standards(5) Standards, Environments, and Macros standards(5)
standards, ANSI, C, C++, ISO, POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS, SUSv2, SUSv3, SVID, SVID3, XNS, XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3, XPG4, XPG4v2 - standards
and specifications supported by Solaris
Solaris 10 supports IEEE Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std 1003.2, commonly known as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The following table lists
each version of these standards with a brief description and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it.
POSIX Standard Description Release
POSIX.1-1988 system interfaces and headers SunOS 4.1
POSIX.1-1990 POSIX.1-1988 update Solaris 2.0
POSIX.1b-1993 realtime extensions Solaris 2.4
POSIX.1c-1996 threads extensions Solaris 2.6
POSIX.2-1992 shell and utilities Solaris 2.5
POSIX.2a-1992 interactive shell and utilities Solaris 2.5
POSIX.1-2001 POSIX.1-1990, POSIX.1b-1993, Solaris 10
POSIX.1c-1996, POSIX.2-1992, and
Solaris 10 also supports the X/Open Common Applications Environment (CAE) Portability Guide Issue 3 (XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4); Single UNIX
Specification (SUS, also known as XPG4v2); Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 (SUSv2); and Single UNIX Specification, Version 3 (SUSv3).
Both XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services Issue 4 (XNS4). SUSv2 includes Networking Services Issue 5 (XNS5).
The following table lists each X/Open specification with a brief description and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it.
Specification Description Release
XPG3 superset of POSIX.1-1988 contain- SunOS 4.1
ing utilities from SVID3
XPG4 superset of POSIX.1-1990, Solaris 2.4
POSIX.2-1992, and POSIX.2a-1992
containing extensions to POSIX
standards from XPG3
SUS (XPG4v2) superset of XPG4 containing his- Solaris 2.6
torical BSD interfaces widely
used by common application pack-
XNS4 sockets and XTI interfaces Solaris 2.6
SUSv2 superset of SUS extended to sup- Solaris 7
POSIX.1c-1996, and ISO/IEC 9899
(C Standard) Amendment 1
XNS5 superset and LP64-clean deriva- Solaris 7
tive of XNS4.
SUSv3 same as POSIX.1-2001 Solaris 10
The XNS4 specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32-bit) environments and should not be used for LP64 (64-bit) application environ-
ments. Use XNS5 or SUSv3, which have LP64-clean interfaces that are portable across ILP32 and LP64 environments. Solaris releases 7 through
10 support both the ILP32 and LP64 environments.
Solaris releases 7 through 10 have been branded to conform to The Open Group's UNIX 98 Product Standard. Solaris 10 has been branded to
conform to The Open Group's UNIX 03 Product Standard.
Solaris releases 2.0 through 10 support the interfaces specified by the System V Interface Definition, Third Edition, Volumes 1 through 4
(SVID3). Note, however, that since the developers of this specification (UNIX Systems Laboratories) are no longer in business and since
this specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there is some disagreement about what is currently required for confor-
mance to this specification.
When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 2.0 through 10 support the ANSI X3.159-1989 Programming Language - C and
ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Programming Language - C (C) interfaces.
When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 7 through 10 support ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Amendment 1:1995: C Integrity.
When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris 10 supports ISO/IEC 9899:1999 Programming Languages - C.
When Sun Studio C++ Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 2.5.1 through 10 support ISO/IEC 14882:1998 Programming Languages - C++.
Unsupported features of that standard are described in the compiler README file.
If the behavior required by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 conflicts with historical Solaris utility behavior, the original Solaris
version of the utility is unchanged; a new version that is standard-conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. If the behavior required
by POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3 conflicts with historical Solaris utility behavior, a new version that is standard-conforming has been provided in
/usr/xpg4/bin or in /usr/xpg6/bin. If the behavior required by POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3 conflicts with POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, SUS, or SUSv2, a new
version that is SUSv3 standard-conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg6/bin.
An application that wants to use standard-conforming utilitues must set the PATH (sh(1) or ksh(1)) or path (csh(1)) environment variable to
specify the directories listed in the following table in the order specified to get the appropriate utilities:
Standard Utility Directories
3. directory containing binaries for
4. other directories containing bina-
ries needed by the application
SUS, SUSv2, XPG4 1. /usr/xpg4/bin
4. directory containing binaries for
5. other directories containing bina-
ries needed by the application
5. directory containing binaries for
6. other directories containing bina-
ries needed by the application
When an application uses execlp() or execvp() (see exec(2)) to execute a shell file, or uses system(3C), the shell used to interpret the
shell file depends on the standard to which the caller conforms:
Standard Shell Used
1989 ANSI C, 1990 ISO C, /usr/xpg4/bin/sh
1999 ISO C, POSIX.1
(1990-2001), SUS, SUSv2,
POSIX.1(1988), SVID3, /usr/bin/sh
XPG3, no standard specified
Feature Test Macros
Feature test macros are used by applications to indicate additional sets of features that are desired beyond those specified by the C stan-
dard. If an application uses only those interfaces and headers defined by a particular standard (such as POSIX or X/Open CAE), then it
need only define the appropriate feature test macro specified by that standard. If the application is using interfaces and headers not
defined by that standard, then in addition to defining the appropriate standard feature test macro, it must also define __EXTENSIONS__.
