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WGET(1) 				     GNU Wget					  WGET(1)

       wget - GNU Wget Manual

       wget [option]... [URL]...

       GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web.  It sup-
       ports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as retrieval through HTTP proxies.

       Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the background, while the user is not
       logged on.  This allows you to start a retrieval and disconnect from the system, letting
       Wget finish the work.  By contrast, most of the Web browsers require constant user's pres-
       ence, which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

       Wget can follow links in HTML pages and create local versions of remote web sites, fully
       recreating the directory structure of the original site.  This is sometimes referred to as
       ``recursive downloading.''  While doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion Standard
       (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links in downloaded HTML files to
       the local files for offline viewing.

       Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network connections; if a
       download fails due to a network problem, it will keep retrying until the whole file has
       been retrieved.	If the server supports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue
       the download from where it left off.

       Basic Startup Options

	   Display the version of Wget.

	   Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-line options.

	   Go to background immediately after startup.	If no output file is specified via the
	   -o, output is redirected to wget-log.

       -e command
       --execute command
	   Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A command thus invoked will be exe-
	   cuted after the commands in .wgetrc, thus taking precedence over them.

       Logging and Input File Options

       -o logfile
	   Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally reported to standard error.

       -a logfile
	   Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it appends to logfile instead of
	   overwriting the old log file.  If logfile does not exist, a new file is created.

	   Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the developers of Wget
	   if it does not work properly.  Your system administrator may have chosen to compile
	   Wget without debug support, in which case -d will not work.	Please note that compil-
	   ing with debug support is always safe---Wget compiled with the debug support will not
	   print any debug info unless requested with -d.

	   Turn off Wget's output.

	   Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.  The default output is verbose.

	   Non-verbose output---turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q for
	   that), which means that error messages and basic information still get printed.

       -i file
	   Read URLs from file, in which case no URLs need to be on the command line.  If there
	   are URLs both on the command line and in an input file, those on the command lines
	   will be the first ones to be retrieved.  The file need not be an HTML document (but no
	   harm if it is)---it is enough if the URLs are just listed sequentially.

	   However, if you specify --force-html, the document will be regarded as html.  In that
	   case you may have problems with relative links, which you can solve either by adding
	   "<base href="url">" to the documents or by specifying --base=url on the command line.

	   When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML file.  This enables
	   you to retrieve relative links from existing HTML files on your local disk, by adding
	   "<base href="url">" to HTML, or using the --base command-line option.

       -B URL
	   When used in conjunction with -F, prepends URL to relative links in the file specified
	   by -i.

       Download Options

	   When making client TCP/IP connections, "bind()" to ADDRESS on the local machine.
	   ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP address.  This option can be useful if
	   your machine is bound to multiple IPs.

       -t number
	   Set number of retries to number.  Specify 0 or inf for infinite retrying.

       -O file
	   The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all will be concate-
	   nated together and written to file.	If file already exists, it will be overwritten.
	   If the file is -, the documents will be written to standard output.	Including this
	   option automatically sets the number of tries to 1.

	   If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory, Wget's behavior depends
	   on a few options, including -nc.  In certain cases, the local file will be clobbered,
	   or overwritten, upon repeated download.  In other cases it will be preserved.

	   When running Wget without -N, -nc, or -r, downloading the same file in the same direc-
	   tory will result in the original copy of file being preserved and the second copy
	   being named file.1.	If that file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be
	   named file.2, and so on.  When -nc is specified, this behavior is suppressed, and Wget
	   will refuse to download newer copies of file.  Therefore, ``"no-clobber"'' is actually
	   a misnomer in this mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the numeric suf-
	   fixes were already preventing clobbering), but rather the multiple version saving
	   that's prevented.

	   When running Wget with -r, but without -N or -nc, re-downloading a file will result in
	   the new copy simply overwriting the old.  Adding -nc will prevent this behavior,
	   instead causing the original version to be preserved and any newer copies on the
	   server to be ignored.

