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       xloadimage, xsetbg, xview - load images into an X11 window or onto the root window

       xloadimage [global_options] {[image_options] image ...}
       xloadimage [global_options] [image_options] stdin < image

       Xloadimage  displays  images  in an X11 window, loads them onto the root window, or writes
       them into a file.  Many image types are recognized; use	the  -supported  option  to  list

       If the filename stdin is given, xloadimage will read the image from standard input if this
       capability is supported by the loader for that image type (most types do  support  reading
       from stdin).

       If  the	destination  display  cannot support the number of colors in the image, the image
       will be dithered (monochrome destination) or have its colormap reduced (color destination)
       as  appropriate.   This can also be done forcibly with the -halftone, -dither, and -colors

       A variety of image manipulations can be specified, including gamma  correction,	brighten-
       ing, clipping, dithering, depth-reduction, rotation, and zooming.  Most of these manipula-
       tions have simple implementations; speed was opted for above accuracy.

       If you are viewing a large image in a window, the initial window will be at  most  90%  of
       the  size  of  the display unless the window manager does not correctly handle window size
       requests or if you've used the -fullscreen option.  You may move the image around  in  the
       window by dragging with the first mouse button.	The cursor will indicate which directions
       you may drag, if any.  You may exit the window by typing 'q' or	'^C'  when  the  keyboard
       focus is on the window.

       If  more than one image file is specified on the command line, each image will be shown in
       order (except if -merge or -goto are being used).

       A wide variety of common image manipulations can be done by mixing and matching the avail-
       able options.  See the section entitled HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for some ideas.

       The  -dump option causes an image to be written to a file rather than displayed after pro-
       cessing.  This allows you to read an image, perform a number of processing  operations  on
       it, and save the resultant image.  This also allows translation from any of the recognized
       image types into any of the formats that support dumping.

       Xsetbg is equivalent to xloadimage -onroot -quiet and xview is  equivalent  to  xloadimage
       -view -verbose.

       Xloadimage  uses  the  resource	class name Xloadimage for window managers which need this
       resource set.  This name changed in version 2.00 and 2.01; some previous versions used the
       name  XLoadImage  (which  was  difficult  to predict) or xloadimage (which conflicted with
       class naming conventions).

       The following options affect the global operation of xloadimage.  They  may  be	specified
       anywhere  on  the  command  line.  Additionally the -global option can be used to force an
       image option to apply to all images.

       -border color
	       This sets the background portion of the window which is not covered by any  images
	       to be color.

	       Displays  the image path, image suffixes, and supported filters which will be used
	       when looking for and reading images.  These are loaded  from  ~/.xloadimagerc  and
	       optionally from a systemwide file (normally /usr/lib/xloadimagerc).  This replaces
	       the -path option.

	       Use the default root weave as the image.  This option forces -onroot.  If -default
	       is  used alone, it is the same as xsetroot with no arguments.  If used in conjunc-
	       tion with -tile this option can be used to place images on the default root  weave
	       (see EXAMPLES below).

       -debug  Talk  to the X server in synchronous mode.  This is useful for debugging.  If an X
	       error is seen while in this mode, a core will be dumped.

       -delay secs
	       Automatically advance to the next image after secs seconds.

       -display display_name
	       X11 display name to send the image(s) to.

       -dump image_type[,option[=value]] dump_file
	       Rather than displaying the loaded and processed image, dump it into an image  file
	       of  the	specified  type.   For	a list of image types that can be dumped, use the
	       -supported option.  Some image types have options that affect the  format  of  the
	       file  that's created.  See DUMP OPTIONS below.  An image can be dumped in any sup-
	       ported dump format regardless of the original  image  type,  so	image  file  type
	       translation is possible using this option.

       -fit    Force  image to use the default visual and colormap.  This is useful if you do not
	       want technicolor effects when the colormap focus is inside the image  window,  but
	       it  may	reduce	the  quality  of  the  displayed image.  This is on by default if
	       -onroot or -windowid is specified.

       -fork   Fork xloadimage.  This causes xloadimage to disassociate itself	from  the  shell.
	       This option automatically turns on -quiet.

	       Use the entire screen to display images.  If combined with -onroot, the image will
	       be zoomed to fill the entire rootwindow.

