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FTW(3)				    Linux Programmer's Manual				   FTW(3)

       ftw, nftw - file tree walk

       #include <ftw.h>

       int ftw(const char *dir, int (*fn)(const char *file, const struct stat *sb, int flag), int

       int nftw(const char *dir, int (*fn)(const char *file, const struct  stat  *sb,  int  flag,
       struct FTW *s), int depth, int flags);

       ftw()  walks  through  the  directory tree starting from the indicated directory dir.  For
       each found entry in the tree, it calls fn() with the full pathname of the entry, a pointer
       to  the	stat(2)  structure  for the entry and an int flag, which value will be one of the

       FTW_F  Item is a normal file

       FTW_D  Item is a directory

	      Item is a directory which can't be read

       FTW_SL Item is a symbolic link

       FTW_NS The stat failed on the item which is not a symbolic link

       If the item is a symbolic link and stat failed, XPG4v2 states that it is undefined whether
       FTW_NS or FTW_SL is used.

       ftw()  recursively  calls  itself  for  traversing found directories, handling a directory
       before its files or subdirectories.  To avoid using up all a program's  file  descriptors,
       the  depth  specifies  the  number  of  simultaneous  open directories.	When the depth is
       exceeded, ftw() will become slower because directories have to  be  closed  and	reopened.
       ftw() uses at most one file descriptor for each level in the file hierarchy.

       To  stop  the  tree walk, fn() returns a non-zero value; this value will become the return
       value of ftw().	Otherwise, ftw() will continue until it has traversed the entire tree, in
       which  case  it	will  return zero, or until it hits an error other than EACCES (such as a
       malloc(3) failure), in which case it will return -1.

       Because ftw() uses dynamic data structures, the only safe way to exit out of a  tree  walk
       is to return a non-zero value.  To handle interrupts, for example, mark that the interrupt
       occurred and return a non-zero value--don't use longjmp(3) unless the program is going  to

       The  function  nftw()  does precisely the same as ftw(), except that it has one additional
       argument flags (and calls the supplied function with one more argument).  This flags argu-
       ment is an OR of zero or more of the following flags:

	      If set, do a chdir() to each directory before handling its contents.

	      If  set,	do  a  depth-first  search,  that is, call the function for the directory
	      itself only after handling the contents of the directory and its subdirectories.

	      If set, stay within the same file system.

	      If set, do not follow symbolic links.  (This is what you want.)  If not  set,  sym-
	      bolic links are followed, but no file is reported twice.

       If FTW_PHYS is not set, but FTW_DEPTH is set, then the function fn() is never called for a
       directory that would be a descendant of itself.

       The function fn() is called with four arguments: the pathname of  the  reported	entry,	a
       pointer	to a struct stat for this entry, an integer describing its type, and a pointer to
       a struct FTW. The type will be one of the following: FTW_F, FTW_D, FTW_DNR, FTW_SL, FTW_NS
       (with meaning as above; FTW_SL occurs only with FTW_PHYS set) or

       FTW_DP Item is a directory and all its descendants have been handled already. (This occurs
	      only with FTW_DEPTH set.)

	      Item is a symbolic link pointing to a nonexisting file.	(This  occurs  only  with
	      FTW_PHYS unset.)

       The struct FTW pointed at by the fourth argument to fn() has at least the fields base, the
       offset of the item's filename in the pathname given as first argument of fn(), and  level,
       the depth of the item relative to the starting point (which has depth 0).

       The function nftw() and the use of FTW_SL with ftw() were introduced in XPG4v2.

       On  some systems ftw() will never use FTW_SL, on other systems FTW_SL occurs only for sym-
       bolic links that do not point to an existing file, and again on other systems  ftw()  will
       use FTW_SL for each symbolic link. For predictable control, use nftw().

       Under  Linux,  libc4 and libc5 and glibc 2.0.6 will use FTW_F for all objects (files, sym-
       bolic links, fifos, etc) that can be stat'ed but are not a directory.  The function nftw()
       is available since glibc 2.1.

       AES, SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, XPG4v2.


Linux					    1999-06-25					   FTW(3)
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