	   When running Wget with -N, with or without -r, the decision as to whether or not to
	   download a newer copy of a file depends on the local and remote timestamp and size of
	   the file.  -nc may not be specified at the same time as -N.

	   Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or (yuck) .htm will be
	   loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had been retrieved from the Web.

	   Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is useful when you want to finish
	   up a download started by a previous instance of Wget, or by another program.  For

		   wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

	   If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current directory, Wget will assume that it is
	   the first portion of the remote file, and will ask the server to continue the
	   retrieval from an offset equal to the length of the local file.

	   Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want the current invoca-
	   tion of Wget to retry downloading a file should the connection be lost midway through.
	   This is the default behavior.  -c only affects resumption of downloads started prior
	   to this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting around.

	   Without -c, the previous example would just download the remote file to ls-lR.Z.1,
	   leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z file alone.

	   Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a non-empty file, and it turns out that the
	   server does not support continued downloading, Wget will refuse to start the download
	   from scratch, which would effectively ruin existing contents.  If you really want the
	   download to start from scratch, remove the file.

	   Also beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which is of equal size as the
	   one on the server, Wget will refuse to download the file and print an explanatory mes-
	   sage.  The same happens when the file is smaller on the server than locally (presum-
	   ably because it was changed on the server since your last download attempt)---because
	   ``continuing'' is not meaningful, no download occurs.

	   On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file that's bigger on the server
	   than locally will be considered an incomplete download and only "(length(remote) -
	   length(local))" bytes will be downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.
	   This behavior can be desirable in certain cases---for instance, you can use wget -c to
	   download just the new portion that's been appended to a data collection or log file.

	   However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been changed, as opposed to
	   just appended to, you'll end up with a garbled file.  Wget has no way of verifying
	   that the local file is really a valid prefix of the remote file.  You need to be espe-
	   cially careful of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since every file will be
	   considered as an "incomplete download" candidate.

	   Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you try to use -c is if you have a
	   lame HTTP proxy that inserts a ``transfer interrupted'' string into the local file.
	   In the future a ``rollback'' option may be added to deal with this case.

	   Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers that support the
	   "Range" header.

	   Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use.  Legal indicators are
	   ``dot'' and ``bar''.

	   The ``bar'' indicator is used by default.  It draws an ASCII progress bar graphics
	   (a.k.a ``thermometer'' display) indicating the status of retrieval.	If the output is
	   not a TTY, the ``dot'' bar will be used by default.

	   Use --progress=dot to switch to the ``dot'' display.  It traces the retrieval by
	   printing dots on the screen, each dot representing a fixed amount of downloaded data.

	   When using the dotted retrieval, you may also set the style by specifying the type as
	   dot:style.  Different styles assign different meaning to one dot.  With the "default"
	   style each dot represents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a line.
	   The "binary" style has a more ``computer''-like orientation---8K dots, 16-dots clus-
	   ters and 48 dots per line (which makes for 384K lines).  The "mega" style is suitable
	   for downloading very large files---each dot represents 64K retrieved, there are eight
	   dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so each line contains 3M).

	   Note that you can set the default style using the "progress" command in .wgetrc.  That
	   setting may be overridden from the command line.  The exception is that, when the out-
	   put is not a TTY, the ``dot'' progress will be favored over ``bar''.  To force the bar
	   output, use --progress=bar:force.

	   Turn on time-stamping.

	   Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP servers.

	   When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider, which means that it
	   will not download the pages, just check that they are there.  You can use it to check
	   your bookmarks, e.g. with:

		   wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

	   This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the functionality of real
	   WWW spiders.

       -T seconds
	   Set the read timeout to seconds seconds.  Whenever a network read is issued, the file
	   descriptor is checked for a timeout, which could otherwise leave a pending connection
	   (uninterrupted read).  The default timeout is 900 seconds (fifteen minutes).  Setting
	   timeout to 0 will disable checking for timeouts.

	   Please do not lower the default timeout value with this option unless you know what
	   you are doing.