       -geometry WxH[{+-X}{+-}Y]
	       This sets the size of the window onto which the images are loaded to  a	different
	       value  than the size of the image.  When viewing an image in a window, this can be
	       used to reduce the size of the destination window.  When loading an image onto the
	       root window, this option controls the size of the pixmap which will be loaded onto
	       the root.  If the size is smaller than that of the  display,  the  image  will  be

       -goto image_name
	       Forces  the  next image to be displayed to be the image named image_name.  This is
	       useful for generating looped slideshows.  If more than one image of the same  name
	       as the target exists on the argument list, the first in the argument list is used.

       -help [option ...]
	       Give information on an option or list of options.  If no option is given, a simple
	       interactive help facility is invoked.

	       Identify the supplied images rather than display them.

	       Forcibly install the image's colormap when the window is focused.   This  violates
	       ICCCM  standards  and  only  exists to allow operation with naive window managers.
	       Use this option only if your window manager does not install colormaps properly.

       -list   List the images which are along the image path.

       -onroot Load image(s) onto the root window instead of viewing in a  window.   This  option
	       automatically  sets  the  -fit option.  This is the opposite of -view.  XSetbg has
	       this option set by default.

       -path   Displays miscellaneous information about the program configuration.   This  option
	       is obsolete and has been replaced by -configuration.

       -pixmap Force  the  use	of a pixmap as backing-store.  This is provided for servers where
	       backing-store is broken (such as some versions of the AIXWindows server).  It  may
	       improve scrolling performance on servers which provide backing-store.

	       Force  the use of a private colormap.  Normally colors are allocated shared unless
	       there are not enough colors available.

       -quiet  Forces xloadimage and xview to be quiet.  This is the default for xsetbg, but  the
	       others like to whistle.

	       List the supported image types.

       -type type_name
	       Forces  xloadimage  to try to load the image as a particular file type rather than
	       trying to guess.  This often improves load performance noticably.

	       Causes xloadimage to be talkative, telling you what kind  of  image  it's  playing
	       with  and any special processing that it has to do.  This is the default for xview
	       and xloadimage.

	       Print the version number and patchlevel of this version of xloadimage.

       -view   View image(s) in a window.  This is the opposite of -onroot and	the  default  for
	       xview and xloadimage.

       -visual visual_name
	       Force  the use of a specific visual type to display an image.  Normally xloadimage
	       tries to pick the best available image for a particular image type.  The available
	       visual  types  are:   DirectColor, TrueColor, PseudoColor, StaticColor, GrayScale,
	       and StaticGray.	Nonconflicting names may be abbreviated and case is ignored.

       -windowid hex_window_id
	       Sets the background pixmap of a particular window ID.  The  argument  must  be  in
	       hexadecimal  and  must  be  preceeded  by  "0x"	(eg  -windowid 0x40000b.  This is
	       intended for setting the background pixmap of some servers which use untagged vir-
	       tual roots (eg HP-VUE), but can have other interesting applications.

       The  following  options may preceed each image.	These options are local to the image they

       -at X,Y
	      Indicates coordinates to load the image at on the base image.  If this is an option
	      to  the  first image, and the -onroot option is specified, the image will be loaded
	      at the given location on the display background.

       -background color
	      Use color as the background color instead of the default (usually  white	but  this
	      depends  on  the	image type) if you are transferring a monochrome image to a color

       -brighten percentage
	      Specify a percentage multiplier for a color image's colormap.  A value of more than
	      100 will brighten an image, one of less than 100 will darken it.

	      Center  the  image  on  the  base  image loaded.	If this is an option to the first
	      image, and the -onroot option is specified, the image will be centered on the  dis-
	      play background.

       -clip X,Y,W,H
	      Clip the image before loading it.  X and Y define the upper-left corner of the clip
	      area, and W and H define the extents of the area.  A zero value for W or H will  be
	      interpreted as the remainder of the image.

       -colors n
	      Specify  the  maximum  number  of  colors  to  use  in the image.  This is a way to
	      forcibly reduce the depth of an image.

	      Dither a color image to monochrome using	a  Floyd-Steinberg  dithering  algorithm.
	      This happens by default when viewing color images on a monochrome display.  This is
	      slower than -halftone and affects the image accuracy but usually looks much better.

       -foreground color
	      Use color as the foreground color instead of black if you are transferring a  mono-
	      chrome  image  to  a color display.  This can also be used to invert the foreground
	      and background colors of a monochrome image.

       -gamma display_gamma
	      Specify the gamma correction for the display.  The default value is 1.0, a  typical
	      display needs 2.0 to 2.5.

