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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for extutils::makemaker (redhat section 3pm)

ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3pm)	 Perl Programmers Reference Guide	 ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3pm)

NAME
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker - create an extension Makefile

SYNOPSIS
	 use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

	 WriteMakefile( ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...] );

DESCRIPTION
       This utility is designed to write a Makefile for an extension module from a Makefile.PL.
       It is based on the Makefile.SH model provided by Andy Dougherty and the perl5-porters.

       It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several subroutines that can be indi-
       vidually overridden.  Each subroutine returns the text it wishes to have written to the
       Makefile.

       MakeMaker is object oriented. Each directory below the current directory that contains a
       Makefile.PL is treated as a separate object. This makes it possible to write an unlimited
       number of Makefiles with a single invocation of WriteMakefile().

       How To Write A Makefile.PL

       The short answer is: Don't.

	       Always begin with h2xs.
	       Always begin with h2xs!
	       ALWAYS BEGIN WITH H2XS!

       even if you're not building around a header file, and even if you don't have an XS compo-
       nent.

       Run h2xs(1) before you start thinking about writing a module. For so called pm-only mod-
       ules that consist of "*.pm" files only, h2xs has the "-X" switch. This will generate dummy
       files of all kinds that are useful for the module developer.

       The medium answer is:

	   use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;
	   WriteMakefile( NAME => "Foo::Bar" );

       The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-)

       Default Makefile Behaviour

       The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension to invoke

	 perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"
	 make
	 make test	  # optionally set TEST_VERBOSE=1
	 make install	  # See below

       The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding arguments of the form "KEY=VALUE".
       E.g.

	 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/tmp/myperl5

       Other interesting targets in the generated Makefile are

	 make config	 # to check if the Makefile is up-to-date
	 make clean	 # delete local temp files (Makefile gets renamed)
	 make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)
	 make ci	 # check in all the files in the MANIFEST file
	 make dist	 # see below the Distribution Support section

       make test

       MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file named test.pl in the current directory and if
       it exists it execute the script with the proper set of perl "-I" options.

       MakeMaker also checks for any files matching glob("t/*.t"). It will execute all matching
       files in alphabetical order via the Test::Harness module with the "-I" switches set cor-
       rectly.

       If you'd like to see the raw output of your tests, set the "TEST_VERBOSE" variable to
       true.

	 make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

       make testdb

       A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It runs the test under the Perl
       debugger (see perldebug). If the file test.pl exists in the current directory, it is used
       for the test.

       If you want to debug some other testfile, set the "TEST_FILE" variable thusly:

	 make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

       By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to perl. If you want to specify some
       other option, set the "TESTDB_SW" variable:

	 make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx

       make install

       make alone puts all relevant files into directories that are named by the macros INST_LIB,
       INST_ARCHLIB, INST_SCRIPT, INST_MAN1DIR and INST_MAN3DIR.  All these default to something
       below ./blib if you are not building below the perl source directory. If you are building
       below the perl source, INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to ../../lib, and INST_SCRIPT is
       not defined.

       The install target of the generated Makefile copies the files found below each of the
       INST_* directories to their INSTALL* counterparts. Which counterparts are chosen depends
       on the setting of INSTALLDIRS according to the following table:

					INSTALLDIRS set to
				  perl	      site	    vendor

			PREFIX		SITEPREFIX	    VENDORPREFIX
	 INST_ARCHLIB	INSTALLARCHLIB	INSTALLSITEARCH     INSTALLVENDORARCH
	 INST_LIB	INSTALLPRIVLIB	INSTALLSITELIB	    INSTALLVENDORLIB
	 INST_BIN	INSTALLBIN	INSTALLSITEBIN	    INSTALLVENDORBIN
	 INST_SCRIPT	INSTALLSCRIPT	INSTALLSCRIPT	    INSTALLSCRIPT
	 INST_MAN1DIR	INSTALLMAN1DIR	INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR  INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR
	 INST_MAN3DIR	INSTALLMAN3DIR	INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR  INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR

       The INSTALL... macros in turn default to their %Config ($Config{installprivlib}, $Con-
       fig{installarchlib}, etc.) counterparts.

