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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for mkhybrid (redhat section 8)

MKISOFS(8)			     System Manager's Manual			       MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  an  hybrid  ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS  filesystem  with  optional  Rock Ridge
       attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs is effectively a pre-mastering program to generate  an  ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS  hybrid
       filesystem.

       mkisofs	is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP) specified
       by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	This is used to further describe the files in the
       iso9660	filesystem  to	a  unix  host, and provides information such as longer filenames,
       uid/gid, posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs will create additional
       filesystem  meta data for Joliet or HFS.  The file content in this case refers to the same
       data blocks on the media.  It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the Joliet or
       HFS hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs	can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen as
       HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files  when  accessed  from  other
       machines.  HFS  stands  for Hierarchical File System and is the native file system used on
       Macintosh computers.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to	ISO9660  for  each  file.
       These  extensions  provide  each  file  with  CREATOR,  TYPE and certain Finder Flags when
       accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates  a  binary  image  which
       will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each  file  written  to	the  iso9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (8
       characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even if Rock Ridge  is  in  use.   This
       filename  is  used  on  systems that are not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions
       (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be  different  from  the  other
       filenames in the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct names by forcing
       the unix filename to upper case and truncating as required, but often  times  this  yields
       unsatisfactory  results when there are cases where the truncated names are not all unique.
       mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise the  same
       are  found  the	name  with  the  lower priority is renamed to have a 3 digit number as an
       extension (where the number is guaranteed to be unique).  An example of this would be  the
       files  foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ - the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1 and
       the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt to recognise files  stored  in	a
       number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the data and resource forks as well as any
       relevant finder information. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS	section  below	for  more
       about formats mkisofs supports.

       Note  that  mkisofs is not designed to communicate with the writer directly.  Most writers
       have proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need	a
       specialized tool to actually burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.  The latest version
       of cdrecord is available from ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also you should know that most cd writers are very  particular  about  timing.	Once  you
       start  to  burn a disc, you cannot let their buffer empty before you are done, or you will
       end up with a corrupt disc.  Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an  uninter-
       rupted data stream to the writer for the entire time that the disc is being written.

       pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the iso9660 filesystem.  Mul-
       tiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will merge the files found in all of the  speci-
       fied path components to form the cdrom image.

       If  the	option	-graft-points  has  been  specified, it is possible to graft the paths at
       points other than the root directory, and it is possible to  graft  files  or  directories
       onto  the  cdrom  image with names different than what they have in the source filesystem.
       This is easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples.   Let's start by assuming that	a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax
       can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs will create any directories  required  such
       that  the graft points exist on the cdrom image - the directories do not need to appear in
       one of the paths.  By default, any directories that are created on the fly like this  will
       have  permissions  0555 and appear to be owned by the person running mkisofs.  If you wish
       other permissions or owners of the intermediate directories, see  -uid,	-gid,  -dir-mode,
       -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs	will  also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with Cygnus' cygwin (available
       from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore most references in this man page  to
       Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies  the  abstract	file  name.   This  parameter can also be set in the file
	      .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified in both places, the command line  ver-
	      sion is used.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies  a  text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should
	      describe the application that will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc  for
	      128 characters of information.  This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisof-
	      src with APPI=id.  If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660 filenames.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  some  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This  options  allows  more than one dot to appear in iso9660 filenames.	A leading
	      dot is not affected by this option, it may  be  allowed  separately  using  the  -L
	      option.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies the bibliographic file name.  This parameter can also be set in the  file
	      .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified in both places, the command line ver-
	      sion is used.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.   If	mkisofs  finds	a
	      hard  link (a file with multiple names), then the file will only appear once on the
	      CD. This helps to save space on the CD.  The option  -cache-inodes  is  default  on
	      UNIX  like  operating  systems.	Be careful when using this option on a filesystem
	      without unique inode numbers as it may result in files containing the wrong content
	      on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do not cache inode and device numbers.  This option is needed whenever a filesystem
	      does not have unique inode numbers. It is the default on Cygwin.	As the	Microsoft
	      operating  system  that  runs below Cygwin is not POSIX compliant, it does not have
	      unique inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a hash algorithm that
	      is  not  100%  correct.	If mkisofs would cache inodes on Cygwin, it would believe
	      that some files are identical although they are not. The result in  this	case  are
	      files  that contain the wrong content if a significant amount of different files (>
	      ~5000) is in inside the tree that is to be archived.  This does not happen when the
	      -no-cache-inodes	is  used,  but	the  disadvantage  is  that mkisofs cannot detect
	      hardlinks anymore and the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used  when  making  an  "El
	      Torito"  bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to
	      mkisofs.	This option is required to make an "El Torito"	bootable  CD.	The  boot
	      image  must  be  exactly	the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and
	      mkisofs will use this size when creating	the  output  iso9660  filesystem.  It  is
	      assumed  that  the  first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot image (it is
	      essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This will work, for example, if  the
	      boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

