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SunOS 5.10 - man page for __sparc_utrap_install (sunos section 2)

__sparc_utrap_install(2)					   System Calls 					  __sparc_utrap_install(2)

NAME
__sparc_utrap_install - install a SPARC V9 user trap handler
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/utrap.h> int __sparc_utrap_install(utrap_entry_t type, utrap_handler_t new_precise, utrap_handler_t new_deferred, utrap_handler_t *old_precise, utrap_handler_t *old_deferred);
DESCRIPTION
The __sparc_utrap_install() function establishes new_precise and new_deferred user trap handlers as the new values for the specified type and returns the existing user trap handler values in *old_precise and *old_deferred in a single atomic operation. A new handler address of NULL means no user handler of that type will be installed. A new handler address of UTH_NOCHANGE means that the user handler for that type should not be changed. An old handler pointer of NULL means that the user is not interested in the old handler address. A precise trap is caused by a specific instruction and occurs before any program-visible state has been changed by this instruction. When a precise trap occurs, the program counter (PC) saved in the Trap Program Counter (TPC) register points to the instruction that induced the trap; all instructions prior to this trapping instruction have been executed. The next program counter (nPC) saved in the Trap Next Pro- gram Counter (TnPC) register points to the next instruction following the trapping instruction, which has not yet been executed. A deferred trap is also caused by a particular instruction, but unlike a precise trap, a deferred trap may occur after the program-visible state has been changed. See the SPARC Architecture Manual, Version 9 for further information on precise and deferred traps. The list that follows contains hardware traps and their corresponding user trap types. User trap types marked with a plus-sign (+) are required and must be provided by all ABI-conforming implementations. The others may not be present on every implementation; an attempt to install a user trap handler for those conditions will return EINVAL. User trap types marked with an asterisk (*) are implemented as precise traps only. +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ | Trap Name |User Trap Type (utrap_entry_t) | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |illegal_instruction |UT_ILLTRAP_INSTRUCTION +* or | | |UT_ILLEGAL_INSTRUCTION | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |fp_disabled |UT_FP_DISABLED +* | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |fp_exception_ieee_754 |UT_FP_EXCEPTION_IEEE_754 + | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |fp_exception_other |UT_FP_EXCEPTION_OTHER | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |tag_overflow |UT_TAG_OVERFLOW +* | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |division_by_zero |UT_DIVISION_BY_ZERO + | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |mem_address_not_aligned |UT_MEM_ADDRESS_NOT_ALIGNED + | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |privileged_action |UT_PRIVILEGED_ACTION + | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |privileged_opcode |UT_PRIVILEGED_OPCODE | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |async_data_error |UT_ASYNC_DATA_ERROR | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |trap_instruction |UT_TRAP_INSTRUCTION_16 through | | |UT_TRAP_INSTRUCTION_31 +* | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |instruction_access_excep- |UT_INSTRUCTION_EXCEPTION or | |tion instruc- |UT_INSTRUCTION_PROTECTION or | |tion_access_MMU_miss |UT_INSTRUCTION_ERROR | |instruction_access_error | | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ |data_access_exception |UT_DATA_EXCEPTION or | |data_access_MMU_miss |UT_DATA_PROTECTION or | |data_access_error |UT_DATA_ERROR | |data_access_protection | | +-----------------------------+-------------------------------+ The following explanations are provided for those user trap types that are not self-explanatory. UT_ILLTRAP_INSTRUCTION This trap is raised by user execution of the ILLTRAP INSTRUCTION. It is always precise. UT_ILLEGAL_INSTRUCTION This trap will be raised by the execution of otherwise undefined opcodes. It is implementation-dependent as to what opcodes raise this trap; the ABI only specifies the interface. The trap may be precise or deferred. UT_PRIVILEGED_OPCODE All opcodes declared to be privileged in SPARC V9 will raise this trap. It is implementation-dependent whether other opcodes will raise it as well; the ABI only specifies the interface. UT_DATA_EXCEPTION, UT_INSTRUCTION_EXCEPTION No valid user mapping can be made to this address, for a data or instruction access, respectively. UT_DATA_PROTECTION, UT_INSTRUCTION_PROTECTION A valid mapping exists, and user privilege to it exists, but the type of access (read, write, or execute) is denied, for a data or instruction access, respectively. UT_DATA_ERROR, UT_INSTRUCTION_ERROR A valid mapping exists, and both user privilege and the type of access are allowed, but an unrecoverable error occurred in attempting the access, for a data or instruction access, respectively. %l1 will contain either BUS_ADDRERR or BUS_OBJERR. UT_FP_DISABLED This trap is raised when an application issues a floating point instruction (including load or store) and the SPARC V9 Floating Point Registers State (FPRS) FEF bit is 0. If a user handler is installed for this trap, it will be given control. Otherwise the system will set FEF to one and retry the instruction. For all traps, the handler executes in a new register window, where the in registers are the out registers of the previous frame and