	      Force  the  following option to apply to all images rather than one specific image.
	      Local image options will temporarily override any option specified with -global.

       -gray  Convert an image to grayscale.  This is very useful when displaying colorful images
	      on  servers with limited color capability.  It can also be used to convert a bitmap
	      image into a grayscale image, although the resulting image will be smaller than the
	      original.  The optional spelling -grey may also be used.

	      Force  halftone dithering of a color image when displaying on a monochrome display.
	      This option is ignored on monochrome images.  This  dithering  algorithm	blows  an
	      image up by sixteen times; if you don't like this, the -dither option will not blow
	      the image up but will take longer to process and will be less accurate.

       -idelay secs
	      Set the delay to be used for this image to secs seconds (see  -delay).   If  -delay
	      was specified, this overrides it.  If it was not specified, this sets the automatic
	      advance delay for this image while others will wait for the user to advance them.

	      Inverts a monochrome image.  This is shorthand for  -foreground  white  -background

       -merge Merge  this  image  onto	the base image after local processing.	The base image is
	      considered to be the first image specified or the last image that was not preceeded
	      by  -merge.   If used in conjunction with -at and -clip, very complex images can be
	      built up.  This option is on by default for all images if the -onroot or	-windowid
	      options are specified.

       -name image_name
	      Force the next argument to be treated as an image name.  This is useful if the name
	      of the image is -dither, for instance.

	      Reset globally-specified options.

	      Normalize a color image.

       -rotate degrees
	      Rotate the image by degrees clockwise.  The number must be a multiple of 90.

	      Shrink an image down to fit on the  display.   This  is  particularly  useful  with
	      servers  that  do  not  support  window  sizes  larger than the physical screen (eg
	      DECWINDOWS servers).

	      Smooth a color image.  This reduces blockiness after zooming an image up.  If  used
	      on  a  monochrome  image, nothing happens.  This option can take awhile to perform,
	      especially on large images.  You may specify  more  than	one  -smooth  option  per
	      image, causing multiple iterations of the smoothing algorithm.

       -tile  Tile  this  image  (after  any  necessary merging or tiling) to create a fullscreen
	      image.  This is usually used to create a large background image on which	to  merge
	      other  images.   -geometry can be used to set the new image size to something other
	      than -fullscreen.

       -title title
	      Change the title of the image.  This sets the title bar title if	displaying  in	a
	      window or the NIFF file image title if dumping the image.

       -xzoom percentage
	      Zoom  the  X axis of an image by percentage.  A number greater than 100 will expand
	      the image, one smaller will compress it.	A  zero  value	will  be  ignored.   This
	      option, and the related -yzoom are useful for correcting the aspect ratio of images
	      to be displayed.

       -yzoom percentage
	      Zoom the Y axis of an image by percentage.  See -xzoom for more information.

       -zoom percentage
	      Zoom both the X and Y axes by percentage.  See -xzoom for more information.   Tech-
	      nically  the  percentage actually zoomed is the square of the number supplied since
	      the zoom is to both axes, but I opted for consistency instead of accuracy.

       To load the rasterfile "my.image" onto the background and replicate it to fill the  entire

	    xloadimage -onroot my.image

       To center an image on the default root background:

	    xloadimage -default -tile my.image

       If using a monochrome display and a color image you will probably want to dither the image
       for a cleaner (and faster) display:

	    xloadimage -default -tile -dither my.image

       To load a monochrome image "my.image" onto the background, using  red  as  the  foreground
       color, replicate the image, and overlay "another.image" onto it at coordinate (10,10):

	    xloadimage -foreground red my.image -at 10,10 another.image

       To center the rectangular region from 10 to 110 along the X axis and from 10 to the height
       of the image along the Y axis:

	    xloadimage -center -clip 10,10,100,0 my.image

       To double the size of an image:

	    xloadimage -zoom 200 my.image

       To halve the size of an image:

	    xloadimage -zoom 50 my.image

       To brighten a dark image:

	    xloadimage -brighten 150 my.image

       To darken a bright image:

	    xloadimage -brighten 50 my.image

       Since images are likely to come from a variety of sources, they may be  in  a  variety  of
       aspect  ratios  which may not be supported by your display.  The -xzoom and -yzoom options
       can be used to change the aspect ratio of an image  before  display.   If  you  use  these
       options,  it is recommended that you increase the size of one of the dimensions instead of
       shrinking the other, since shrinking looses detail.  For instance, many	GIF  and  G3  FAX
       images  have an X:Y ratio of about 2:1.	You can correct this for viewing on a 1:1 display
       with either -xzoom 50 or -yzoom 200 (reduce X axis to 50% of its size and expand Y axis to
       200%  of its size, respectively) but the latter should be used so no detail is lost in the

       When zooming color images up you can reduce blockiness with -smooth.  For zooms of 300% or
       more,  I  recommend  two  smoothing  passes  (although  this can take awhile to do on slow
       machines).  There will be a noticable improvement in the image.

