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XMODMAP(1)									       XMODMAP(1)

       xmodmap - utility for modifying keymaps and pointer button mappings in X

       xmodmap [-options ...] [filename]

       The xmodmap program is used to edit and display the keyboard modifier map and keymap table
       that are used by client applications to convert event keycodes into keysyms.  It  is  usu-
       ally  run  from	the  user's session startup script to configure the keyboard according to
       personal tastes.

       The following options may be used with xmodmap:

       -display display
	       This option specifies the host and display to use.

       -help   This option indicates that a brief  description	of  the  command  line	arguments
	       should  be  printed  on the standard error channel.  This will be done whenever an
	       unhandled argument is given to xmodmap.

	       This option indicates that a help message describing the expression  grammar  used
	       in files and with -e expressions should be printed on the standard error.

	       This  option  indicates that xmodmap should print logging information as it parses
	       its input.

       -quiet  This option turns off the verbose logging.  This is the default.

       -n      This option indicates that xmodmap should not change the mappings, but should dis-
	       play what it would do, like make(1) does when given this option.

       -e expression
	       This option specifies an expression to be executed.  Any number of expressions may
	       be specified from the command line.

       -pm     This option indicates that the current modifier map should be printed on the stan-
	       dard output.

       -pk     This option indicates that the current keymap table should be printed on the stan-
	       dard output.

       -pke    This option indicates that the current keymap table should be printed on the stan-
	       dard output in the form of expressions that can be fed back to xmodmap.

       -pp     This  option indicates that the current pointer map should be printed on the stan-
	       dard output.

       -       A lone dash means that the standard input should be used as the input file.

       The filename specifies a file containing xmodmap expressions to be executed.  This file is
       usually kept in the user's home directory with a name like .xmodmaprc.

       The  xmodmap  program reads a list of expressions and parses them all before attempting to
       execute any of them.  This makes it possible to refer to keysyms that are being	redefined
       in a natural way without having to worry as much about name conflicts.

       keycode NUMBER = KEYSYMNAME ...
	       The  list  of keysyms is assigned to the indicated keycode (which may be specified
	       in decimal, hex or octal and can be determined by running the xev program.  Up  to
	       eight  keysyms may be attached to a key, however the last four are not used in any
	       major X server implementation.  The first keysym is used when no modifier  key  is
	       pressed	in  conjunction  with this key, the second with Shift, the third when the
	       Mode_Switch key is used with this key and the fourth when both the Mode_Switch and
	       Shift keys are used.

       keycode any = KEYSYMNAME ...
	       If  no  existing key has the specified list of keysyms assigned to it, a spare key
	       on the keyboard is selected and the keysyms are	assigned  to  it.   The  list  of
	       keysyms may be specified in decimal, hex or octal.

       keysym KEYSYMNAME = KEYSYMNAME ...
	       The  KEYSYMNAME on the left hand side is translated into matching keycodes used to
	       perform the corresponding set of keycode expressions.  The list	of  keysym  names
	       may  be found in the header file <X11/keysymdef.h> (without the XK_ prefix) or the
	       keysym database __projectroot__/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.  Note that if the  same  keysym
	       is bound to multiple keys, the expression is executed for each matching keycode.

       clear MODIFIERNAME
	       This  removes  all entries in the modifier map for the given modifier, where valid
	       name are: Shift, Lock, Control, Mod1, Mod2, Mod3, Mod4, and Mod5  (case	does  not
	       matter in modifier names, although it does matter for all other names).	For exam-
	       ple, ``clear Lock'' will remove all any keys that were bound  to  the  shift  lock

	       This  adds  all	keys  containing the given keysyms to the indicated modifier map.
	       The keysym names are evaluated after all input expressions are  read  to  make  it
	       easy to write expressions to swap keys (see the EXAMPLES section).

	       This  removes  all  keys  containing the given keysyms from the indicated modifier
	       map.  Unlike add, the keysym names are evaluated as the line  is  read  in.   This
	       allows you to remove keys from a modifier without having to worry about whether or
	       not they have been reassigned.

       pointer = default
	       This sets the pointer map back to its default settings (button 1 generates a  code
	       of 1, button 2 generates a 2, etc.).

       pointer = NUMBER ...
	       This  sets  to pointer map to contain the indicated button codes.  The list always
	       starts with the first physical button.