have the value they contained at the time of the trap, similar to a normal subroutine call after the save instruction. The global registers (including the special registers %ccr, %asi, and %y) and the floating-point registers have their values from the time of the trap. The stack pointer register %sp plus the BIAS will point to a properly-aligned 128-byte register save area; if the handler needs scratch space, it should decrement the stack pointer to obtain it. If the handler needs access to the previous frame's in registers or local registers, it should execute a FLUSHW instruction, and then access them off of the frame pointer. If the handler calls an ABI-conforming function, it must set the %asi register to ASI_PRIMARY_NOFAULT before the call. On entry to a precise user trap handler %l6 contains the %pc and %l7 contains the %npc at the time of the trap. To return from a handler and reexecute the trapped instruction, the handler would execute: jmpl %l6, %g0 ! Trapped PC supplied to user trap handler return %l7 ! Trapped nPC supplied to user trap handler To return from a handler and skip the trapped instruction, the handler would execute: jmpl %l7, %g0 ! Trapped nPC supplied to user trap handler return %l7 + 4 ! Trapped nPC + 4 On entry to a deferred trap handler %o0 contains the address of the instruction that caused the trap and %o1 contains the actual instruc- tion (right-justified, zero-extended), if the information is available. Otherwise %o0 contains the value -1 and %o1 is undefined. Addi- tional information may be made available for certain cases of deferred traps, as indicated in the following table. +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ | Instructions | Additional Information | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |LD-type (LDSTUB) | %o2 contains the effective address | | | (rs1 + rs2 | simm13). | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |ST-type (CAS, SWAP) | %o2 contains the effective address ( | | | rs1 + rs2 |simm13). | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |Integer arithmetic | %o2 contains the rs1 value. %o3 con- | | | tains the rs2 | simm13 value. %o4 | | | contains the contents of the %y reg- | | | ister. | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |Floating-point arithmetic | %o2 contains the address of rs1 | | | value. %o3 contains the address of | | | rs2 value. | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |Control-transfer | %o2 contains the target address (rs1 | | | + rs2 | simm13). | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ |Asynchronous data errors | %o2 contains the address that caused | | | the error. %o3 contains the effec- | | | tive ASI, if available, else -1. | +--------------------------+---------------------------------------+ To return from a deferred trap, the trap handler issues: ta 68 ! ST_RETURN_FROM_DEFERRED_TRAP The following pseudo-code explains how the operating system dispatches traps: if (precise trap) { if (precise_handler) { invoke(precise_handler); /* not reached */ } else { convert_to_signal(precise_trap); } } else if (deferred_trap) { invoke(deferred_handler); /* not reached */ } else { convert_to_signal(deferred_trap); } } if (signal) send(signal); User trap handlers must preserve all registers except the locals (%l0-7) and the outs (%o0-7), that is, %i0-7, %g1-7, %d0-d62, %asi, %fsr, %fprs, %ccr, and %y, except to the extent that modifying the registers is part of the desired functionality of the handler. For example, the handler for UT_FP_DISABLED may load floating-point registers.
RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, 0 is returned. Otherwise, a non-zero value is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.
ERRORS
The __sparc_utrap_install() function will fail if: EINVAL The type argument is not a supported user trap type; the new user trap handler address is not word aligned; the old user trap handler address cannot be returned; or the user program is not a 64-bit executable.
EXAMPLES
Example 1: A sample program using the __sparc_utrap_install() function. The __sparc_utrap_install() function is normally used by user programs that wish to provide their own tailored exception handlers as a faster alternative to signal(3C), or to handle exceptions that are not directly supported by the signal() interface, such as fp_disabled. extern void *fpdis_trap_handler(); utrap_handler_t new_precise = (utrap_handler_t)fpdis_trap_handler; double d; int err; err = __sparc_utrap_install(UT_FP_DISABLED, new_precise, UTH_NOCHANGE, NULL, NULL); if (err == EINVAL) { /* unexpected error, do something */ exit(1); } d = 1.0e-300; ENTRY(fpdis_trap_handler) wr %g0, FPRS_FEF, %fprs jmpl %l6, %g0 return %l7 SET_SIZE(fpdis_trap_handler) This example turns on bit 2, FEF, in the Floating-Point Registers State (FPRS) Register, after a floating-point instruction causes an fp_disabled trap. (Note that this example simulates part of the default system behavior; programs do not need such a handler. The example is for illustrative purposes only.)
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |MT-Level |MT-Safe | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
SEE ALSO
signal(3C), attributes(5) SPARC Architecture Manual, Version 9 Manufacturer's processor chip user manuals
NOTES
The Exceptions and Interrupt Descriptions section of the SPARC V9 manual documents which hardware traps are mandatory or optional, and whether they can be implemented as precise or deferred traps, or both. The manufacturer's processor chip user manuals describe the details of the traps supported for the specific processor implementation. SunOS 5.10 11 Nov 1997 __sparc_utrap_install(2)

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