       You can perform image processing on a small portion of an image by loading the image  more
       than once and using the -merge, -at and -clip options.  Load the image, then merge it with
       a clipped, processed version of itself.	To brighten a 100x100 rectangular portion  of  an
       image located at (50,50), for instance, you could type:

	    xloadimage my.image -merge -at 50,50 -clip 50,50,100,100 -brighten 150 my.image

       If  you're using a display with a small colormap to display colorful images, try using the
       -gray option to convert to grayscale.

       The file ~/.xloadimagerc (and optionally a system-wide file) defines a number of  configu-
       ration options that affect xloadimage.

       This  file  is  split into three section, the path section, the extension section, and the
       filter section.	The sections are identified by typing the section  name  followed  by  an
       equals sign, eg "path =".

       The  path  statement  is  used to provide a set of search paths to use when looking for an
       image of a specified name.  Separate each path in the list by whitespace (eg one  or  more
       spaces, tabs, or newlines).  The path is searched in the order it is specified.	For exam-

	 path = ~/images /usr/local/images ~fred

       will first look for the image name you specified, then look for the name in ~/images  (the
       tilde  is  expanded to the value of $HOME), then in /usr/local/images, then in user fred's
       home directory.	This allows easy use of image repositories.

       The extension statement is used to provide a set of default extensions to use when looking
       for an image of a specified name.  Separate each extension in the list by whitespace.  The
       extensions are searched in the order in which they are specified.  For example:

	 extension = .gif .jpg

       If you have a file named myimage.gif you could specify the  name  myimage  and  xloadimage
       would append the .gif extension automatically.

       The  filter statement is used to describe filter programs, such as "uncompress", which are
       to be applied to image files automatically.  You specify one filter program and any number
       of recognized extensions following the filter keyword.  For example:

	 filter = uncompress .Z

       specifies  that	the  program uncompress should be used as a filter whenever an image file
       has a .Z extension.  By default filters are provided for compressed (.Z) files and GNU zip
       (.gz) files.  See the FILTERS section for more information on defining your own filters.

       Any text on a line following a hash-mark (#) is ignored; if you wish to use a hash-mark in
       a path, extension, or filter you can escape it using a backslash (\).

       If you wish to include white-space in a filter program name, path, or  extension  you  can
       enclose the entire text in double-quotes.  For example:

	 filter = "gzip -cd" .gz

       Use backslash (\) characters to allow inclusion of double-quote marks or newlines.

       The following is a sample ~/.xloadimagerc file:

	 # paths to look for images in
	 path = /usr/local/images	 # system image repository
	       ~/images 		# personal images
	       /usr/include/X11/bitmaps # standard X bitmaps

	 # default extensions for images
	 extension = .csun .msun .sun .face .xbm .bm

	 # invoke GNU zip if a .z or .zip extension is found
	 filter = "gzip -cd" .z .zip

       Xloadimage  currently  supports	many common and some uncommon image types, and can create
       images in several formats.  For a complete list use the -supported option.

       Several image dumpers are included that can be used to create a new  image  after  loading
       and  processing.   The  NIFF (Native Image File Format) is the simplest and creates images
       that xloadimage can read the fastest; it is essentially a copy of the internal image  for-

       Some image dumpers allow options that affect the image output.  These options are appended
       to the image type following a comma and are separated by commas.  If a value is desired it
       can be specified following an equals-sign.  For example, to create a monochrome JPEG image
       file with a quality factor of 80, you would use the following command line:

	 xloadimage image_name -dump jpeg,quality=80,grayscale new_image.jpg

       Option names can be abbreviated but if the abbreviation is too  short  to  be  unique  the
       option which will be used is indeterminate.

       Xloadimage  supports automatic filtering by recognizing file extensions.  By default "com-
       press" and "gzip" files are recognized and their names passed to appropriate  commands  to
       decompress them.

