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bigint(3pm)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		      bigint(3pm)

       bigint - Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

	 use bignt;

	 $x = 2 + 4.5,"\n";		       # BigInt 6
	 print 2 ** 512,"\n";		       # really is what you think it is
	 print inf + 42,"\n";		       # inf
	 print NaN * 7,"\n";		       # NaN

       All operators (including basic math operations) are overloaded. Integer constants are cre-
       ated as proper BigInts.

       Floating point constants are truncated to integer. All results are also trunctaed.


       bigint recognizes some options that can be passed while loading it via use.  The options
       can (currently) be either a single letter form, or the long form.  The following options

       a or accuracy
	 This sets the accuracy for all math operations. The argument must be greater than or
	 equal to zero. See Math::BigInt's bround() function for details.

		 perl -Mbigint=a,2 -le 'print 12345+1'

       p or precision
	 This sets the precision for all math operations. The argument can be any integer. Nega-
	 tive values mean a fixed number of digits after the dot, and are <B>ignored</B> since
	 all operations happen in integer space.  A positive value rounds to this digit left from
	 the dot. 0 or 1 mean round to integer and are ignore like negative values.

	 See Math::BigInt's bfround() function for details.

		 perl -Mbignum=p,5 -le 'print 123456789+123'

       t or trace
	 This enables a trace mode and is primarily for debugging bigint or Math::BigInt.

       l or lib
	 Load a different math lib, see "MATH LIBRARY".

		 perl -Mbigint=l,GMP -e 'print 2 ** 512'

	 Currently there is no way to specify more than one library on the command line. This
	 will be hopefully fixed soon ;)

       v or version
	 This prints out the name and version of all modules used and then exits.

		 perl -Mbigint=v -e ''


       Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a module called Math::BigInt::Calc. This is
       equivalent to saying:

	       use bigint lib => 'Calc';

       You can change this by using:

	       use bigint lib => 'BitVect';

       The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then Math::BigInt::Bar, and when
       this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:

	       use bigint lib => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';

       Please see respective module documentation for further details.


       The numbers are stored as objects, and their internals might change at anytime, especially
       between math operations. The objects also might belong to different classes, like
       Math::BigInt, or Math::BigInt::Lite. Mixing them together, even with normal scalars is not
       extraordinary, but normal and expected.

       You should not depend on the internal format, all accesses must go through accessor meth-
       ods. E.g. looking at $x->{sign} is not a bright idea since there is no guaranty that the
       object in question has such a hash key, nor is a hash underneath at all.


       The sign is either '+', '-', 'NaN', '+inf' or '-inf' and stored seperately.  You can
       access it with the sign() method.

       A sign of 'NaN' is used to represent the result when input arguments are not numbers or as
       a result of 0/0. '+inf' and '-inf' represent plus respectively minus infinity. You will
       get '+inf' when dividing a positive number by 0, and '-inf' when dividing any negative
       number by 0.


       Since all numbers are now objects, you can use all functions that are part of the BigInt
       API. You can only use the bxxx() notation, and not the fxxx() notation, though.

       "bigint" is just a thin wrapper around various modules of the Math::BigInt family. Think
       of it as the head of the family, who runs the shop, and orders the others to do the work.

       The following modules are currently used by bigint:

	       Math::BigInt::Lite      (for speed, and only if it is loadable)

       Some cool command line examples to impress the Python crowd ;) You might want to compare
       them to the results under -Mbignum or -Mbigrat:

	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print sqrt(33)'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print 2*255'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print 4.5+2*255'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print 123->is_odd()'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print log(2)'
	       perl -Mbigint -le 'print 2 ** 0.5'
	       perl -Mbigint=a,65 -le 'print 2 ** 0.2'

       This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       Especially bigrat as in "perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 1/3+1/4'" and bignum as in "perl
       -Mbignum -le 'print sqrt(2)'".

       Math::BigInt, Math::BigRat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::BitVect, Math::Big-
       Int::Pari and  Math::BigInt::GMP.

       (C) by Tels <http://bloodgate.com/> in early 2002.

perl v5.8.0				    2002-06-01				      bigint(3pm)
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