       You can check the values of these variables on your system with

	   perl '-V:install.*'

       And to check the sequence in which the library directories are searched by perl, run

	   perl -le 'print join $/, @INC'

       PREFIX and LIB attribute

       PREFIX and LIB can be used to set several INSTALL* attributes in one go. The quickest way
       to install a module in a non-standard place might be

	   perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~

       This will install all files in the module under your home directory, with man pages and
       libraries going into an appropriate place (usually ~/man and ~/lib).

       Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a single parameter is LIB.

	   perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

       This will install the module's architecture-independent files into ~/lib, the architec-
       ture-dependent files into ~/lib/$archname.

       Note, that in both cases the tilde expansion is done by MakeMaker, not by perl by default,
       nor by make.

       Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various INSTALL* arguments are resolved
       so that:

       o   setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLSITELIB,
	   INSTALLSITEARCH (and they are not affected by PREFIX);

       o   without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial $Config{prefix} part of those
	   INSTALL* arguments, even if the latter are explicitly set (but are set to still start
	   with $Config{prefix}).

       If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working on AFS or relatives, then the
       defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate, and
       this incantation will be the best:

	   perl Makefile.PL;
	   make;
	   make test
	   make install

       make install per default writes some documentation of what has been done into the file
       "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This feature can be bypassed by calling make
       pure_install.

       AFS users

       will have to specify the installation directories as these most probably have changed
       since perl itself has been installed. They will have to do this by calling

	   perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \
	       INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages
	   make

       Be careful to repeat this procedure every time you recompile an extension, unless you are
       sure the AFS installation directories are still valid.

       Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

       An extension that is built with the above steps is ready to use on systems supporting
       dynamic loading. On systems that do not support dynamic loading, any newly created exten-
       sion has to be linked together with the available resources. MakeMaker supports the link-
       ing process by creating appropriate targets in the Makefile whenever an extension is
       built. You can invoke the corresponding section of the makefile with

	   make perl

       That produces a new perl binary in the current directory with all extensions linked in
       that can be found in INST_ARCHLIB, SITELIBEXP, and PERL_ARCHLIB. To do that, MakeMaker
       writes a new Makefile, on UNIX, this is called Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent).
       If you want to force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended, that you delete this
       Makefile.aperl, so the directories are searched-through for linkable libraries again.

       The binary can be installed into the directory where perl normally resides on your machine
       with

	   make inst_perl

       To produce a perl binary with a different name than "perl", either say

	   perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl
	   make myperl
	   make inst_perl

       or say

	   perl Makefile.PL
	   make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl
	   make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

       In any case you will be prompted with the correct invocation of the "inst_perl" target
       that installs the new binary into INSTALLBIN.

       make inst_perl per default writes some documentation of what has been done into the file
       "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This can be bypassed by calling make pure_inst_perl.

       Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably overwrite your existing perl binary. Use
       with care!

       Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl although your system supports
       dynamic loading. In this case you may explicitly set the linktype with the invocation of
       the Makefile.PL or make:

	   perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended

       or

	   make LINKTYPE=static 	       # works on most systems

       Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

       MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things are located.	Especially
       INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where to put the files during the make(1) run), PERL_LIB and
       PERL_ARCHLIB (where to read existing modules from), and PERL_INC (header files and
       "libperl*.*").

       Extensions may be built either using the contents of the perl source directory tree or
       from the installed perl library. The recommended way is to build extensions after you have
       run 'make install' on perl itself. You can do that in any directory on your hard disk that
       is not below the perl source tree. The support for extensions below the ext directory of
       the perl distribution is only good for the standard extensions that come with perl.

       If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory of the perl source then Make-
       Maker will set PERL_SRC automatically (e.g., "../..").  If PERL_SRC is defined and the
       extension is recognized as a standard extension, then other variables default to the fol-
       lowing:

	 PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC
	 PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib
	 PERL_ARCHLIB = PERL_SRC/lib
	 INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB
	 INST_ARCHLIB = PERL_ARCHLIB

       If an extension is being built away from the perl source then MakeMaker will leave
       PERL_SRC undefined and default to using the installed copy of the perl library. The other
       variables default to the following:

	 PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE
	 PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp
	 PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp
	 INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib
	 INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

       If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be defined on the command line as
       shown in the previous section.

       Which architecture dependent directory?