	      If  the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add one of the options:
	      -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not boot off  the  emulated
	      disk, use -no-boot.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of "El Torito" boot parameters.  This allows to have more than
	      one El Torito boot on a CD.  A maximum of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a
	      single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable
	      CD for sparc systems.  There may be empty fields in the comma separated list.  This
	      option  is  required  to	make  a  bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the -B or
	      -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first sector of the resulting image will
	      contain  a  Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image
	      and slice 1 ... slice 7 for the boot images that	have  been  specified  with  this
	      option.  Byte  offset  512  ... 8191 within each of the additional boot images must
	      contain a primary boot that works for the appropriate sparc architecture. The  rest
	      of  each of the images usually contains an ufs filesystem that is used primary ker-
	      nel boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS 4.x and SunOS  5.x.
	      However,	it  does not depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of the Open
	      Boot prom. For this reason, it should be usable for any OS that boots off  a  sparc
	      system.

	      If  the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all following boot partitions
	      are mapped to the previous partition. If mkisofs is called with  -G  image  -B  ...
	      all  boot partitions are mapped to the partition that contains the iso9660 filesys-
	      tem image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16 sectors of the
	      disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a
	      generic bootable CD.  The generic_boot_image will be placed on the first 16 sectors
	      of the CD. The first 16 sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together  with  the  -sparc-boot
	      option,  the  Sun  disk  label will overlay the first 512 bytes of the generic boot
	      image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable  CDs  is  a  hard
	      disk  image. The hard disk image must begin with a master boot record that contains
	      a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable CDs is a 'no emu-
	      lation'  image.  The system will load and execute this image without performing any
	      disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should be marked  as  not  bootable.  The
	      system  will  provide an emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard
	      boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emulation  "El  Torito"
	      CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation mode.
	      The default is to load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this
	      is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies  that  a  56-byte  table  with	information  of the CD-ROM layout will be
	      patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.	If this option is given, the boot file is
	      modified	in the source filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file cannot
	      be easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description
	      of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is	needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra or the image of a
	      second session or a higher level session for a multi session disk.  The  option  -C
	      takes  a	pair  of two numbers separated by a comma. The first number is the sector
	      number of the first sector in the last session of the disk that should be  appended
	      to.   The  second  number  is  the  starting sector number of the new session.  The
	      expected pair of numbers may be retrieved by calling cdrecord -msinfo ...   If  the
	      -C option is used in conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesys-
	      tem image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous session.	If the -C
	      option  is  used without the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem image that
	      is intended to be used for a second session on a CDextra. This is a  multi  session
	      CD  that holds audio data in the first session and a ISO9660 filesystem in the sec-
	      ond session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to be used when making  an  "El
	      Torito"  bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to
	      mkisofs.	This option is required to  make  a  bootable  CD.   This  file  will  be
	      inserted	into the output tree and not created in the source filesystem, so be sure
	      the specified filename does not conflict with an	existing  file,  as  it  will  be
	      excluded. Usually a name like "boot.catalog" is chosen.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames  imported from old session for compliance with actual mkisofs
	      iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is not present, only names with a  length
	      > 31 are checked as these files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming
	      rules.  This is a high level option that is a combination of the options:  -M  FILE
	      -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies  the  Copyright  file  name.   This parameter can also be set in the file
	      .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified in both places, the command line  ver-
	      sion is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we  see
	      them.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides the mode of directories used to create the  image  to  mode.   Specifying
	      this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate	DVD-Video compliant UDF file system. This is done by sorting the order of
	      the content of the appropriate files and by adding padding  between  the	files  if
	      needed.

       -f     Follow  symbolic	links when generating the filesystem.  When this option is not in
	      use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file
	      will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides  the  mode of regular files used to create the image to mode.  Specifying
	      this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides the gid read from the source files to the value of gid.  Specifying  this
	      option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the  behaviour  for a GUI. This currently makes the output more verbose but
	      may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames  are
	      checked  for  graft  points.  The  filename is divided at the first unescaped equal
	      sign. All occurrences of '\\' and '=' characters	must  be  escaped  with  '\\'  if
	      -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide  glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple
	      globs may be hidden.  If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that direc-
	      tory will be hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make  sure  the  pathname
	      does  not  include  a  trailing  '/' character.  All the hidden files will still be
	      written to the output CD image file.  Should be used with the -hide-joliet  option.
	      See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add  the	hidden	(existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob.  This attribute
	      will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based systems if the /A flag is not used
	      for  the listing.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part
	      of the filename or path.	In order to match a directory name, make sure  the  path-
	      name does not include a trailing '/' character.  Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide glob from being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style
	      pattern that must match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple  globs  may  be
	      hidden.	If  glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order to match a directory  name,  make  sure  the  pathname	does  not
	      include  a  trailing  '/' character.  All the hidden files will still be written to
	      the output CD image file.  Should be used with the -hide	option.  See  README.hide
	      for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide  the  TRANS.TBL  files  from  the Joliet tree.  These files usually don't make
	      sense in the Joliet World as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may
	      both be different from the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename  the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree.  It seems to be
	      impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED directory  from  the  Rock  Ridge  tree.
	      This  option  only makes the visible tree better to understand for people who don't
	      know what this directory is for.	If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all,
	      you  should use the -D option. Note that in case that the -D option has been speci-
	      fied, the resulting filesystem is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant  and  will  not  be
	      readable	on  MS-DOS.   See also NOTES section for more information on the RR_MOVED
	      directory.

