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XMLWF(1)										 XMLWF(1)

       xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed

       xmlwf [ -s]  [ -n]  [ -p]  [ -x]  [ -e encoding]  [ -w]	[ -d output-dir]  [ -c]  [ -m]	[
       -r]  [ -t]  [ -v]  [ file ...]

       xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document is well-formed.  It  is  non-

       If  you	do  not  specify  any files on the command-line, and you have a recent version of
       xmlwf, the input file will be read from stdin.

       A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

       o The file begins with an XML  declaration.   For  instance,  <?xml  version="1.0"  stand-
	 alone="yes"?>.  NOTE: xmlwf does not currently check for a valid XML declaration.

       o Every start tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a corresponding end tag.

       o There	is exactly one root element.  This element must contain all other elements in the
	 document.  Only comments, white space, and processing instructions may  come  after  the
	 close of the root element.

       o All elements nest properly.

       o All attribute values are enclosed in quotes (either single or double).

       If  the	document  has a DTD, and it strictly complies with that DTD, then the document is
       also considered valid.  xmlwf is a non-validating parser -- it does  not  check	the  DTD.
       However, it does support external entities (see the -x option).

       When an option includes an argument, you may specify the argument either separate ("d out-
       put") or mashed ("-doutput").  xmlwf supports both.

       -c     If the input file is well-formed and xmlwf doesn't encounter any errors, the  input
	      file  is	simply	copied to the output directory unchanged.  This implies no names-
	      paces (turns off -n) and requires -d to specify an output file.

       -d output-dir
	      Specifies a directory to contain transformed representations of  the  input  files.
	      By  default,  -d	outputs  a  canonical  representation (described below).  You can
	      select different output formats using -c and -m.

	      The output filenames will be exactly the same as the input filenames or "STDIN"  if
	      the  input  is  coming  from STDIN.  Therefore, you must be careful that the output
	      file does not go into the same directory as the input file.  Otherwise, xmlwf  will
	      delete  the input file before it generates the output file (just like running cat <
	      file > file in most shells).

	      Two structurally equivalent XML documents have a byte-for-byte identical	canonical
	      XML  representation.  Note that ignorable white space is considered significant and
	      is  treated  equivalently  to  data.   More  on  canonical  XML  can  be	found  at
	      http://www.jclark.com/xml/canonxml.html .

       -e encoding
	      Specifies the character encoding for the document, overriding any document encoding
	      declaration.  xmlwf has four  built-in  encodings:  US-ASCII,  UTF-8,  UTF-16,  and
	      ISO-8859-1.  Also see the -w option.

       -m     Outputs some strange sort of XML file that completely describes the the input file,
	      including character postitions.  Requires -d to specify an output file.

       -n     Turns on namespace processing.  (describe namespaces) -c disables namespaces.

       -p     Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter entities.

	      Normally xmlwf never parses parameter entities.  -p tells it to always parse  them.
	      -p implies -x.

       -r     Normally	xmlwf  memory-maps the XML file before parsing.  -r turns off memory-map-
	      ping and uses normal file IO calls instead.  Of course, memory-mapping is automati-
	      cally turned off when reading from STDIN.

       -s     Prints  an error if the document is not standalone.  A document is standalone if it
	      has no external subset and no references to parameter entities.

       -t     Turns on timings.  This tells Expat to parse the entire file, but not  perform  any
	      processing.   This  gives  a  fairly accurate idea of the raw speed of Expat itself
	      without client overhead.	-t turns off most of the output options (-d, -m -c, ...).

       -v     Prints the version of the Expat library being used, and then exits.

       -w     Enables Windows code pages.  Normally, xmlwf will throw an error if it runs  across
	      an  encoding  that it is not equipped to handle itself.  With -w, xmlwf will try to
	      use a Windows code page.	See also -e.

       -x     Turns on parsing external entities.

	      Non-validating parsers are not required  to  resolve  external  entities,  or  even
	      expand  entities	at all.  Expat always expands internal entities (?), but external
	      entity parsing must be enabled explicitly.

	      External entities are simply entities that obtain their data from outside  the  XML
	      file currently being parsed.

	      This is an example of an internal entity:

	      <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

	      And here are some examples of external entities:

	      <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
	      <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>	   (unparsed)

       --     For some reason, xmlwf specifically ignores "--" anywhere it appears on the command

       Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from STDIN.

       If an input file is not well-formed, xmlwf outputs a single line describing the problem to
       STDOUT.	 If  a	file is well formed, xmlwf outputs nothing.  Note that the result code is
       not set.

       According to the W3C standard, an XML file without a declaration at the beginning  is  not
       considered well-formed.	However, xmlwf allows this to pass.

       xmlwf  returns  a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not well-formed.  There is no good
       way for a program to use xmlwf to quickly check a file -- it must parse xmlwf's STDOUT.

       The errors should go to STDERR, not stdout.

       There should be a way to get -d to send its output to STDOUT rather than forcing the  user
       to send it to a file.

       I  have	no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c and -m options.  If someone could
       explain it to me, I'd like to add this information to this manpage.

       Here are some XML validators on the web:


					  22 April 2002 				 XMLWF(1)
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