       If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL* macros, MakeMaker helps you to
       minimize the typing needed: the usual relationship between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLARCH-
       LIB is determined by Configure at perl compilation time. MakeMaker supports the user who
       sets INSTALLPRIVLIB. If INSTALLPRIVLIB is set, but INSTALLARCHLIB not, then MakeMaker
       defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory of INSTALLPRIVLIB as Configure decided for
       the counterparts in %Config , otherwise it defaults to INSTALLPRIVLIB. The same relation-
       ship holds for INSTALLSITELIB and INSTALLSITEARCH.

       MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to configure internal variables and get
       different results. It is worth to mention, that make(1) also lets you configure most of
       the variables that are used in the Makefile. But in the majority of situations this will
       not be necessary, and should only be done if the author of a package recommends it (or you
       know what you're doing).

       Using Attributes and Parameters

       The following attributes may be specified as arguments to WriteMakefile() or as NAME=VALUE
       pairs on the command line.

       ABSTRACT
	 One line description of the module. Will be included in PPD file.

       ABSTRACT_FROM
	 Name of the file that contains the package description. MakeMaker looks for a line in
	 the POD matching /^($package\s-\s)(.*)/. This is typically the first line in the "=head1
	 NAME" section. $2 becomes the abstract.

       AUTHOR
	 String containing name (and email address) of package author(s). Is used in PPD (Perl
	 Package Description) files for PPM (Perl Package Manager).

       BINARY_LOCATION
	 Used when creating PPD files for binary packages.  It can be set to a full or relative
	 path or URL to the binary archive for a particular architecture.  For example:

		 perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

	 builds a PPD package that references a binary of the "Agent" package, located in the
	 "x86" directory relative to the PPD itself.

       C Ref to array of *.c file names. Initialised from a directory scan and the values portion
	 of the XS attribute hash. This is not currently used by MakeMaker but may be handy in
	 Makefile.PLs.

       CCFLAGS
	 String that will be included in the compiler call command line between the arguments INC
	 and OPTIMIZE.

       CONFIG
	 Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME & MANEXT from config.sh. MakeMaker
	 will add to CONFIG the following values anyway: ar cc cccdlflags ccdlflags dlext dlsrc
	 ld lddlflags ldflags libc lib_ext obj_ext ranlib sitelibexp sitearchexp so

       CONFIGURE
	 CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash reference. The hash may contain fur-
	 ther attributes, e.g. {LIBS => ...}, that have to be determined by some evaluation
	 method.

       DEFINE
	 Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"

       DIR
	 Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs e.g. [ 'sdbm' ] in ext/SDBM_File

       DISTNAME
	 Your name for distributing the package (by tar file). This defaults to NAME above.

       DL_FUNCS
	 Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made available as universal symbols.  Each
	 key/value pair consists of the package name and an array of routine names in that pack-
	 age.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.  The routine names supplied
	 will be expanded in the same way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS() macro.  Defaults
	 to

	   {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }

	 e.g.

	   {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],
	    "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

	 Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for more information about the
	 DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUNCLIST attributes.

       DL_VARS
	 Array of symbol names for variables to be made available as universal symbols.  Used
	 only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.  Defaults to [].  (e.g. [ qw(Foo_version
	 Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])

       EXCLUDE_EXT
	 Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static build.  This is ignored if
	 INCLUDE_EXT is present.  Consult INCLUDE_EXT for more details.  (e.g.	[ qw( Socket
	 POSIX ) ] )

	 This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on the command line:  perl
	 Makefile.PL EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

       EXE_FILES
	 Ref to array of executable files. The files will be copied to the INST_SCRIPT directory.
	 Make realclean will delete them from there again.

       FIRST_MAKEFILE
	 The name of the Makefile to be produced. Defaults to the contents of MAKEFILE, but can
	 be overridden. This is used for the second Makefile that will be produced for the
	 MAP_TARGET.

       FULLPERL
	 Perl binary able to run this extension, load XS modules, etc...

       FULLPERLRUN
	 Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.

       FULLPERLRUNINST
	 Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.

       FUNCLIST
	 This provides an alternate means to specify function names to be exported from the
	 extension.  Its value is a reference to an array of function names to be exported by the
	 extension.  These names are passed through unaltered to the linker options file.

       H Ref to array of *.h file names. Similar to C.