       -l     Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3
	      format  which  is  compatible  with MS-DOS, even though the ISO9660 standard allows
	      filenames of up to 31 characters.  If you use this option, the disc may  be  diffi-
	      cult to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other systems (such
	      as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters used in local file names.  To get a  list
	      of  valid  charset  names, call mkisofs -input-charset help.  To get a 1:1 mapping,
	      you may use default as charset name. The default initial values are  cp437  on  DOS
	      based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See CHARACTER SETS section below
	      for more details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in	Rock  Ridge  file
	      names.  Defaults	to  the  input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more
	      details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to
	      8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no restrictions apply.

	      With all iso9660 levels all filenames are restricted to upper case letters, numbers
	      and the underscore (_). The maximum filename length is restricted to 31 characters,
	      the  directory nesting level is restricted to 8 and the maximum path length is lim-
	      ited to 255 characters.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660 file names.   This
	      is  primarily  useful  when  the	discs  are to be used on Windows-NT or Windows-95
	      machines.  The Joliet filenames are specified in Unicode and  each  path	component
	      can  be  up  to 64 Unicode characters long.  Note that Joliet is no standard - CD's
	      that use only Joliet extensions but no standard Rock Ridge extensions  may  usually
	      only  be	used on Microsoft Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that the filenames
	      are limited to 64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses the  UTF-16  coding  for
	      Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow  Joliet  filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This breaks the Joliet
	      specification - but appears to work. Use with caution. The number  103  is  derived
	      from:  the  maximum  Directory  Record  Length (254), minus the length of Directory
	      Record (33), minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided by  the
	      UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same  as	using  -input-charset  charset and -J options. See CHARACTER SETS section
	      below for more details.

       -L     Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period.  Usually, a leading dot is replaced
	      with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead  of  the
	      standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude  glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern
	      that must match part of the filename (not the path as with option -x).  Technically
	      glob  is matched against the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple globs
	      may be excluded.	Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foobar" to be  copied  to
	      CDROM.  Note  that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all
	      its descendants) would be excluded.

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,	they  are  wrong.
	      Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
	      last component matches or the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N option as the extra
	      name space is taken from the space reserved for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660  standard,  but  it	happens  to work on many systems.
	      Although a conforming application needs to provide a buffer space of  at	least  37
	      characters, disks created with this option may cause a buffer overflow in the read-
	      ing operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      Specifies path to existing iso9660 image to be merged. The alternate form  takes	a
	      SCSI  device specifier that uses the same syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.
	      The output of mkisofs will be a new session which should get written to the end  of
	      the  image  specified  in -M.  Typically this requires multi-session capability for
	      the recorder and cdrom drive that you are attempting to write this image to.   This
	      option may only be used in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers any-
	      way.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso fs image.  The default mode is
	      0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.  If the -no-bak option
	      is specified, files that contain the characters '~' or '#' or end  in  '.bak'  will
	      not be included (these are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
	      Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for previous sessions.
	      This helps to show rotten iso9660 extension records as e.g. created by NERO burning
	      ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock  Ridge attributes from previous sessions.  This may help to
	      avoid getting into trouble when mkisofs finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures  on  an
	      old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This
	      may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in  reading  split
	      SL components (link_size = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This may
	      waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug  in
	      reading split SL fields (a `/' can be dropped).

       -o filename
	      is  the  name  of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image should be written.
	      This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the  device
	      name  of the optical disc writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the
	      output can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in  which  case
	      the  disk partition can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering was
	      done correctly.

       -pad   Pad the end of the ISO9660 by 16 sectors (32kB). If the total size then  is  not	a
	      multiple of 16 sectors, the needed number of sectors is added.  If the option -B is
	      used, then there is a second padding at the end of the boot partitions.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) implement  read  ahead
	      bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on one or more files
	      that are located at the end of a track. They are usually present	when  the  CD  is
	      written in Track at Once mode or when the disk is written as mixed mode CD where an
	      audio track follows the data track.

	      To avoid problems with I/O error on the last  file  on  the  filesystem,	the  -pad
	      option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do not Pad the end of the ISO9660 by 16 sectors (32kB).

       -path-list file
	      A  file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added to the
	      ISO9660 filesystem. This list of pathspecs are processed after any that  appear  on
	      the  command  line.  If  the argument is -, then the list is read from the standard
	      input.

