SuSE 11.3 - man page for moduli (suse section 5)
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MODULI(5) BSD File Formats Manual MODULI(5)
moduli -- Diffie Hellman moduli
The /etc/ssh/moduli file contains prime numbers and generators for use by sshd(8) in the
Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange key exchange method.
New moduli may be generated with ssh-keygen(1) using a two-step process. An initial
candidate generation pass, using ssh-keygen -G, calculates numbers that are likely to be
useful. A second primality testing pass, using ssh-keygen -T provides a high degree of
assurance that the numbers are prime and are safe for use in Diffie Hellman operations by
sshd(8). This moduli format is used as the output from each pass.
The file consists of newline-separated records, one per modulus, containing seven space sep-
arated fields. These fields are as follows:
timestamp The time that the modulus was last processed as YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
type Decimal number specifying the internal structure of the prime modulus.
Supported types are:
0 Unknown, not tested
2 "Safe" prime; (p-1)/2 is also prime.
4 Sophie Germain; (p+1)*2 is also prime.
Moduli candidates initially produced by ssh-keygen(1) are Sophie Germain
primes (type 4). Futher primality testing with ssh-keygen(1) produces
safe prime moduli (type 2) that are ready for use in sshd(8). Other
types are not used by OpenSSH.
tests Decimal number indicating the type of primality tests that the number has
been subjected to represented as a bitmask of the following values:
0x00 Not tested
0x01 Composite number - not prime.
0x02 Sieve of Eratosthenes
0x04 Probabalistic Miller-Rabin primality tests.
The ssh-keygen(1) moduli candidate generation uses the Sieve of Eratos-
thenes (flag 0x02). Subsequent ssh-keygen(1) primality tests are Miller-
Rabin tests (flag 0x04).
trials Decimal number indicating of primaility trials that have been performed
on the modulus.
size Decimal number indicating the size of the prime in bits.
generator The recommended generator for use with this modulus (hexadecimal).
modulus The modulus itself in hexadecimal.
When performing Diffie Hellman Group Exchange, sshd(8) first estimates the size of the modu-
lus required to produce enough Diffie Hellman output to sufficiently key the selected sym-
metric cipher. sshd(8) then randomly selects a modulus from /etc/ssh/moduli that best meets
the size requirement.
Diffie-Hellman Group Exchange for the Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Layer Protocol, RFC 4419,
BSD May 26, 2018 BSD
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