, such as (1) start_xmit, timeout, and receive methods of network drivers must use GFP_ATOMIC (they are called with a spinlock held); (2) queuecommand methods of scsi drivers must use GFP_ATOMIC (also called with a spinlock held); (3) If you use a kernel thread with a network driver you must use GFP_NOIO, unless (b) or (c) apply; (4) after you have done a down you can use GFP_KERNEL, unless (b) or (c) apply or your are in a storage driver's block io path; (5) USB probe and disconnect can use GFP_KERNEL unless (b) or (c) apply; and (6) changing firmware on a running storage or net device uses GFP_NOIO, unless b) or c) apply COPYRIGHT
Kernel Hackers Manual 2.6. July 2010 USB_SUBMIT_URB(9)
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