       -P publisher_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone num-
	      ber.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
	      can  also  be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the  preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone num-
	      ber.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
	      can  also  be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -print-size
	      Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size  (2048  bytes)  and
	      exit.  This  option  is needed for Disk At Once mode and with some CD-R drives when
	      piping directly into cdrecord.  In this case it is needed to know the size  of  the
	      filesystem before the actual CD-creation is done.  The option -print-size allows to
	      get this size from a "dry-run" before the CD is actually written.  Old versions  of
	      mkisofs  did  write  this information (among other information) to stderr.  As this
	      turns out to be hard to parse, the number without  any  other  information  is  now
	      printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a simple shell script, redirect stderr
	      and catch the number from stdout.  This may be done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output will be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe  the
	      files on the iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This  is	like  the  -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful
	      values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only  useful  on
	      the  author's system, and not useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set
	      true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the	client.   If  any
	      execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are
	      globally executable on the client.  If any search bit is set for a  directory,  set
	      all  of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
	      All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be  mounted  read-only  in  any
	      case.   If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks are
	      not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid	0
	      or  gid  0.   When  used	on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is a
	      result of the lack of file permissions on Win32  and  the  Cygwin  POSIX	emulation
	      layer.  See also -uid -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO9660 filenames to include digits, uppercase
	      characters and all other 7 bit ASCII characters (resp.  anything	except	lowercase
	      characters).
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by  a  file  that  contains
	      pairs  of  filenames and sorting offset weighting.  If the weighting is higher, the
	      file will be located closer to the beginning of the  media,  if  the  weighting  is
	      lower,  the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There must be only
	      one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight and the weight must
	      be  the last characters on a line. The filename is taken to include all the charac-
	      ters up to, but not including the last space or tab character on a line. This is to
	      allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of a filename.  This option does
	      not sort the order of the file names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts
	      the  order  in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be useful
	      in order to optimize the data layout on a CD. See README.sort for more details.

       -split-output
	      Split the output image into several files of approximately 1  GB.   This	helps  to
	      create  DVD  sized  iso9660 images on operating systems without large file support.
	      Cdrecord will concatenate more than one file into a single track if  writing  to	a
	      DVD.   To  make  -split-output  work, the -o filename option must be specified. The
	      resulting outout images will be named: filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies the system ID.	This parameter can also be set	in  the  file  .mkisofsrc
	      with  SYSI=system_id.   If  specified  in  both places, the command line version is
	      used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which can be used on non-
	      Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish the correct file names.  There is also
	      information present in the file that indicates the  major  and  minor  numbers  for
	      block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the -T option.  If you
	      are creating a multi-session image you must use the same name as	in  the  previous
	      session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3.	It may be
	      set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF support is currently in
	      alpha  status  and  for  this reason, it is not possible to create UDF only images.
	      UDF data structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures,  so  there  are
	      many  pitfalls  with the current implementation. There is no UID/GID support, there
	      is no POSIX permission support, there is no support for symlinks.   Note	that  UDF
	      wastes  the  space  from	sector	~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disk in
	      addition to the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of uid.  Specifying  this
	      option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option  -use-fileversion  allows  mkisofs to use file version numbers from the
	      filesystem.  If the option is not specified, mkisofs creates a version if 1 for all
	      files.   File  versions  are  strings  in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the
	      default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely  violating  the  iso9660	standards
	      described  above.  Forces  on the -d, -l, -L, -N, -relaxed-filenames, -allow-lower-
	      case, -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It  allows  more  than  one  '.'
	      character  in the filename, as well as mixed case filenames.  This is useful on HP-
	      UX system, where the built-in CDFS filesystem does not  recognize  ANY  extensions.
	      Use with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the  characters '#' and '~' which are invalid for iso9660 file-
	      names.  These characters are though invalid often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block.
	      This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.   If	specified
	      in both places, the command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a volume
	      ID, this is the name that will be used as the mount point used by the Solaris  vol-
	      ume  management  system  and  the  name that is assigned to the disc on a Microsoft
	      Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies the volset ID.	This parameter can also be set	in  the  file  .mkisofsrc
	      with  VOLS=volset_id.   If  specified  in  both places, the command line version is
	      used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the number of CD's that  are
	      in  a  CD set.  The -volset-size option may be used to create CD's that are part of
	      e.g. a Operation System installation set of CD's.  The option -volset-size must  be
	      specified before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the  volume  set sequence number to #.  The volume set sequence number is the
	      index number of the current CD in a CD set.  The option -volset-size must be speci-
	      fied before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will
	      be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from being written to CDROM.  path must be the complete pathname  that
	      results from concatenating the pathname given as command line argument and the path
	      relative to this directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,	they  are  wrong.
	      Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
	      last component matches or the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate special RRIP records for transparently compressed files.  This is only  of
	      use  and	interest  for hosts that support transparent decompression, such as Linux
	      2.4.14 or later.	You must specify the -R or -r options to  enable  RockRidge,  and
	      generate	compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running mkisofs.  Note
	      that transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The	resulting
	      disks are only transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems
	      you will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the
	      -map, -magic and/or the various double dash options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD with Apple's extensions. Similar to the -hfs option, except
	      that the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of creating  an  HFS  hybrid
	      volume.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use  the	mapping_file  to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a file based on
	      the filename's extension. A filename is mapped only if it is not one  of	the  know
	      Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the
	      first few bytes of a file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one of the
	      known  Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using
	      the -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters.  See  the  HFS
	      CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set  the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CRE-
	      ATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file  formats.	 See  the
	      HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS section below for more about these formats.  However,
	      the only way to check for MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them.
	      Therefore this option may increase processing time. It is better to use one or more
	      double dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the
	      CD  is  used  on	a Macintosh (and stored in the System Folder).	By default, empty
	      Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and  Rock  Ridge
	      file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs	the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the HFS
	      BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is  generated,  but
	      some  older  Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CDROM to be
	      able to recognize a hybrid CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or
	      document.  The given filename must be the name of a document or application located
	      at the top level of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation  units  of  PC  Exchange  files.
	      Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide  glob  from	the  HFS  volume.  The	file or directory will still exist in the
	      ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.	glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must
	      match any part of the filename Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from the HFS volume. Note
	      that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all  its  descen-
	      dants)  would be excluded.  The glob can also be a path name relative to the source
	      directories given on the command line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would exclude just the file or directory called "html" from  the	"src"  directory.
	      Any other file or directory called "html" in the tree will not be excluded.  Should
	      be used with the -hide and/or -hide-joliet options.  In order to match a	directory
	      name,  make  sure  the  pathname	does  not  include  a trailing '/' character. See
	      README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on
	      a Macintosh and replaces the volid used with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use  the	icon  position	information, if it exists, from the Apple/Unix file.  The
	      icons will appear in the same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder
	      location	and  size  on  screen,	its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons,
	      Small Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  This option may become set  by  default  in
	      the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the	location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for the root
	      folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names when used with the
	      -mac-name  option.   The default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman)
	      See CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS file names.
	      Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  mkisofs will create an HFS volume that is locked.  This option leaves
	      the volume unlocked so that other applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the vol-
	      ume.  See  the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and is used
	      in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the whole path name
	      as mkisofs sees it. e.g. if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required  folder
	      is  called  System  Folder,  then  the  whole path name is "./cddata/System Folder"
	      (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file system. Unlikely to be used
	      in normal circumstances. See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix file formats only.
	      Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless  other
	      double dash options are given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs	processes file names in a POSIX compliant way as strings of 8-bit characters.  To
       represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient.  Unicode  or
       ISO-10646  define character codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all known lan-
       guages. They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32 uses a  plain
       32-bit  coding  but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by Microsoft with Win32 with the
       disadvantage that it only supports a subset of all codes and that  16-bit  characters  are
       not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  UNIX  operating	systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This coding allows to
       use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit character is represented by  one  or  more
       8-bit characters.  If a character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North
       America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.   If  a  character  is
       coded  in  7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries with limted character set) is maps
       1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode character.  Character codes that cannot  be
       represented  as	a  single  byte  in  UTF-8  (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need to recode  charac-
       ters  in  file names.  Unfortunately, Apple uses completely nonstandard codings and Micro-
       soft uses a Unicode coding that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte  represents
       depends on the character set or codepage (which is the name used by Microsoft) used by the
       local operating system in use - the characters in a character set will reflect the  region
       or natural language used by the user.

