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mtools(5)				      MTOOLS					mtools(5)

       mtools.conf - mtools configuration files

       This   manual  page  describes  the  configuration  files  for  mtools.	They  are  called
       `/etc/mtools.conf' and `~/.mtoolsrc'. If the environmental variable MTOOLSRC is	set,  its
       contents is used as the filename for a third configuration file. These configuration files
       describe the following items:

       *  Global configuration flags and variables

       *  Per drive flags and variables

   Location of the configuration files
       `/etc/mtools.conf' is the system-wide configuration file, and `~/.mtoolsrc' is the  user's
       private configuration file.

       On  some  systems, the system-wide configuration file is called `/etc/default/mtools.conf'

     General configuration file syntax
       The configuration files is made up of sections. Each section starts with a keyword identi-
       fying  the section followed by a colon.	Then follow variable assignments and flags. Vari-
       able assignments take the following form:

       Flags are lone keywords without an equal sign and value following them.	A section  either
       ends at the end of the file or where the next section begins.

       Lines  starting	with a hash (#) are comments. Newline characters are equivalent to white-
       space (except where ending a comment). The configuration file is case insensitive,  except
       for item enclosed in quotes (such as filenames).

   Default values
       For  most  platforms,  mtools contains reasonable compiled-in defaults for physical floppy
       drives.	Thus, you usually don't need to bother with the configuration file,  if  all  you
       want  to do with mtools is to access your floppy drives. On the other hand, the configura-
       tion file is needed if you also want to use mtools to access your hard disk partitions and
       DOSEMU image files.

   Global variables
       Global flags may be set to 1 or to 0.

       The following global flags are recognized:

	      If this is set to 1, mtools skips most of its sanity checks. This is needed to read
	      some Atari disks which have been made with the earlier ROMs, and which would not be
	      recognized otherwise.

	      If this is set to 1, mtools skips the fat size checks. Some disks have a bigger FAT
	      than they really need to. These are rejected if this option is not set.

	      If this is set to 1, mtools displays all-upper-case short filenames  as  lowercase.
	      This  has  been done to allow a behavior which is consistent with older versions of
	      mtools which didn't know about the case bits.

	      If this is set to 1, mtools won't generate VFAT entries  for  filenames  which  are
	      mixed-case,  but	otherwise  legal dos filenames.  This is useful when working with
	      DOS versions which can't grok VFAT long names, such as FreeDOS.

	      In a wide directory, prints the short name with a dot instead of spaces  separating
	      the basename and the extension.

	      If  this	is  set to one (default), generate numeric tails for all long names (~1).
	      If set to zero, only generate numeric tails if otherwise a clash	would  have  hap-

	      If  1, uses the European notation for times (twenty four hour clock), else uses the
	      UK/US notation (am/pm)

       Example: Inserting the following line into your configuration  file  instructs  mtools  to
       skip the sanity checks:


       Global variables may also be set via the environment:

	    export MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK=1

       Global string variables may be set to any value:

	      The format used for printing dates of files.  By default, is dd-mm-yyyy.

   Per drive flags and variables
     General information
       Per  drive  flags  and  values may be described in a drive section. A drive section starts
       with drive "driveletter" :

       Then follow variable-value pairs and flags.

       This is a sample drive description:

	    drive a:
	      file="/dev/fd0" use_xdf=1

     Location information
       For each drive, you need to describe where its data  is	physically  stored  (image  file,
       physical device, partition, offset).

       file   The  name of the file or device holding the disk image. This is mandatory. The file
	      name should be enclosed in quotes.

	      Tells mtools to treat the drive as a partitioned device, and to use the given  par-
	      tition. Only primary partitions are accessible using this method, and they are num-
	      bered from 1 to 4. For logical partitions, use the more  general	offset	variable.
	      The  partition  variable is intended for removable media such as Syquest disks, ZIP
	      drives, and magneto-optical disks. Although traditional DOS sees Syquest disks  and
	      magneto-optical  disks  as  `giant  floppy disks' which are unpartitioned, OS/2 and
	      Windows NT treat them like hard disks, i.e. partitioned devices. The partition flag
	      is  also	useful	DOSEMU	hdimages.  It is not recommended for hard disks for which
	      direct access to partitions is available through mounting.

	      Describes where in the file the MS-DOS file system starts. This is useful for logi-
	      cal  partitions  in  DOSEMU  hdimages, and for ATARI ram disks. By default, this is
	      zero, meaning that the file system starts right at the beginning of the  device  or

     Disk Geometry Configuration
       Geometry  information describes the physical characteristics about the disk. Its has three

	      The geometry information is written into the boot sector of the  newly  made  disk.
	      However,	you  may  also describe the geometry information on the command line. See
	      section mformat, for details.

	      On some Unixes there are device nodes which only support one physical geometry. For
	      instance,  you  might  need a different node to access a disk as high density or as
	      low density. The geometry is compared to the actual geometry  stored  on	the  boot
	      sector  to  make	sure that this device node is able to correctly read the disk. If
	      the geometry doesn't match, this drive entry fails, and the next drive entry  bear-
	      ing  the	same  drive  letter is tried. See section multiple descriptions, for more
	      details on supplying several descriptions for one drive letter.