Defining __EXTENSIONS__ provides the application with access to all interfaces and headers not in conflict with the specified standard. The
application must define __EXTENSIONS__ either on the compile command line or within the application source files.
1989 ANSI C, 1990 ISO C, 1999 ISO C
No feature test macros need to be defined to indicate that an application is a conforming C application.
ANSI/ISO C++ does not define any feature test macros. If the standard C++ announcement macro __cplusplus is predefined to value 199711 or
greater, the compiler operates in a standard-conforming mode, indicating C++ standards conformance. The value 199711 indicates conformance
to ISO/IEC 14882:1998, as required by that standard. (As noted above, conformance to the standard is incomplete.) A standard-conforming
mode is not available with compilers prior to Sun WorkShop C++ 5.0.
C++ bindings are not defined for POSIX or X/Open CAE, so specifying feature test macros such as _POSIX_SOURCE, _POSIX_C_SOURCE, and
_XOPEN_SOURCE can result in compilation errors due to conflicting requirements of standard C++ and those specifications.
Applications that are intended to be conforming POSIX.1 applications must define the feature test macros specified by the standard before
including any headers. For the standards listed below, applications must define the feature test macros listed. Application writers must
check the corresponding standards for other macros that can be queried to determine if desired options are supported by the implementation.
POSIX Standard Feature Test Macros
POSIX.1-1990 and _POSIX_SOURCE and _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
The SVID3 specification does not specify any feature test macros to indicate that an application is written to meet SVID3 requirements.
The SVID3 specification was written before the C standard was completed.
To build or compile an application that conforms to one of the X/Open CAE specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need
not set the POSIX feature test macros if they require both CAE and POSIX functionality.
XPG3 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined with a value, the value must be less than 500.
XPG4 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE and set _XOPEN_VERSION=4. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined with a value, the value
must be less than 500.
SUS (XPG4v2) The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE and set _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined with a value, the
value must be less than 500.
SUSv2 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500.
SUSv3 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=600.
A POSIX.1 (1988-1996)-, XPG4-, SUS-, or SUSv2-conforming implementation must include an ANSI X3.159-1989 (ANSI C Language) standard-con-
forming compilation system and the cc and c89 utilities. A POSIX.1-2001- or SUSv3-conforming implementation must include an ISO/IEC
99899:1999 (1999 ISO C Language) standard-conforming compilation system and the c99 utility. Solaris 10 was tested with the cc, c89, and
c99 utilities and the compilation environment provided by Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6.
When cc is used to link applications, /usr/lib/values-xpg4.o must be specified on any link/load command line, unless the application is
POSIX.1-2001- or SUSv3-conforming, in which case /usr/lib/values-xpg6.o must be specified on any link/load compile line. The preferred way
to build applications, however, is described in the table below.
An XNS4- or XNS5-conforming application must include -l XNS on any link/load command line in addition to defining the feature test macros
specified for SUS or SUSv2, respectively.
If the compiler suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 compilers define the macro __PRAGMA_REDE-
FINE_EXTNAME to indicate that it supports this feature), then the standard headers use #pragma redefine_extname directives to properly map
function names onto library entry point names. This mapping provides full support for ISO C, POSIX, and X/Open namespace reservations.
If this pragma feature is not supported by the compiler, the headers use the #define directive to map internal function names onto appro-
priate library entry point names. In this instance, applications should avoid using the explicit 64-bit file offset symbols listed on the
lf64(5) manual page, since these names are used by the implementation to name the alternative entry points.
When using Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 compilers, applications conforming to the specifications listed above should be compiled using the
utilities and flags indicated in the following table:
Specification Compiler/Flags Feature Test Macros
1989 ANSI C and 1990 ISO C c89 none
1999 ISO C c99 none
SVID3 cc -Xt -xc99=none none
POSIX.1-1990 c89 _POSIX_SOURCE
POSIX.1-1990 and c89 _POSIX_SOURCE and
POSIX.1b-1993 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
POSIX.1c-1996 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
POSIX.1-2001 c99 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L
POSIX.1c-1996 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
CAE XPG3 cc -Xa -xc99=none _XOPEN_SOURCE
CAE XPG4 c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and
SUS (CAE XPG4v2) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and
(includes XNS4) _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1
SUSv2 (includes XNS5) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE=500
SUSv3 c99 _XOPEN_SOURCE=600
For platforms supporting the LP64 (64-bit) programming environment, SUSv2-conforming LP64 applications using XNS5 library calls should be
built with command lines of the form:
c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500
$(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo
$(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet
Similar SUSv3-conforming LP64 applications should be built with command lines of the form:
c99 $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=600
$(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo
$(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet
csh(1), ksh(1), sh(1), exec(2), sysconf(3C), system(3C), environ(5), lf64(5)
SunOS 5.10 14 Jan 2004 standards(5)