       Usually	character  codes  0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit
       ASCII characters and (on PC's and Mac's) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.   Unfor-
       tunately even this does not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for con-
       trol characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small subset are  repre-
       sented  in  a  character  set. Therefore the same character code may represent a different
       character in different character sets. So a file name generated, say  in  central  Europe,
       may not display the same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets
       for the region or language. For example the character code for "small e with acute accent"
       may  be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX sys-
       tem.  Note while the codings used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode codes this char-
       acter  as  0x00000000e9	which  is basically the same value as the value used by most UNIX
       systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Unicode  character  set
       as  the basis for file names in a unique way, it may be necessary to specify which charac-
       ter set your file names use in and which character set the file names should appear on the
       CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines  the local character set you are using on your host machine.  Any character
	      set conversions that take place will use this character set as the  staring  point.
	      The  default  input  character sets are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on
	      all other systems.

	      If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents of the input character  set
	      will  be	used  in  the Joliet directory. Using the -jcharset option is the same as
	      using the -input-charset and -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge  names  on  the
	      CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only likely to be useful if used on a non-
	      Unix platform. e.g. using mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge
	      CDs. If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that the output char-
	      acter set will be the same as the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used for HFS file names decoded from any of the vari-
	      ous  Apple/Unix  file formats. Only useful when used with -mac-name option. See the
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from the input  charac-
	      ter  set	in  use. In most cases this will be from the character set given with the
	      -input-charset option. Defaults to the input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to mkisofs.  To get a listing,  use  mkisofs
       -input-charset help.

       Additional  character  sets  can be read from file for any of the character set options by
       giving a filename as the argument to the options. The given file will only be read if  its
       name does not match one of the built in character sets.

