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MALLOC(3)			    Linux Programmer's Manual				MALLOC(3)

       calloc, malloc, free, realloc - Allocate and free dynamic memory

       #include <stdlib.h>

       void *calloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
       void *malloc(size_t size);
       void free(void *ptr);
       void *realloc(void *ptr, size_t size);

       calloc()  allocates memory for an array of nmemb elements of size bytes each and returns a
       pointer to the allocated memory.  The memory is set to zero.

       malloc() allocates size bytes and returns a pointer to the allocated memory.   The  memory
       is not cleared.

       free() frees the memory space pointed to by ptr, which must have been returned by a previ-
       ous call to malloc(), calloc() or realloc().  Otherwise, or if free(ptr) has already  been
       called before, undefined behaviour occurs.  If ptr is NULL, no operation is performed.

       realloc()  changes the size of the memory block pointed to by ptr to size bytes.  The con-
       tents will be unchanged to the minimum of the old and new sizes;  newly	allocated  memory
       will be uninitialized.  If ptr is NULL, the call is equivalent to malloc(size); if size is
       equal to zero, the call is equivalent to free(ptr).  Unless ptr is NULL, it must have been
       returned by an earlier call to malloc(), calloc() or realloc().

       For  calloc() and malloc(), the value returned is a pointer to the allocated memory, which
       is suitably aligned for any kind of variable, or NULL if the request fails.

       free() returns no value.

       realloc() returns a pointer to the newly allocated memory, which is suitably  aligned  for
       any  kind of variable and may be different from ptr, or NULL if the request fails. If size
       was equal to 0, either NULL or a pointer suitable to be passed to free() is returned.   If
       realloc() fails the original block is left untouched - it is not freed or moved.


       brk(2), posix_memalign(3)

       The Unix98 standard requires malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to set errno to ENOMEM upon
       failure. Glibc assumes that this is done (and the glibc	versions  of  these  routines  do
       this);  if  you	use a private malloc implementation that does not set errno, then certain
       library routines may fail without having a reason in errno.

       Crashes in malloc(), free() or realloc() are almost always  related  to	heap  corruption,
       such as overflowing an allocated chunk or freeing the same pointer twice.

       Recent  versions  of  Linux  libc  (later than 5.4.23) and GNU libc (2.x) include a malloc
       implementation which is tunable via environment variables.  When MALLOC_CHECK_ is  set,	a
       special	(less  efficient) implementation is used which is designed to be tolerant against
       simple errors, such as double calls of free() with the same argument,  or  overruns  of	a
       single byte (off-by-one bugs).  Not all such errors can be protected against, however, and
       memory leaks can result.  If MALLOC_CHECK_ is set to 0, any detected  heap  corruption  is
       silently  ignored; if set to 1, a diagnostic is printed on stderr; if set to 2, abort() is
       called immediately.  This can be useful because otherwise a crash may happen  much  later,
       and the true cause for the problem is then very hard to track down.

       Linux  follows  an  optimistic  memory allocation strategy.  This means that when malloc()
       returns non-NULL there is no guarantee that the memory really is  available.  In  case  it
       turns  out  that  the system is out of memory, one or more processes will be killed by the
       infamous OOM killer.

GNU					    1993-04-04					MALLOC(3)
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