       IMPORTS
	 This attribute is used to specify names to be imported into the extension. Takes a hash
	 ref.

	 It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

       INC
	 Include file dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"

       INCLUDE_EXT
	 Array of extension names to be included when doing a static build.  MakeMaker will nor-
	 mally build with all of the installed extensions when doing a static build, and that is
	 usually the desired behavior.	If INCLUDE_EXT is present then MakeMaker will build only
	 with those extensions which are explicitly mentioned. (e.g.  [ qw( Socket POSIX ) ])

	 It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current extension when filling in
	 INCLUDE_EXT.  If the INCLUDE_EXT is mentioned but is empty then only DynaLoader and the
	 current extension will be included in the build.

	 This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string on the command line:  perl
	 Makefile.PL INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket Devel::Peek'

       INSTALLARCHLIB
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

       INSTALLBIN
	 Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into if INSTALLDIRS=perl.

       INSTALLDIRS
	 Determines which of the sets of installation directories to choose: perl, site or ven-
	 dor.  Defaults to site.

       INSTALLMAN1DIR
       INSTALLMAN3DIR
	 These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if INSTALLDIRS=perl.
	 Defaults to $Config{installman*dir}.

	 If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       INSTALLPRIVLIB
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

	 Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

       INSTALLSCRIPT
	 Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to this directory.

       INSTALLSITEARCH
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

       INSTALLSITEBIN
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

       INSTALLSITELIB
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

       INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR
       INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR
	 These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if INSTALLDIRS=site
	 (default).  Defaults to $(SITEPREFIX)/man/man$(MAN*EXT).

	 If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       INSTALLVENDORARCH
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

       INSTALLVENDORBIN
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

       INSTALLVENDORLIB
	 Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this directory if
	 INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

       INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR
       INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR
	 These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time if INSTALLDIRS=vendor.
	 Defaults to $(VENDORPREFIX)/man/man$(MAN*EXT).

	 If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       INST_ARCHLIB
	 Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.

       INST_BIN
	 Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These will be copied to INSTALLBIN
	 during 'make install'

       INST_LIB
	 Directory where we put library files of this extension while building it.

       INST_MAN1DIR
	 Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

       INST_MAN3DIR
	 Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

       INST_SCRIPT
	 Directory, where executable files should be installed during 'make'. Defaults to
	 "./blib/script", just to have a dummy location during testing. make install will copy
	 the files in INST_SCRIPT to INSTALLSCRIPT.

       LDDLFLAGS
	 Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld to create a shared library suitable
	 for dynamic loading.  It is up to the makefile to use it.  (See "lddlflags" in Config)

	 Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

       LDFROM
	 Defaults to "$(OBJECT)" and is used in the ld command to specify what files to link/load
	 from (also see dynamic_lib below for how to specify ld flags)

       LIB
	 LIB should only be set at "perl Makefile.PL" time but is allowed as a MakeMaker argu-
	 ment. It has the effect of setting both INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLSITELIB to that value
	 regardless any explicit setting of those arguments (or of PREFIX).  INSTALLARCHLIB and
	 INSTALLSITEARCH are set to the corresponding architecture subdirectory.

       LIBPERL_A
	 The filename of the perllibrary that will be used together with this extension. Defaults
	 to libperl.a.

       LIBS
	 An anonymous array of alternative library specifications to be searched for (in order)
	 until at least one library is found. E.g.

	   'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

	 Mind, that any element of the array contains a complete set of arguments for the ld com-
	 mand. So do not specify

	   'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

	 See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array is needed. If you specify a
	 scalar as in

	   'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

	 MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

       LINKTYPE
	 'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef in config.sh). Should only be used to
	 force static linking (also see linkext below).

       MAKEAPERL
	 Boolean which tells MakeMaker, that it should include the rules to make a perl. This is
	 handled automatically as a switch by MakeMaker. The user normally does not need it.

       MAKEFILE
	 The name of the Makefile to be produced.

       MAN1PODS
	 Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default this to all EXE_FILES files that
	 include POD directives. The files listed here will be converted to man pages and
	 installed as was requested at Configure time.

       MAN3PODS
	 Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files into which the manpages are to be
	 written. MakeMaker parses all *.pod and *.pm files for POD directives. Files that con-
	 tain POD will be the default keys of the MAN3PODS hashref. These will then be converted
	 to man pages during "make" and will be installed during "make install".