	   Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.  Amount may be expressed in
	   bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes with the m suffix.	For example,
	   --limit-rate=20k will limit the retrieval rate to 20KB/s.  This kind of thing is use-
	   ful when, for whatever reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire evailable

	   Note that Wget implementeds the limiting by sleeping the appropriate amount of time
	   after a network read that took less time than specified by the rate.  Eventually this
	   strategy causes the TCP transfer to slow down to approximately the specified rate.
	   However, it takes some time for this balance to be achieved, so don't be surprised if
	   limiting the rate doesn't work with very small files.  Also, the "sleeping" strategy
	   will misfire when an extremely small bandwidth, say less than 1.5KB/s, is specified.

       -w seconds
	   Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals.  Use of this option is
	   recommended, as it lightens the server load by making the requests less frequent.
	   Instead of in seconds, the time can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in
	   hours using "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

	   Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network or the destination
	   host is down, so that Wget can wait long enough to reasonably expect the network error
	   to be fixed before the retry.

	   If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only between retries of
	   failed downloads, you can use this option.  Wget will use linear backoff, waiting 1
	   second after the first failure on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the sec-
	   ond failure on that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.  Therefore,
	   a value of 10 will actually make Wget wait up to (1 + 2 + ... + 10) = 55 seconds per

	   Note that this option is turned on by default in the global wgetrc file.

	   Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval programs such as Wget by
	   looking for statistically significant similarities in the time between requests. This
	   option causes the time between requests to vary between 0 and 2 * wait seconds, where
	   wait was specified using the -w or --wait options, in order to mask Wget's presence
	   from such analysis.

	   A recent article in a publication devoted to development on a popular consumer plat-
	   form provided code to perform this analysis on the fly.  Its author suggested blocking
	   at the class C address level to ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked
	   despite changing DHCP-supplied addresses.

	   The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-advised recommendation to block many
	   unrelated users from a web site due to the actions of one.

       -Y on/off
	   Turn proxy support on or off.  The proxy is on by default if the appropriate environ-
	   mental variable is defined.

       -Q quota
	   Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The value can be specified in bytes
	   (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or megabytes (with m suffix).

	   Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file.  So if you specify wget
	   -Q10k ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/ls-lR.gz, all of the ls-lR.gz will be downloaded.  The
	   same goes even when several URLs are specified on the command-line.	However, quota is
	   respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input file.  Thus you may
	   safely type wget -Q2m -i sites---download will be aborted when the quota is exceeded.

	   Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.

       Directory Options

	   Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving recursively.  With this
	   option turned on, all files will get saved to the current directory, without clobber-
	   ing (if a name shows up more than once, the filenames will get extensions .n).

	   The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories, even if one would not have
	   been created otherwise.  E.g. wget -x http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the
	   downloaded file to fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt.

	   Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By default, invoking Wget with -r
	   http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ will create a structure of directories beginning with
	   fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option disables such behavior.

	   Ignore number directory components.	This is useful for getting a fine-grained control
	   over the directory where recursive retrieval will be saved.

	   Take, for example, the directory at ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve
	   it with -r, it will be saved locally under ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While the -nH
	   option can remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still stuck with pub/xemacs.  This
	   is where --cut-dirs comes in handy; it makes Wget not ``see'' number remote directory
	   components.	Here are several examples of how --cut-dirs option works.

		   No options	     -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
		   -nH		     -> pub/xemacs/
		   -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
		   -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

		   --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/

	   If you just want to get rid of the directory structure, this option is similar to a
	   combination of -nd and -P.  However, unlike -nd, --cut-dirs does not lose with subdi-
	   rectories---for instance, with -nH --cut-dirs=1, a beta/ subdirectory will be placed
	   to xemacs/beta, as one would expect.

       -P prefix
	   Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is the directory where all other
	   files and subdirectories will be saved to, i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.  The
	   default is . (the current directory).