       The xloadimage distribution includes a special "smart" uudecoder, called uufilter that can
       be used to automatically uudecode files for processing.	Uufilter ignores extraneous lines
       in  the file so it is particularly useful if the uuencoded file was created by concatenat-
       ing email or news postings that had headers or line-break indicators included.

       To make use of uufilter you can add the following to your .xloadimagerc file:

	 filter = "uufilter -s" .uu .uue
       The filter will be automatically invoked on any file with a .uu or

       For a list of filters  automatically  recognized  by  xloadimage  use  the  -configuration

       The JPEG image dumper supports the following options:

	       Use arithmetic encoding.

	       Force a monochrome (grayscale) image to be created given a color image.

	       Create a non-interleaved file.

	       Enable entropy parameter optimization.

       quality Adjust  the quality of the image to be created.	The default quality factor is 75;
	       lower values create poorer images.

       restart interval
	       Set the restart interval in MCU rows, or MCUs if 'b' follows the interval value.

       smooth smoothing_factor
	       Set the smoothing factor.  Value should be between 0 and 100, inclusive.

       If you are not familiar with the meaning of these options you can ask the Independent JPEG
       Group (IJG) via email at jpeg@cs.columbia.edu.

       The PBM image dumper supports the following options:

       normal  Dump a normal (ascii) PBM/PPM file.

       raw     Dump  a	RawBits format PBM/PPM file.  This is the default and results in signifi-
	       cantly smaller image files than when using normal.

       There is no way to dump a PGM format file or a "compact" PBM format file (sorry).

       The TIFF image dumper supports the following options:

	       Image data compression technique.  Can be  one  of:  none  (no  compression),  rle
	       (CCITT RLE compression), g3fax (CCITT Group 3 FAX compression), g4fax (CCITT Group
	       4 FAX compression), lzw (Limpel-Ziv-Welsh compression, the  default),  jpeg  (JPEG
	       compression),  next  (NeXT run-length compression), rlew (CCITT RLEW compression),
	       mac (Macintosh PackBits compression), packbits (same as mac),  thunderscan  (Thun-
	       derScan compression).

       Xloadimage  will  save  using the MINISBLACK, MINISWHITE, COLORMAP, or RGB photometrics as
       appropriate for its internal image format.  There is no way to specify a particular photo-
       metric or any other TIFF fields.

       Jim Frost
       CenterLine Software

       For  a  more-or-less complete list of other contributors (there are a lot of them), please
       see the README file enclosed with the distribution.

	    xloadimage		    - the image loader and viewer
	    xsetbg		    - pseudonym which quietly sets the background
	    xview		    - pseudonym which views in a window
	    /usr/lib/X11/Xloadimage - default system-wide configuration file
	    ~/.xloadimagerc	    - user's personal configuration file

       Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 Jim Frost and others.

       Xloadimage is copywritten material with a very loose copyright allowing unlimited  modifi-
       cation  and  distribution  if the copyright notices are left intact.  Various portions are
       copywritten by various people, but all use a modification of  the  MIT  copyright  notice.
       Please  check  the  source  for complete copyright information.	The intent is to keep the
       source free, not to stifle its distribution, so please write to me if you have  any  ques-

       Zooming dithered images, especially downwards, is UGLY.

       Images can come in a variety of aspect ratios.  Xloadimage cannot detect what aspect ratio
       the particular image being loaded has, nor the aspect ratio of the destination display, so
       images  with  differing	aspect ratios from the destination display will appear distorted.
       See HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for more information.

       The GIF format allows more than one image to be stored in a single GIF file, but  xloadim-
       age will only display the first.

       Only GIF87a format is supported.

       One  of	the pseudonyms for xloadimage, xview, is the same name as Sun uses for their Sun-
       View-under-X package.  This will be confusing if you're one of those poor souls who has to
       use Sun's XView.

       Some  window  managers  do not correctly handle window size requests.  In particular, many
       versions of the twm window manager use the MaxSize hint instead of the PSize hint, causing
       images  which  are  larger  than the screen to display in a window larger than the screen,
       something which is normally avoided.  Some versions of twm also ignore the  MaxSize  argu-
       ment's  real function, to limit the maximum size of the window, and allow the window to be
       resized larger than the image.  If this happens, xloadimage merely places the image in the
       upper-left  corner  of  the window and uses the zero-value'ed pixel for any space which is
       not covered by the image.  This behavior is less-than-graceful but so are window  managers
       which are cruel enough to ignore such details.

					    8 May 1991				    XLOADIMAGE(1)
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