       Lines that begin with an exclamation point (!) are taken as comments.

       If you want to change the binding of a modifier key, you must  also  remove  it	from  the
       appropriate modifier map.

       Many pointers are designed such that the first button is pressed using the index finger of
       the right hand.	People who are left-handed frequently find that it is more comfortable to
       reverse	the  button  codes that get generated so that the primary button is pressed using
       the index finger of the left hand.  This could be done on a 3 button pointer as follows:
       %  xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"

       Many applications support the notion of Meta keys (similar to  Control  keys  except  that
       Meta is held down instead of Control).  However, some servers do not have a Meta keysym in
       the default keymap table, so one needs to be added by hand.  The  following  command  will
       attach  Meta  to  the  Multi-language  key (sometimes labeled Compose Character).  It also
       takes advantage of the fact that applications that need a Meta key simply need to get  the
       keycode	and don't require the keysym to be in the first column of the keymap table.  This
       means that applications that are looking for a Multi_key (including the	default  modifier
       map) won't notice any change.
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Multi_key = Multi_key Meta_L"

       Similarly, some keyboards have an Alt key but no Meta key.  In that case the following may
       be useful:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym Alt_L = Meta_L Alt_L"

       One of the more simple, yet convenient, uses of xmodmap is to set the keyboard's  "rubout"
       key  to	generate an alternate keysym.  This frequently involves exchanging Backspace with
       Delete to be more comfortable to the user.  If the ttyModes resource in xterm  is  set  as
       well, all terminal emulator windows will use the same key for erasing characters:
       %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
       %  echo "XTerm*ttyModes:  erase ^?" | xrdb -merge

       Some  keyboards	do  not automatically generate less than and greater than characters when
       the comma and period keys are shifted.  This can be remedied with xmodmap by resetting the
       bindings for the comma and period with the following scripts:
       ! make shift-, be < and shift-. be >
       keysym comma = comma less
       keysym period = period greater

       One  of	the  more irritating differences between keyboards is the location of the Control
       and Shift Lock keys.  A common use of xmodmap is to swap these two keys as follows:
       ! Swap Caps_Lock and Control_L
       remove Lock = Caps_Lock
       remove Control = Control_L
       keysym Control_L = Caps_Lock
       keysym Caps_Lock = Control_L
       add Lock = Caps_Lock
       add Control = Control_L

       The keycode command is  useful  for  assigning  the  same  keysym  to  multiple	keycodes.
       Although  unportable,  it  also makes it possible to write scripts that can reset the key-
       board to a known state.	The following script sets the backspace key  to  generate  Delete
       (as  shown  above),  flushes  all existing caps lock bindings, makes the CapsLock key be a
       control key, make F5 generate Escape, and makes Break/Reset be a shift lock.
       ! On the HP, the following keycodes have key caps as listed:
       !     101  Backspace
       !      55  Caps
       !      14  Ctrl
       !      15  Break/Reset
       !      86  Stop
       !      89  F5
       keycode 101 = Delete
       keycode 55 = Control_R
       clear Lock
       add Control = Control_R
       keycode 89 = Escape
       keycode 15 = Caps_Lock
       add Lock = Caps_Lock

       DISPLAY to get default host and display number.

       X(7x), xev(1), Xlib documentation on key and pointer events

       Every time a keycode expression is evaluated, the server generates a  MappingNotify  event
       on  every  client.   This  can cause some thrashing.  All of the changes should be batched
       together and done at once.  Clients that receive keyboard input and  ignore  MappingNotify
       events will not notice any changes made to keyboard mappings.

       Xmodmap	should	generate  "add" and "remove" expressions automatically whenever a keycode
       that is already bound to a modifier is changed.

       There should be a way to have the remove expression accept keycodes as well as keysyms for
       those times when you really mess up your mappings.

       Jim  Fulton, MIT X Consortium, rewritten from an earlier version by David Rosenthal of Sun

X Version 11				   Release 6.6				       XMODMAP(1)
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