       HTTP Options

	   If a file of type text/html is downloaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
	   \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the
	   local filename.  This is useful, for instance, when you're mirroring a remote site
	   that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored pages to be viewable on your stock
	   Apache server.  Another good use for this is when you're downloading the output of
	   CGIs.  A URL like http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as article.cgi?25.html.

	   Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-downloaded every time you re-mirror
	   a site, because Wget can't tell that the local X.html file corresponds to remote URL X
	   (since it doesn't yet know that the URL produces output of type text/html.  To prevent
	   this re-downloading, you must use -k and -K so that the original version of the file
	   will be saved as X.orig.

	   Specify the username user and password password on an HTTP server.  According to the
	   type of the challenge, Wget will encode them using either the "basic" (insecure) or
	   the "digest" authentication scheme.

	   Another way to specify username and password is in the URL itself.  Either method
	   reveals your password to anyone who bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the passwords
	   from being seen, store them in .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to protect those files
	   from other users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really important, do not leave
	   them lying in those files either---edit the files and delete them after Wget has
	   started the download.

	   For more information about security issues with Wget,

       -C on/off
	   When set to off, disable server-side cache.	In this case, Wget will send the remote
	   server an appropriate directive (Pragma: no-cache) to get the file from the remote
	   service, rather than returning the cached version.  This is especially useful for
	   retrieving and flushing out-of-date documents on proxy servers.

	   Caching is allowed by default.

	   When set to off, disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for maintaining
	   server-side state.  The server sends the client a cookie using the "Set-Cookie"
	   header, and the client responds with the same cookie upon further requests.	Since
	   cookies allow the server owners to keep track of visitors and for sites to exchange
	   this information, some consider them a breach of privacy.  The default is to use cook-
	   ies; however, storing cookies is not on by default.

       --load-cookies file
	   Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.  file is a textual file in the
	   format originally used by Netscape's cookies.txt file.

	   You will typically use this option when mirroring sites that require that you be
	   logged in to access some or all of their content.  The login process typically works
	   by the web server issuing an HTTP cookie upon receiving and verifying your creden-
	   tials.  The cookie is then resent by the browser when accessing that part of the site,
	   and so proves your identity.

	   Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same cookies your browser sends when
	   communicating with the site.  This is achieved by --load-cookies---simply point Wget
	   to the location of the cookies.txt file, and it will send the same cookies your
	   browser would send in the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual cookie
	   files in different locations:

	   Netscape 4.x.
	       The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

	   Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.
	       Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located somewhere under
	       ~/.mozilla, in the directory of your profile.  The full path usually ends up look-
	       ing somewhat like ~/.mozilla/default/some-weird-string/cookies.txt.

	   Internet Explorer.
	       You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using the File menu, Import and
	       Export, Export Cookies.	This has been tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is not
	       guaranteed to work with earlier versions.

	   Other browsers.
	       If you are using a different browser to create your cookies, --load-cookies will
	       only work if you can locate or produce a cookie file in the Netscape format that
	       Wget expects.

	   If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be an alternative.  If your
	   browser supports a ``cookie manager'', you can use it to view the cookies used when
	   accessing the site you're mirroring.  Write down the name and value of the cookie, and
	   manually instruct Wget to send those cookies, bypassing the ``official'' cookie sup-

		   wget --cookies=off --header "Cookie: I<name>=I<value>"

       --save-cookies file
	   Save cookies from file at the end of session.  Cookies whose expiry time is not speci-
	   fied, or those that have already expired, are not saved.

	   Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be more precise) send out bogus
	   "Content-Length" headers, which makes Wget go wild, as it thinks not all the document
	   was retrieved.  You can spot this syndrome if Wget retries getting the same document
	   again and again, each time claiming that the (otherwise normal) connection has closed
	   on the very same byte.

	   With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length" header---as if it never

	   Define an additional-header to be passed to the HTTP servers.  Headers must contain a
	   : preceded by one or more non-blank characters, and must not contain newlines.

	   You may define more than one additional header by specifying --header more than once.

		   wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
			--header='Accept-Language: hr'	      \

	   Specification of an empty string as the header value will clear all previous user-
	   defined headers.