       MAP_TARGET
	 If it is intended, that a new perl binary be produced, this variable may hold a name for
	 that binary. Defaults to perl

       MYEXTLIB
	 If the extension links to a library that it builds set this to the name of the library
	 (see SDBM_File)

       NAME
	 Perl module name for this extension (DBD::Oracle). This will default to the directory
	 name but should be explicitly defined in the Makefile.PL.

       NEEDS_LINKING
	 MakeMaker will figure out if an extension contains linkable code anywhere down the
	 directory tree, and will set this variable accordingly, but you can speed it up a very
	 little bit if you define this boolean variable yourself.

       NOECHO
	 Defaults to "@". By setting it to an empty string you can generate a Makefile that echos
	 all commands. Mainly used in debugging MakeMaker itself.

       NORECURS
	 Boolean.  Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirectories.

       NO_VC
	 In general, any generated Makefile checks for the current version of MakeMaker and the
	 version the Makefile was built under. If NO_VC is set, the version check is neglected.
	 Do not write this into your Makefile.PL, use it interactively instead.

       OBJECT
	 List of object files, defaults to '$(BASEEXT)$(OBJ_EXT)', but can be a long string con-
	 taining all object files, e.g. "tkpBind.o tkpButton.o tkpCanvas.o"

	 (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and OBJ_EXT is $Config{obj_ext}.)

       OPTIMIZE
	 Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on. The flag is passed to subdirec-
	 tory makes.

       PERL
	 Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl

       PERL_CORE
	 Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core distribution.

       PERLMAINCC
	 The call to the program that is able to compile perlmain.c. Defaults to $(CC).

       PERL_ARCHLIB
	 Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent files.

	 Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core distribution
	 (because normally $(PERL_ARCHLIB) is automatically in @INC, and adding it would get in
	 the way of PERL5LIB).

       PERL_LIB
	 Directory containing the Perl library to use.

	 Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core distribution
	 (because normally $(PERL_LIB) is automatically in @INC, and adding it would get in the
	 way of PERL5LIB).

       PERL_MALLOC_OK
	 defaults to 0.  Should be set to TRUE if the extension can work with the memory alloca-
	 tion routines substituted by the Perl malloc() subsystem.  This should be applicable to
	 most extensions with exceptions of those

	 o   with bugs in memory allocations which are caught by Perl's malloc();

	 o   which interact with the memory allocator in other ways than via malloc(), realloc(),
	     free(), calloc(), sbrk() and brk();

	 o   which rely on special alignment which is not provided by Perl's malloc().

	 NOTE.	Negligence to set this flag in any one of loaded extension nullifies many advan-
	 tages of Perl's malloc(), such as better usage of system resources, error detection,
	 memory usage reporting, catchable failure of memory allocations, etc.

       PERLRUN
	 Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl.  It will set up extra necessary
	 flags for you.

       PERLRUNINST
	 Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to work with modules.  It will add
	 things like -I$(INST_ARCH) and other necessary flags so perl can see the modules you're
	 about to install.

       PERL_SRC
	 Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this should be avoided, it may be
	 undefined)

       PERM_RW
	 Desired permission for read/writable files. Defaults to 644.  See also "perm_rw" in
	 MM_Unix.

       PERM_RWX
	 Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to 755.  See also "perm_rwx" in
	 MM_Unix.

       PL_FILES
	 Ref to hash of files to be processed as perl programs. MakeMaker will default to any
	 found *.PL file (except Makefile.PL) being keys and the basename of the file being the
	 value. E.g.

	   {'foobar.PL' => 'foobar'}

	 The *.PL files are expected to produce output to the target files themselves. If multi-
	 ple files can be generated from the same *.PL file then the value in the hash can be a
	 reference to an array of target file names. E.g.

	   {'foobar.PL' => ['foobar1','foobar2']}

       PM
	 Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed.  e.g.