       The  format  of	the  character	set files is the same as the mapping files available from
       http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS The format of these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or  comments  lines
       (starting  with	the # character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input code
       is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or 32 bit UNICODE (UTF-32)  cod-
       ing  because this coding is not POSIX compliant. There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE
       coding which is compatible to POSIX filenames and supported by moder UNIX  implementations
       such as Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to
       any of the character set options. This is the  behaviour  of  older  (v1.12)  versions  of
       mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not converted from the input
       character set. The ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters,
       so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which define which application cre-
       ated the file, the CREATOR and what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are	(exactly)
       4  letter  strings.  Usually  this  allows  a Macintosh user to double-click on a file and
       launch the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be found
       by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE information is stored in all the various Apple/Unix encoded files.
       For other files it is possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on  the  filename's	extension
       using  a mapping file (the -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature
       in the first few bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these  options  are  given,
       then their order on the command line is important. If the -map option is given first, then
       a filename extension match is attempted before a  magic	number	match.	However,  if  the
       -magic  option  is  given  first, then a magic number match is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found then the default CREATOR  and
       TYPE for all regular files can be set by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or using the
       -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE  are  'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The  format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs.  This file has
       five columns for the extension, file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines start-
       ing  with  the  '#'  character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be
       like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR   TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default
	      mapping for any filename extension that doesn't match is defined with the "*" char-
	      acter.

	      The Xlate column defines the type of text translation between the Unix  and  Macin-
	      tosh  file  it  is  ignored  by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs(1).
	      Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file	has  it's
	      TYPE  set  as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better
	      choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters  long	and  enclosed  in  single
	      quotes.

	      The  comment  field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored by mkisofs, but is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(4) file used  by  the  Linux
       file(1)	command  -  the routines for reading and decoding the magic file are based on the
       Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for the byte  offset,  type,  test  and  message.
       Lines  starting	with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file
       would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The only difference here  is
       that  for each entry in the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be 4 char-
       acters for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for the TYPE -  white  space  is  optional
       between them. Any other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (starting
       with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing time as  each  file  has  to
       opened and read to find it's magic number.

       In  summary,  for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix' and the default TYPE is 'TEXT'.
       These can be changed by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or by using the  -hfs-creator
       and/or -hfs-type options.

       If  the	a  file  is  in  one  of  the  known  Apple/Unix formats (and the format has been
       selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values stored  in  the  Apple/Unix
       file.

       Other  files  can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name extension (the -map
       option), or their magic number (the -magic option). If the default match is  used  in  the
       mapping file, then these values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A	full	    CREATOR/TYPE	database	can	  be	   found       at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and Resource fork.  Either  may  be  empty.
       Unix  (and  many  other OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork). To add to
       this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated with them - probably the most
       important  are  the  TYPE  and  CREATOR.  Again	Unix  has  no  concept	of these types of
       attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork and a
       desktop	thumbnail  stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data
       fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be  found  to  cope
       with  the  two  forks and the extra attributes (which are referred to as the finder info).
       Unfortunately, it seems that every software package that stores Macintosh  files  on  Unix
       has chosen a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same file-
	      name as data fork. Finder info in .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name  prefixed
	      with  "%". Finder info also stored in same "%" file. Netatalk uses the same format,
	      but the resource fork/finderinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same name
	      as data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data  structures	similar to above, except both forks and finder info are stored in
	      one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork and finder info together in  subdirectory
	      .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very  similar to the EtherShare format, but the finder info is stored slightly dif-
	      ferently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a
	      file.  Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as
	      one record in file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat  for  each  data
	      fork directory.

	      Note:  mkisofs  needs  to  know the native FAT cluster size of the disk that the PC
	      Exchange files are on (or have been copied from). This size is given by the  -clus-
	      ter-size	option.   The  cluster	or  allocation size can be found by using the DOS
	      utility CHKDSK.

	      May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS
	      media  containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when
	      using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when they mount  HFS  disks.  Data  fork  stored  in  a  file.
	      Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same name. Finder info as one record
	      in file .HSancillary. Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
	      Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB servers.	Data  fork  stored  in	a
	      file.  Resource  fork  in subdirectory resource.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to
	      store resource fork.

       Services for Macintosh
	      Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork  is  stored  as
	      "filename".  Resource  fork stored as a NTFS stream called "filename:AFP_Resource".
	      The finder info is stored as a NTFS  stream  called  "filename:Afp_AfpInfo".  These
	      streams are normally invisible to the user.

	      Warning:	mkisofs  only partially supports the SFM format. If an HFS file or folder
	      stored on the NT server contains an illegal NT character in its name, then NT  con-
	      verts these characters to Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * /
	      < > ?  | also a space or period if it is the last character of the file name, char-
	      acter codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately,  these private Unicode characters are not readable by the mkisofs NT
	      executable. Therefore any file or directory name containing these  characters  will
	      be ignored - including the contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When  HFS/HFS+  files  are  copied  or saved by MacOS X on to a non-HFS file system
	      (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored
	      in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder
	      info also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a MacOS  X  system.
	      Data  fork  stored  in  a file. Resource fork stored in a pseudo file with the same
	      name with the suffix '/rsrc'. The finderinfo  is	only  available  via  a  MacOS	X
	      library call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If  a  file  is  found with a zero length resource fork and empty finderinfo, it is
	      assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding - therefore a TYPE and CREATOR  can  be
	      set using other methods.

       mkisofs	will  attempt  to  set	the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other flags from the
       finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Macintosh filename is  set	from  the  finder
       info,  otherwise  the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH
       FILE NAMES section below.