	   Specify the username user and password password for authentication on a proxy server.
	   Wget will encode them using the "basic" authentication scheme.

	   Security considerations similar to those with --http-passwd pertain here as well.

	   Include `Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful for retrieving documents with
	   server-side processing that assume they are always being retrieved by interactive web
	   browsers and only come out properly when Referer is set to one of the pages that point
	   to them.

	   Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file, preceding the actual contents,
	   with an empty line as the separator.

       -U agent-string
	   Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

	   The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify themselves using a "User-Agent"
	   header field.  This enables distinguishing the WWW software, usually for statistical
	   purposes or for tracing of protocol violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/ver-
	   sion, version being the current version number of Wget.

	   However, some sites have been known to impose the policy of tailoring the output
	   according to the "User-Agent"-supplied information.	While conceptually this is not
	   such a bad idea, it has been abused by servers denying information to clients other
	   than "Mozilla" or Microsoft "Internet Explorer".  This option allows you to change the
	   "User-Agent" line issued by Wget.  Use of this option is discouraged, unless you
	   really know what you are doing.

       FTP Options

	   Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by FTP retrievals.  Normally,
	   these files contain the raw directory listings received from FTP servers.  Not remov-
	   ing them can be useful for debugging purposes, or when you want to be able to easily
	   check on the contents of remote server directories (e.g. to verify that a mirror
	   you're running is complete).

	   Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename for this file, this is not a
	   security hole in the scenario of a user making .listing a symbolic link to /etc/passwd
	   or something and asking "root" to run Wget in his or her directory.	Depending on the
	   options used, either Wget will refuse to write to .listing, making the globbing/recur-
	   sion/time-stamping operation fail, or the symbolic link will be deleted and replaced
	   with the actual .listing file, or the listing will be written to a .listing.number

	   Even though this situation isn't a problem, though, "root" should never run Wget in a
	   non-trusted user's directory.  A user could do something as simple as linking
	   index.html to /etc/passwd and asking "root" to run Wget with -N or -r so the file will
	   be overwritten.

       -g on/off
	   Turn FTP globbing on or off.  Globbing means you may use the shell-like special char-
	   acters (wildcards), like *, ?, [ and ] to retrieve more than one file from the same
	   directory at once, like:

		   wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

	   By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL contains a globbing character.  This
	   option may be used to turn globbing on or off permanently.

	   You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being expanded by your shell.  Glob-
	   bing makes Wget look for a directory listing, which is system-specific.  This is why
	   it currently works only with Unix FTP servers (and the ones emulating Unix "ls" out-

	   Use the passive FTP retrieval scheme, in which the client initiates the data connec-
	   tion.  This is sometimes required for FTP to work behind firewalls.

	   Usually, when retrieving FTP directories recursively and a symbolic link is encoun-
	   tered, the linked-to file is not downloaded.  Instead, a matching symbolic link is
	   created on the local filesystem.  The pointed-to file will not be downloaded unless
	   this recursive retrieval would have encountered it separately and downloaded it any-

	   When --retr-symlinks is specified, however, symbolic links are traversed and the
	   pointed-to files are retrieved.  At this time, this option does not cause Wget to tra-
	   verse symlinks to directories and recurse through them, but in the future it should be
	   enhanced to do this.

	   Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory) because it was specified on the
	   commandline, rather than because it was recursed to, this option has no effect.  Sym-
	   bolic links are always traversed in this case.

       Recursive Retrieval Options

	   Turn on recursive retrieving.

       -l depth
	   Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.  The default maximum depth is 5.

	   This option tells Wget to delete every single file it downloads, after having done so.
	   It is useful for pre-fetching popular pages through a proxy, e.g.:

		   wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

	   The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not create directories.

	   Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local machine.  It does not issue the
	   DELE command to remote FTP sites, for instance.  Also note that when --delete-after is
	   specified, --convert-links is ignored, so .orig files are simply not created in the
	   first place.