	      If no geometry information is supplied in the configuration  file,  all  disks  are
	      accepted. On Linux (and on SPARC) there exist device nodes with configurable geome-
	      try (`/dev/fd0', `/dev/fd1' etc), and thus filtering is not  needed  (and  ignored)
	      for  disk  drives.  (Mtools still does do filtering on plain files (disk images) in
	      Linux: this is mainly intended for test purposes, as I don't have access to a  Unix
	      which would actually need filtering).

	      If  you  do  not need filtering, but want still a default geometry for mformatting,
	      you may switch off filtering using the mformat_only flag.

	      If you want filtering, you should supply the filter flag.  If you supply	a  geome-
	      try, you must supply one of both flags.

       initial geometry
	      On  devices  that  support it (usually floppy devices), the geometry information is
	      also used to set the initial geometry. This initial geometry is applied while read-
	      ing  the boot sector, which contains the real geometry.  If no geometry information
	      is supplied in the configuration file, or if the mformat_only flag is supplied,  no
	      initial configuration is done.

	      On  Linux,  initial  geometry is not really needed, as the configurable devices are
	      able to auto-detect the disk type accurately enough (for most  common  formats)  to
	      read the boot sector.

       Wrong  geometry	information may lead to very bizarre errors. That's why I strongly recom-
       mend that you add the mformat_only flag to your drive description, unless you really  need
       filtering or initial geometry.

       The following geometry related variables are available:

       tracks The  number  of  cylinders.  (cylinders is the preferred form, tracks is considered

       heads  The number of heads (sides).

	      The number of sectors per track.

       Example: the following drive section describes a 1.44M drive:

	    drive a:
		cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=18

       The following shorthand geometry descriptions are available:

       1.44m  high density 3 1/2 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=18

       1.2m   high density 5 1/4 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=15

       720k   double density 3 1/2 disk. Equivalent to:  fat_bits=12  cylinders=80  heads=2  sec-

       360k   double  density  5  1/4  disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=40 heads=2 sec-

       The shorthand format descriptions may be amended. For example, 360k sectors=8 describes	a
       320k disk and is equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=40 heads=2 sectors=8

     Open Flags
       Moreover, the following flags are available:

       sync   All i/o operations are done synchronously

	      The  device  or  file is opened with the O_NDELAY flag. This is needed on some non-
	      Linux architectures.

	      The device or file is opened with the O_EXCL flag. On Linux, this ensures exclusive
	      access to the floppy drive. On most other architectures, and for plain files it has
	      no effect at all.

     General Purpose Drive Variables
       The following general purpose drive variables are available.   Depending  to  their  type,
       these variables can be set to a string (precmd) or an integer (all others)

	      The number of FAT bits. This may be 12 or 16. This is very rarely needed, as it can
	      almost always be deduced from information in the	boot  sector.  On  the	contrary,
	      describing  the number of fat bits may actually be harmful if you get it wrong. You
	      should only use it if mtools gets the auto-detected number of fat bits wrong, or if
	      you want to mformat a disk with a weird number of fat bits.

	      Describes  the  DOS  code page used for short filenames. This is a number between 1
	      and 999. By default, code page 850 is used. The reason for  this	is  because  this
	      code  page  contains most of the characters that are also available in ISO-Latin-1.
	      You may also specify a global  code  page  for  all  drives  by  using  the  global
	      default_codepage	parameter  (outside  of  any  drive description). This parameters
	      exists starting at version 4.0.0

	      On some variants of Solaris, it is necessary to call 'volcheck -v' before opening a
	      floppy device, in order for the system to notice that there is indeed a disk in the
	      drive. precmd="volcheck -v" in the drive clause establishes the desired behavior.

	      This parameter represents a default block size to be always used	on  this  device.
	      All I/O is done with multiples of this block size, independently of the sector size
	      registered in the file system's boot sector.  This is useful for character  devices
	      whose sector size is not 512, such as for example CD-ROM drives on Solaris.

       Only  the file variable is mandatory. The other parameters may be left out. In that case a
       default value or an auto-detected value is used.

     General Purpose Drive Flags
       A flag can either be set to 1 (enabled) or 0 (disabled). If the value is  omitted,  it  is
       enabled.  For example, scsi is equivalent to scsi=1

	      Instruct	mtools	to not use locking on this drive.  This is needed on systems with
	      buggy locking semantics.	However, enabling this makes operation less safe in cases
	      where several users may access the same drive at the same time.

       scsi   When set to 1, this option tells mtools to use raw SCSI I/O instead of the standard
	      read/write calls to access the device.  Currently,  this	is  supported  on  HP-UX,
	      Solaris  and SunOS.  This is needed because on some architectures, such as SunOS or
	      Solaris, PC media can't be accessed using the read and write system calls,  because
	      the OS expects them to contain a Sun specific "disk label".