       When using the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional  System  Use
       or  SUSP  field	in  the ISO9660 Directory Record - in much the same way as the Rock Ridge
       attributes are. In fact to make life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the beginning
       of  the	existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get the Rock
       Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file.
       This is just like any normal file stored in the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associ-
       ated file flag is set in the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as  the
       data  fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are normally ignored by
       other OSs

       When using the -hfs option, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored  in	a
       separate  HFS  directory,  not visible on the ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references
       the same data and resource fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the -apple  option,  as  the
       latter  imposes	the  limited  ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. However, the Apple
       extensions do give the advantage that the files are packed on the  disk	more  efficiently
       and  it	may  be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the total size of the
       source files is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is  used  for  the
       HFS  part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with
       the finderinfo. In these cases, the Unix filename is used - with escaped  special  charac-
       ters. Special characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes these characters by using ":" followed by the character code as two hex dig-
       its. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with	any  %xx  or  :xx
       characters  (xx	==  two hex digits) converted to a single character code. If "xx" are not
       hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are left alone - although any remaining  ":"  is  con-
       verted  to "%" as colon is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary
       Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters, the  filesystem  is
       case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, then mkisofs will attempt, where  possible,  to  make	a
       unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as the starting point
       for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames using the -mac-name option.  Normal  Unix
       files without an HFS name will still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a  MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on the Unix filesys-
       tem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then this is the name that would appear
       on  the	HFS  part of the CD. However, as mkisofs uses the Unix name as the starting point
       for the other names, then the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the
       Joliet/Rock  Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the actual data (in this case) is
       a GIF image. This option will use the HFS filename as the starting point and  the  ISO9660
       name will probably be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option - the Unix name will
       be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS file name  to	a  Joliet/Rock	Ridge  file  name
       defaults  to  cp10000  (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set used can be specified using the
       -input-hfs-charset option. Other built in HFS  character  sets  are:  cp10006  (MacGreek),
       cp10007	(MacCyrillic),	cp10029  (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (Mac-
       Turkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various Apple/Unix formats
       will  not  be converted as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character set. Only
       the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The existing mkisofs code will filter out any  illegal  characters  for	the  ISO9660  and
       Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves
       the Rock Ridge names as is.  But as '/' is a legal HFS filename character,  the	-mac-name
       option converts '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the Mac-
       intosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, then you  can
       use  options  like  -allow-multidot without problems on a Macintosh - still take care over
       the names, for example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e.  only	have  one
       '.',  also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen as ABCDE-
       FGHI.  i.e. with a '.' at the end  -  don't  know  if  this  is	a  Macintosh  problem  or
       mkisofs/mkhybrid  problem.  All filenames will be in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh.
       Of course, DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a  standard
       Macintosh  volume icon file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to
       be pasted over the volume's icon in the "Get Info" box of  the  volume.	This  creates  an
       invisible  file	called	'Icon\r'  ('\r'  is  the 'carriage return' character) in the root
       folder.

       A custom folder icon is very similar - an invisible file  called  'Icon\r'  exits  in  the
       folder itself.

       Probably  the  easiest  way  to	create a custom icon that mkisofs can use, is to format a
       blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its "Get Info" box. If using  Linux  with
       the HFS module installed, mount the floppy using something like:

		  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run mkisofs using some-
       thing like:

		  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the icon file	from  the
       floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run mkisofs by using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure  for  creating/using custom folder icons is very similar - paste an icon to
       folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting 'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory
       in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To  give  a  custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at: http://www.fad-
       den.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a bootable  HFS  parti-
       tion and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A  driver  can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using the apple_driver
       utility. This file can then be used with the -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in  our	case)  must  contain  a  suitable  System
       Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have it's boot block set. The boot block is in the
       first two blocks of a partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block  is  full  of
       zeros.  Normally,  when a System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot
       block is filled with a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't know	the  full
       spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from the first HFS parti-
       tion it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is  used  for  the  HFS  partition  created  by
       mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By  using  a  driver  from  an  Apple CD and copying Apple software to your CD, you
	      become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot file specified  by
       the  -b	option	by  inserting a 56-byte "boot information table" at offset 8 in the file.
       This modification is done in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a  copy  if  this
       file  is  not  easily  recreated!   This file contains pointers which may not be easily or
       reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as  follows;  all  integers	are  in  section  7.3.1  ("little
       endian") format.

	 Offset    Name 	  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA of boot file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The  32-bit  checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting at byte
       offset 64.  All linear block addresses (LBAs) are  given  in  CD  sectors  (normally  2048
       bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working directory, then in the
       user's home directory, and then in the directory in which the mkisofs  binary  is  stored.
       This  file  is assumed to contain a series of lines of the form TAG=value, and in this way
       you can specify certain options.  The case of the tag is not significant.  Some fields  in
       the  volume  header  are not settable on the command line, but can be altered through this
       facility.  Comments may be placed in this file, using lines which start with  a	hash  (#)
       character.