	   After the download is complete, convert the links in the document to make them suit-
	   able for local viewing.  This affects not only the visible hyperlinks, but any part of
	   the document that links to external content, such as embedded images, links to style
	   sheets, hyperlinks to non-HTML content, etc.

	   Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

	   o   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget will be changed to refer to
	       the file they point to as a relative link.

	       Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to /bar/img.gif, also down-
	       loaded, then the link in doc.html will be modified to point to ../bar/img.gif.
	       This kind of transformation works reliably for arbitrary combinations of directo-

	   o   The links to files that have not been downloaded by Wget will be changed to
	       include host name and absolute path of the location they point to.

	       Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links to /bar/img.gif (or to
	       ../bar/img.gif), then the link in doc.html will be modified to point to

	   Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a linked file was downloaded, the
	   link will refer to its local name; if it was not downloaded, the link will refer to
	   its full Internet address rather than presenting a broken link.  The fact that the
	   former links are converted to relative links ensures that you can move the downloaded
	   hierarchy to another directory.

	   Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know which links have been down-
	   loaded.  Because of that, the work done by -k will be performed at the end of all the

	   When converting a file, back up the original version with a .orig suffix.  Affects the
	   behavior of -N.

	   Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option turns on recursion and
	   time-stamping, sets infinite recursion depth and keeps FTP directory listings.  It is
	   currently equivalent to -r -N -l inf -nr.

	   This option causes Wget to download all the files that are necessary to properly dis-
	   play a given HTML page.  This includes such things as inlined images, sounds, and ref-
	   erenced stylesheets.

	   Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any requisite documents that may be
	   needed to display it properly are not downloaded.  Using -r together with -l can help,
	   but since Wget does not ordinarily distinguish between external and inlined documents,
	   one is generally left with ``leaf documents'' that are missing their requisites.

	   For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>" tag referencing 1.gif and an
	   "<A>" tag pointing to external document 2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar but that
	   its image is 2.gif and it links to 3.html.  Say this continues up to some arbitrarily
	   high number.

	   If one executes the command:

		   wget -r -l 2 http://I<site>/1.html

	   then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be downloaded.  As you can see,
	   3.html is without its requisite 3.gif because Wget is simply counting the number of
	   hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in order to determine where to stop the recursion.
	   However, with this command:

		   wget -r -l 2 -p http://I<site>/1.html

	   all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be downloaded.  Similarly,

		   wget -r -l 1 -p http://I<site>/1.html

	   will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be downloaded.  One might think that:

		   wget -r -l 0 -p http://I<site>/1.html

	   would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately this is not the case, because
	   -l 0 is equivalent to -l inf---that is, infinite recursion.	To download a single HTML
	   page (or a handful of them, all specified on the commandline or in a -i URL input
	   file) and its (or their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

		   wget -p http://I<site>/1.html

	   Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified, but only that single page and
	   its requisites will be downloaded.  Links from that page to external documents will
	   not be followed.  Actually, to download a single page and all its requisites (even if
	   they exist on separate websites), and make sure the lot displays properly locally,
	   this author likes to use a few options in addition to -p:

		   wget -E -H -k -K -p http://I<site>/I<document>

	   To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's idea of an external document
	   link is any URL specified in an "<A>" tag, an "<AREA>" tag, or a "<LINK>" tag other
	   than "<LINK REL="stylesheet">".

       Recursive Accept/Reject Options

       -A acclist --accept acclist
       -R rejlist --reject rejlist
	   Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or patterns to accept or reject.

       -D domain-list
	   Set domains to be followed.	domain-list is a comma-separated list of domains.  Note
	   that it does not turn on -H.

       --exclude-domains domain-list
	   Specify the domains that are not to be followed..

	   Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this option, Wget will ignore all the
	   FTP links.

	   Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs that it considers when look-
	   ing for linked documents during a recursive retrieval.  If a user wants only a subset
	   of those tags to be considered, however, he or she should be specify such tags in a
	   comma-separated list with this option.