	   {'name_of_file.pm' => '$(INST_LIBDIR)/install_as.pm'}

	 By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files found in the PMLIBDIRS directo-
	 ries.	Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

       PMLIBDIRS
	 Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files.  Defaults to [ 'lib', $(BASE-
	 EXT) ]. The directories will be scanned and any files they contain will be installed in
	 the corresponding location in the library.  A libscan() method can be used to alter the
	 behaviour.  Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

	 (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

       PM_FILTER
	 A filter program, in the traditional Unix sense (input from stdin, output to stdout)
	 that is passed on each .pm file during the build (in the pm_to_blib() phase).	It is
	 empty by default, meaning no filtering is done.

	 Great care is necessary when defining the command if quoting needs to be done.  For
	 instance, you would need to say:

	   {'PM_FILTER' => 'grep -v \\"^\\#\\"'}

	 to remove all the leading coments on the fly during the build.  The extra \\ are neces-
	 sary, unfortunately, because this variable is interpolated within the context of a Perl
	 program built on the command line, and double quotes are what is used with the -e switch
	 to build that command line.  The # is escaped for the Makefile, since what is going to
	 be generated will then be:

	   PM_FILTER = grep -v \"^\#\"

	 Without the \\ before the #, we'd have the start of a Makefile comment, and the macro
	 would be incorrectly defined.

       POLLUTE
	 Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by providing preprocessor macros for
	 extension source compatibility.  As of release 5.6, these preprocessor definitions are
	 not available by default.  The POLLUTE flag specifies that the old names should still be
	 defined:

	   perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

	 Please inform the module author if this is necessary to successfully install a module
	 under 5.6 or later.

       PPM_INSTALL_EXEC
	 Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT" below. (e.g. perl)

       PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT
	 Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Package Manager after the installation
	 of a package.

       PREFIX
	 This overrides all the default install locations.  Man pages, libraries, scripts, etc...
	 MakeMaker will try to make an educated guess about where to place things under the new
	 PREFIX based on your Config defaults.	Failing that, it will fall back to a structure
	 which should be sensible for your platform.

	 If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will not be effected by the PREFIX.

	 Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp}.

       PREREQ_FATAL
	 Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the required modules (or the right ver-
	 sions thereof) will be fatal. perl Makefile.PL will die with the proper message.

	 Note: see Test::Harness for a shortcut for stopping tests early if you are missing
	 dependencies.

	 Do not use this parameter for simple requirements, which could be resolved at a later
	 time, e.g. after an unsuccessful make test of your module.

	 It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL" at all!

       PREREQ_PM
	 Hashref: Names of modules that need to be available to run this extension (e.g. Fcntl
	 for SDBM_File) are the keys of the hash and the desired version is the value. If the
	 required version number is 0, we only check if any version is installed already.

       PREREQ_PRINT
	 Bool.	If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will be printed to stdout and Make-
	 Maker will exit.  The output format is

	 $PREREQ_PM = {
			'A::B' => Vers1,
			'C::D' => Vers2,
			...
		      };

       PRINT_PREREQ
	 RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT".	The output format is different, though:

	     perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...

       SITEPREFIX
	 Like PREFIX, but only for the site install locations.

	 Defaults to PREFIX (if set) or $Config{siteprefixexp}.  Perls prior to 5.6.0 didn't have
	 an explicit siteprefix in the Config.	In those cases $Config{installprefix} will be
	 used.

       SKIP
	 Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write) sections of the Makefile. Caution!
	 Do not use the SKIP attribute for the negligible speedup. It may seriously damage the
	 resulting Makefile. Only use it if you really need it.

       TYPEMAPS
	 Ref to array of typemap file names.  Use this when the typemaps are in some directory
	 other than the current directory or when they are not named typemap.  The last typemap
	 in the list takes precedence.	A typemap in the current directory has highest prece-
	 dence, even if it isn't listed in TYPEMAPS.  The default system typemap has lowest
	 precedence.

       VENDORPREFIX
	 Like PREFIX, but only for the vendor install locations.

	 Defaults to PREFIX (if set) or $Config{vendorprefixexp}

       VERBINST
	 If true, make install will be verbose

       VERSION
	 Your version number for distributing the package.  This defaults to 0.1.