       APPI   The  application	identifier  should  describe  the application that will be on the
	      disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  May be  over-
	      ridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The  copyright  information,  often  the	name of a file on the disc containing the
	      copyright notice.  There is space in the disc for  37  characters  of  information.
	      May be overridden using the -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The  abstract  information,  often  the  name  of  a file on the disc containing an
	      abstract.  There is space in the disc for 37 characters  of  information.   May  be
	      overridden using the -abstract command line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information,	often the name of a file on the disc containing a
	      bibliography.  There is space in the disc for 37 characters of information.  May be
	      overridden using the -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This  should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and
	      phone number.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of  information.   May
	      be overridden using the -p command line option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and
	      phone number.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of  information.   May
	      be overridden using the -P command line option.

       SYSI   The  System  Identifier.	 There is space on the disc for 32 characters of informa-
	      tion.  May be overridden using the -sysid command line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32  characters  of  informa-
	      tion.  May be overridden using the -V command line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.
	      May be overridden using the -volset command line option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 characters.  May	be  over-
	      ridden using the -hfs-type command line option.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The  default  CREATOR  for  Macintosh  files. Must be exactly 4 characters.  May be
	      overridden using the -hfs-creator command line option.

       mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults for  many  of  these  fields.
       See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To  create  a  vanilla  ISO-9660  filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where the directory
       cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where  all  files
       have at least read permission and all files are owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of the source direc-
       tory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid  CD  from  the  source  directory  cd_dir  that  contains  Netatalk
       Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and
       TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the source directories  cd_dir
       and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files
       are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the  name  README,  but
       have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the
       three README files - but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and  the  other  two  README
       files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are  probably  all  sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide
       options ...

AUTHOR
       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because we must generate a com-
       plete   copy  of  an  existing  filesystem on a disk in the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name
       mkisofs is probably a bit of a misnomer, since it not only creates the filesystem, but  it
       also  populates	it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a UNIX tool that cre-
       ates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the first versions (1993
       ...  1998)  of the mkisofs utility.  The copyright for old versions of the mkisofs utility
       is held by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote  the  SCSI	transport
       library	and  it's adaptation layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1999) of the
       utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow mkisofs to read the
       previous session when creating a multi session image.

       If  mkisofs  is	creating  a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes and the directory
       nesting level of the source directory tree is too much for ISO-9660, mkisofs will do  deep
       directory  relocation.	This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory
       of the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

BUGS
       o      Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to the iso9660
	      filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

       o      Does  not check for SUSP record(s) in "." entry of the root directory to verify the
	      existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

	      This problem is present when reading old sessions while adding data  in  multi-ses-
	      sion mode.

       o      Does  not  properly  read  relocated  directories in multi-session mode when adding
	      data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not include	the  deep
	      directory.

	      Repeat by: create first session with deep directory relocation then add new session
	      with a single dir that differs from the old deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       o      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multi-session mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the  modified  libhfs  routines  to
       work,  however  there  may  be situations that either I haven't thought of, or come across
       when these assumptions fail.  Therefore I  can't  guarantee  that  mkisofs  will  work  as
       expected (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       however, some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters, the  filesystem  is
       case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, then mkisofs will attempt, where  possible,  to  make	a
       unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N' (N == decimal number)
       substituted for the last few characters to generate unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or  directories  (see  above  for  the
       method  and  syntax  involved).	It  is	not  possible to use a new name for an Apple/Unix
       encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix encoded file called "oldname" is to added  to
       the CD, then you can not use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs	will  be  unable  to  decode "oldname". However, you can graft Apple/Unix encoded
       files or directories as long as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C, only  files  in  the
       last  session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs can not add existing files from pre-
       vious sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with the -part option, then each session  will  appear
       as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this case, it is worth using the -V or -hfs-
       volid option to give each session a unique  volume  name,  otherwise  each  "volume"  will
       appear on the Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the same data. In some
       cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume may be significantly larger.  As  an  HFS
       volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file
       can occupy).  For a 650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb	DVD  it  will  be
       about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 - although the real limit will
       be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using the  hfsutils  rou-
       tines.  However,  no changes can be made to the volume as it is set as locked.  The option
       -hfs-unlock will create an output image that is unlocked - however no  changes  should  be
       made to the contents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's not
       a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option - the Unix name will
       be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has it's TYPE set
       as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better  choice  for  the
       default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May  not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media
       containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported - see HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section above.

       It is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options with the -boot-hfs-
       file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs	should	be  able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although this has not been
       fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	  is	available    as     part     of     the     cdrecord	 package     from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree   is   available   as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools  package  from  ftp://ftp.ker-
       nel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or mkhybrid, you  may
       join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

		 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the list is:

		 cdwrite@lists.debian.org

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       Of you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

Version 2.0				   24 Dec 2002				       MKISOFS(8)


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