       -G list
	   This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To skip certain HTML tags when
	   recursively looking for documents to download, specify them in a comma-separated list.

	   In the past, the -G option was the best bet for downloading a single page and its req-
	   uisites, using a commandline like:

		   wget -Ga,area -H -k -K -r http://I<site>/I<document>

	   However, the author of this option came across a page with tags like "<LINK REL="home"
	   HREF="/">" and came to the realization that -G was not enough.  One can't just tell
	   Wget to ignore "<LINK>", because then stylesheets will not be downloaded.  Now the
	   best bet for downloading a single page and its requisites is the dedicated --page-req-
	   uisites option.

	   Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive retrieving.

	   Follow relative links only.	Useful for retrieving a specific home page without any
	   distractions, not even those from the same hosts.

       -I list
	   Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to follow when downloading
	   Elements of list may contain wildcards.

       -X list
	   Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish to exclude from download  Ele-
	   ments of list may contain wildcards.

	   Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recursively.  This is a
	   useful option, since it guarantees that only the files below a certain hierarchy will
	   be downloaded.

       The examples are divided into three sections loosely based on their complexity.

       Simple Usage

       o   Say you want to download a URL.  Just type:

		   wget http://fly.srk.fer.hr/

       o   But what will happen if the connection is slow, and the file is lengthy?  The connec-
	   tion will probably fail before the whole file is retrieved, more than once.	In this
	   case, Wget will try getting the file until it either gets the whole of it, or exceeds
	   the default number of retries (this being 20).  It is easy to change the number of
	   tries to 45, to insure that the whole file will arrive safely:

		   wget --tries=45 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/jpg/flyweb.jpg

       o   Now let's leave Wget to work in the background, and write its progress to log file
	   log.  It is tiring to type --tries, so we shall use -t.

		   wget -t 45 -o log http://fly.srk.fer.hr/jpg/flyweb.jpg &

	   The ampersand at the end of the line makes sure that Wget works in the background.  To
	   unlimit the number of retries, use -t inf.

       o   The usage of FTP is as simple.  Wget will take care of login and password.

		   wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/welcome.msg

       o   If you specify a directory, Wget will retrieve the directory listing, parse it and
	   convert it to HTML.	Try:

		   wget ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/
		   links index.html

       Advanced Usage

       o   You have a file that contains the URLs you want to download?  Use the -i switch:

		   wget -i I<file>

	   If you specify - as file name, the URLs will be read from standard input.

       o   Create a five levels deep mirror image of the GNU web site, with the same directory
	   structure the original has, with only one try per document, saving the log of the
	   activities to gnulog:

		   wget -r http://www.gnu.org/ -o gnulog

       o   The same as the above, but convert the links in the HTML files to point to local
	   files, so you can view the documents off-line:

		   wget --convert-links -r http://www.gnu.org/ -o gnulog

       o   Retrieve only one HTML page, but make sure that all the elements needed for the page
	   to be displayed, such as inline images and external style sheets, are also downloaded.
	   Also make sure the downloaded page references the downloaded links.

		   wget -p --convert-links http://www.server.com/dir/page.html

	   The HTML page will be saved to www.server.com/dir/page.html, and the images,
	   stylesheets, etc., somewhere under www.server.com/, depending on where they were on
	   the remote server.

       o   The same as the above, but without the www.server.com/ directory.  In fact, I don't
	   want to have all those random server directories anyway---just save all those files
	   under a download/ subdirectory of the current directory.

		   wget -p --convert-links -nH -nd -Pdownload \

       o   Retrieve the index.html of www.lycos.com, showing the original server headers:

		   wget -S http://www.lycos.com/

       o   Save the server headers with the file, perhaps for post-processing.

		   wget -s http://www.lycos.com/
		   more index.html

       o   Retrieve the first two levels of wuarchive.wustl.edu, saving them to /tmp.