       VERSION_FROM
	 Instead of specifying the VERSION in the Makefile.PL you can let MakeMaker parse a file
	 to determine the version number. The parsing routine requires that the file named by
	 VERSION_FROM contains one single line to compute the version number. The first line in
	 the file that contains the regular expression

	     /([\$*])(([\w\:\']*)\bVERSION)\b.*\=/

	 will be evaluated with eval() and the value of the named variable after the eval() will
	 be assigned to the VERSION attribute of the MakeMaker object. The following lines will
	 be parsed o.k.:

	     $VERSION = '1.00';
	     *VERSION = \'1.01';
	     ( $VERSION ) = '$Revision: 1.63 $ ' =~ /\$Revision:\s+([^\s]+)/;
	     $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';
	     *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';
	     our $VERSION = 1.2.3;	 # new for perl5.6.0

	 but these will fail:

	     my $VERSION = '1.01';
	     local $VERSION = '1.02';
	     local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

	 (Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work o.k.)

	 The file named in VERSION_FROM is not added as a dependency to Makefile. This is not
	 really correct, but it would be a major pain during development to have to rewrite the
	 Makefile for any smallish change in that file. If you want to make sure that the Make-
	 file contains the correct VERSION macro after any change of the file, you would have to
	 do something like

	     depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

	 See attribute "depend" below.

       XS
	 Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this.  e.g.

	   {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

	 The .c files will automatically be included in the list of files deleted by a make
	 clean.

       XSOPT
	 String of options to pass to xsubpp.  This might include "-C++" or "-extern".	Do not
	 include typemaps here; the TYPEMAP parameter exists for that purpose.

       XSPROTOARG
	 May be set to an empty string, which is identical to "-prototypes", or "-noprototypes".
	 See the xsubpp documentation for details. MakeMaker defaults to the empty string.

       XS_VERSION
	 Your version number for the .xs file of this package.	This defaults to the value of the
	 VERSION attribute.

       Additional lowercase attributes

       can be used to pass parameters to the methods which implement that part of the Makefile.

       clean
	   {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}

       depend
	   {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDECY, ...}

	 (ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by MakeMaker.)

       dist
	   {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',
	   SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',
	   ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

	 If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be altered, as it is needed to tell
	 make the target file of the compression. Setting DIST_CP to ln can be useful, if you
	 need to preserve the timestamps on your files. DIST_CP can take the values 'cp', which
	 copies the file, 'ln', which links the file, and 'best' which copies symbolic links and
	 links the rest. Default is 'best'.

       dynamic_lib
	   {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}

       linkext
	   {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

	 NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to say

	   {LINKTYPE => ''}

	 with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version 5.00 of MakeMaker such a line can be deleted
	 safely. MakeMaker recognizes when there's nothing to be linked.

       macro
	   {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}

       realclean
	   {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}

       test
	   {TESTS => 't/*.t'}

       tool_autosplit
	   {MAXLEN => 8}

       Overriding MakeMaker Methods

       If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by specifying attributes you may
       define private subroutines in the Makefile.PL.  Each subroutine returns the text it wishes
       to have written to the Makefile. To override a section of the Makefile you can either say:

	       sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

       or you can edit the default by saying something like:

	       package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right
	       sub c_o {
		   my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);
		   $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;
		   $inherited;
	       }

       If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a library into other applications,
       you might find MakeMaker is not sufficient. You'd better have a look at ExtUtils::Embed
       which is a collection of utilities for embedding.

       If you still need a different solution, try to develop another subroutine that fits your
       needs and submit the diffs to makemaker@perl.org

       For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods see ExtUtils::MM_Unix.

       Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the generated Makefile:

	   sub MY::postamble {
	       return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
	   $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile
		   cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all

	   MAKE_FRAG
	   }

       The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

       WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its parameters to protect against
       typos and malformatted values.  This means some things which happened to work in the past
       will now throw warnings and possibly produce internal errors.

       Some of the most common mistakes:

       "<MAN3PODS =" ' '>>
	 This is commonly used to supress the creation of man pages.  MAN3PODS takes a hash ref
	 not a string, but the above worked by accident in old versions of MakeMaker.

	 The correct code is "<MAN3PODS =" { }>>.

       Hintsfile support

       MakeMaker.pm uses the architecture specific information from Config.pm. In addition it
       evaluates architecture specific hints files in a "hints/" directory. The hints files are
       expected to be named like their counterparts in "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" file
       name extension (eg. "next_3_2.pl"). They are simply "eval"ed by MakeMaker within the
       WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used to execute commands as well as to include spe-
       cial variables. The rules which hintsfile is chosen are the same as in Configure.