	      As  raw  SCSI  access always uses the whole device, you need to specify the "parti-
	      tion" flag in addition

	      On some architectures, such as Solaris, mtools needs root privileges to be able  to
	      use the scsi option.  Thus mtools should be installed setuid root on Solaris if you
	      want to access Zip/Jaz drives.  Thus, if the scsi  flag  is  given,  privileged  is
	      automatically implied, unless explicitly disabled by privileged=0

	      Mtools  uses  its  root privileges to open the device, and to issue the actual SCSI
	      I/O calls.  Moreover, root privileges are only used for drives described in a  sys-
	      tem-wide configuration file such as `/etc/mtools.conf', and not for those described
	      in `~/.mtoolsrc' or `$MTOOLSRC'.

	      When set to 1, this instructs mtools to use its setuid and  setgid  privileges  for
	      opening  the  given  drive.   This option is only valid for drives described in the
	      system-wide configuration files (such as `/etc/mtools.conf', not	`~/.mtoolsrc'  or
	      `$MTOOLSRC').   Obviously,  this	option is also a no op if mtools is not installed
	      setuid or setgid.  This option is implied by 'scsi=1', but again	only  for  drives
	      defined  in system-wide configuration files.  Privileged may also be set explicitly
	      to 0, in order to tell mtools not to use its privileges for a given drive  even  if
	      scsi=1 is set.

	      Mtools  only  needs  to be installed setuid if you use the privileged or scsi drive
	      variables.  If you do not use these options, mtools works perfectly well even  when
	      not installed setuid root.


	      Instructs mtools to interpret the device name as a vold identifier rather than as a
	      filename.  The vold identifier  is  translated  into  a  real  filename  using  the
	      media_findname() and media_oldaliases() functions of the volmgt library.	This flag
	      is only available if you configured mtools with the --enable-new-vold option before


	      Consider the media as a word-swapped Atari disk.

	      If this is set to a non-zero value, mtools also tries to access this disk as an XDF
	      disk. XDF is a high capacity format used by OS/2. This is off by default. See  sec-
	      tion XDF, for more details.

	      Tells  mtools  to  use the geometry for this drive only for mformatting and not for

	      Tells mtools to use the geometry for this drive both for mformatting and filtering.

	      Tells mtools to connect to floppyd (see section  floppyd).

     Supplying multiple descriptions for a drive
       It is possible to supply multiple descriptions for a drive. In that case, the descriptions
       are  tried  in  order until one is found that fits. Descriptions may fail for several rea-

       1.     because the geometry is not appropriate,

       2.     because there is no disk in the drive,

       3.     or because of other problems.

       Multiple definitions are useful when using physical devices which are only able to support
       one single disk geometry.  Example:

	    drive a: file="/dev/fd0H1440" 1.44m
	    drive a: file="/dev/fd0H720" 720k

       This instructs mtools to use /dev/fd0H1440 for 1.44m (high density) disks and /dev/fd0H720
       for 720k (double density) disks. On Linux, this feature	is  not  really  needed,  as  the
       /dev/fd0 device is able to handle any geometry.

       You  may  also  use  multiple  drive  descriptions  to access both of your physical drives
       through one drive letter:

	    drive z: file="/dev/fd0"
	    drive z: file="/dev/fd1"

       With this description, mdir z: accesses your first physical drive if it contains  a  disk.
       If the first drive doesn't contain a disk, mtools checks the second drive.

       When using multiple configuration files, drive descriptions in the files parsed last over-
       ride descriptions for the same drive in earlier files. In order to  avoid  this,  use  the
       drive+ or +drive keywords instead of drive. The first adds a description to the end of the
       list (i.e. it will be tried last), and the first adds it to the start of the list.

   Location of configuration files and parsing order
       The configuration files are parsed in the following order:

       1.     compiled-in defaults

       2.     `/etc/mtools.conf'

       3.     `~/.mtoolsrc'.

       4.     `$MTOOLSRC' (file pointed by the MTOOLSRC environmental variable)

       Options described in the later files override those described in the earlier files. Drives
       defined	in  earlier  files  persist  if  they  are not overridden in the later files. For
       instance, drives A and B may be defined in `/etc/mtools.conf' and drives C and  D  may  be
       defined in `~/.mtoolsrc' However, if `~/.mtoolsrc' also defines drive A, this new descrip-
       tion would override the description of drive A in `/etc/mtools.conf' instead of adding  to
       it.  If you want to add a new description to a drive already described in an earlier file,
       you need to use either the +drive or drive+ keyword.

   Backwards compatibility with old configuration file syntax
       The syntax described herein is new for version mtools-3.0. The old line-oriented syntax is
       still  supported.  Each	line  beginning  with a single letter is considered to be a drive
       description using the old syntax. Old style and new style  drive  sections  may	be  mixed
       within the same configuration file, in order to make upgrading easier. Support for the old
       syntax will be phased out eventually, and in order to discourage its use,  I  purposefully
       omit its description here.

See also

MTOOLS					     28Feb10					mtools(5)
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