		   wget -r -l2 -P/tmp ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/

       o   You want to download all the GIFs from a directory on an HTTP server.  You tried wget
	   http://www.server.com/dir/*.gif, but that didn't work because HTTP retrieval does not
	   support globbing.  In that case, use:

		   wget -r -l1 --no-parent -A.gif http://www.server.com/dir/

	   More verbose, but the effect is the same.  -r -l1 means to retrieve recursively, with
	   maximum depth of 1.	--no-parent means that references to the parent directory are
	   ignored, and -A.gif means to download only the GIF files.  -A "*.gif" would have
	   worked too.

       o   Suppose you were in the middle of downloading, when Wget was interrupted.  Now you do
	   not want to clobber the files already present.  It would be:

		   wget -nc -r http://www.gnu.org/

       o   If you want to encode your own username and password to HTTP or FTP, use the appropri-
	   ate URL syntax.

		   wget ftp://hniksic:mypassword@unix.server.com/.emacs

	   Note, however, that this usage is not advisable on multi-user systems because it
	   reveals your password to anyone who looks at the output of "ps".

       o   You would like the output documents to go to standard output instead of to files?

		   wget -O - http://jagor.srce.hr/ http://www.srce.hr/

	   You can also combine the two options and make pipelines to retrieve the documents from
	   remote hotlists:

		   wget -O - http://cool.list.com/ | wget --force-html -i -

       Very Advanced Usage

       o   If you wish Wget to keep a mirror of a page (or FTP subdirectories), use --mirror
	   (-m), which is the shorthand for -r -l inf -N.  You can put Wget in the crontab file
	   asking it to recheck a site each Sunday:

		   0 0 * * 0 wget --mirror http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

       o   In addition to the above, you want the links to be converted for local viewing.  But,
	   after having read this manual, you know that link conversion doesn't play well with
	   timestamping, so you also want Wget to back up the original HTML files before the con-
	   version.  Wget invocation would look like this:

		   wget --mirror --convert-links --backup-converted  \
			http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

       o   But you've also noticed that local viewing doesn't work all that well when HTML files
	   are saved under extensions other than .html, perhaps because they were served as
	   index.cgi.  So you'd like Wget to rename all the files served with content-type
	   text/html to name.html.

		   wget --mirror --convert-links --backup-converted \
			--html-extension -o /home/me/weeklog	    \

	   Or, with less typing:

		   wget -m -k -K -E http://www.gnu.org/ -o /home/me/weeklog

	   Default location of the global startup file.

	   User startup file.

       You are welcome to send bug reports about GNU Wget to <"bug-wget@gnu.org">.

       Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to follow a few simple guidelines.

       1.  Please try to ascertain that the behaviour you see really is a bug.	If Wget crashes,
	   it's a bug.	If Wget does not behave as documented, it's a bug.  If things work
	   strange, but you are not sure about the way they are supposed to work, it might well
	   be a bug.

       2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as possible.  E.g. if Wget crashes
	   while downloading wget -rl0 -kKE -t5 -Y0 http://yoyodyne.com -o /tmp/log, you should
	   try to see if the crash is repeatable, and if will occur with a simpler set of
	   options.  You might even try to start the download at the page where the crash
	   occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the crash.

	   Also, while I will probably be interested to know the contents of your .wgetrc file,
	   just dumping it into the debug message is probably a bad idea.  Instead, you should
	   first try to see if the bug repeats with .wgetrc moved out of the way.  Only if it
	   turns out that .wgetrc settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of the

       3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send the log (or the relevant parts of it).  If
	   Wget was compiled without debug support, recompile it.  It is much easier to trace
	   bugs with debug support on.

       4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g. "gdb `which wget` core" and
	   type "where" to get the backtrace.

       GNU Info entry for wget.

       Originally written by Hrvoje Niksic <hniksic@arsdigita.com>.

       Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
       the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free
       Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being ``GNU General Public License'' and
       ``GNU Free Documentation License'', with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation

GNU Wget 1.8.2				    2003-01-25					  WGET(1)
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