       The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments given to WriteMakefile are
       stuffed into a hash reference $self but before this reference becomes blessed. So if you
       want to do the equivalent to override or create an attribute you would say something like

	   $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];

       Distribution Support

       For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several Makefile targets. Most of the support
       comes from the ExtUtils::Manifest module, where additional documentation can be found.

       make distcheck
	   reports which files are below the build directory but not in the MANIFEST file and
	   vice versa. (See ExtUtils::Manifest::fullcheck() for details)

       make skipcheck
	   reports which files are skipped due to the entries in the "MANIFEST.SKIP" file (See
	   ExtUtils::Manifest::skipcheck() for details)

       make distclean
	   does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note that this is not needed to build a
	   new distribution as long as you are sure that the MANIFEST file is ok.

       make manifest
	   rewrites the MANIFEST file, adding all remaining files found (See ExtUtils::Mani-
	   fest::mkmanifest() for details)

       make distdir
	   Copies all the files that are in the MANIFEST file to a newly created directory with
	   the name "$(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)". If that directory exists, it will be removed first.

       make disttest
	   Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL", a make, and a make test in that
	   directory.

       make tardist
	   First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a null command, fol-
	   lowed by $(TOUNIX), which defaults to a null command under UNIX, and will convert
	   files in distribution directory to UNIX format otherwise. Next it runs "tar" on that
	   directory into a tarfile and deletes the directory. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP)
	   which defaults to a null command.

       make dist
	   Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in turn defaults to tardist.

       make uutardist
	   Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.

       make shdist
	   First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a null command. Next
	   it runs "shar" on that directory into a sharfile and deletes the intermediate direc-
	   tory again. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.  Note:
	   For shdist to work properly a "shar" program that can handle directories is mandatory.

       make zipdist
	   First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a null command. Runs
	   "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)" on that directory into a zipfile. Then deletes that directory.
	   Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make ci
	   Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in the MANIFEST file.

       Customization of the dist targets can be done by specifying a hash reference to the dist
       attribute of the WriteMakefile call. The following parameters are recognized:

	   CI		('ci -u')
	   COMPRESS	('gzip --best')
	   POSTOP	('@ :')
	   PREOP	('@ :')
	   TO_UNIX	(depends on the system)
	   RCS_LABEL	('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')
	   SHAR 	('shar')
	   SUFFIX	('.gz')
	   TAR		('tar')
	   TARFLAGS	('cvf')
	   ZIP		('zip')
	   ZIPFLAGS	('-r')

       An example:

	   WriteMakefile( 'dist' => { COMPRESS=>"bzip2", SUFFIX=>".bz2" })

       Disabling an extension

       If some events detected in Makefile.PL imply that there is no way to create the Module,
       but this is a normal state of things, then you can create a Makefile which does nothing,
       but succeeds on all the "usual" build targets.  To do so, use

	  ExtUtils::MakeMaker::WriteEmptyMakefile();

       instead of WriteMakefile().

       This may be useful if other modules expect this module to be built OK, as opposed to work
       OK (say, this system-dependent module builds in a subdirectory of some other distribution,
       or is listed as a dependency in a CPAN::Bundle, but the functionality is supported by dif-
       ferent means on the current architecture).

ENVIRONMENT
       PERL_MM_OPT
	       Command line options used by "MakeMaker->new()", and thus by "WriteMakefile()".
	       The string is split on whitespace, and the result is processed before any actual
	       command line arguments are processed.

       PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT
	       If set to a true value then MakeMaker's prompt function will always return the
	       default without waiting for user input.

SEE ALSO
       ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::Manifest ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Embed

AUTHORS
       Andy Dougherty <doughera@lafayette.edu>, Andreas Koenig <andreas.koenig@mind.de>, Tim
       Bunce <timb@cpan.org>.  VMS support by Charles Bailey <bailey@newman.upenn.edu>.  OS/2
       support by Ilya Zakharevich <ilya@math.ohio-state.edu>.

       Currently maintained by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>

       Send patches and ideas to <makemaker@perl.org>.

       Send bug reports via http://rt.cpan.org/.  Please send your generated Makefile along with
       your report.

       For more up-to-date information, see http://www.makemaker.org.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01			 ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3pm)


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