# RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for virtex (redhat section 1)

```TEX(1)							      General Commands Manual							    TEX(1)

NAME
tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

SYNOPSIS
tex [options] [commands]

DESCRIPTION
This manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.	The complete documentation for this version of TeX can be found in the info file or manual
Web2C: A TeX implementation.

TeX formats the interspersed text and commands contained in the named files and outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI, which is
short  for  DeVice  Independent).  TeX's capabilities and language are described in The TeXbook.  TeX is normally used with a large body of
precompiled macros, and there are several specific formatting systems, such as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro files.

This version of TeX looks at its command line to see what name it was called under.  Both initex and virtex are symlinks to  the  tex  exe-
cutable.   When	called as initex (or when the --ini option is given) it can be used to precompile macros into a .fmt file.  When called as
virtex it will use the plain format.  When called under any other name, TeX will use that name as the name of the format to use.  For exam-
ple, when called as tex the tex format is used, which is identical to the plain format.	The commands defined by the plain format are docu-
mented in The TeXbook.  Other formats that are often available include latex and amstex.

The commands given on the command line to the TeX program are passed to it as the first input line.   (But  it  is  often  easier  to  type
extended  arguments  as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up or misinterpret TeX's favorite symbols, like backslashes,
unless you quote them.)	As described in The TeXbook, that first line should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

The normal usage is to say
tex paper
to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'', and is used in forming output filenames.   If  TeX  doesn't  get  a
filename  in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX looks for the name with and without the default extension
(.tex) appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is the ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with  rather  more
detail than normally appears on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the output file will be in paper.dvi.

TeX will look in the first line of the file paper.tex to see if it begins with the magic sequence %&.  If the first line begins with %&for-
mat --translate-file tcxname then TeX will use the named format and transation table tcxname to process the source file.  Either the format
name or the --translate-file specification may be omitted, but not both.

The e response to TeX's error prompt causes the system default editor to start up at the current line of the current file.  The environment
variable TEXEDIT can be used to change the editor used.	It may contain a string with "%s" indicating where  the  filename  goes  and  "%d"
indicating where the decimal line number (if any) goes.	For example, a TEXEDIT string for emacs can be set with the sh command
TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

A  convenient file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When TeX can't find a file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking
you for another filename; responding `null' gets you out of the loop if you don't want to input anything.  You can also type your EOF char-
acter (usually control-D).

OPTIONS
This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

--fmt format
Use format as the name of the format to be used, instead of the name by which TeX was called or a %& line.

--help Print help message and exit.

--ini  Be initex, for dumping formats; this is implicitly true if the program is called as initex.

--interaction mode
Sets  the  interaction  mode.   The  mode can be one of batchmode, nonstopmode, scrollmode, and errorstopmode.  The meaning of these
modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

--ipc  Send DVI output to a socket as well as the usual output file.  Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

--ipc-start
As --ipc, and starts the server at the other end as well.  Whether this option is available is the choice of the installer.

Sets path searching debugging flags according to the bitmask.  See the Kpathsea manual for details.

--maketex fmt
Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be one of tex or tfm.

--mltex
Enable MLTeX extensions.

--no-maketex fmt
Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be one of tex or tfm.

--output-comment string
Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

--progname name
Pretend to be program name.  This affects both the format used and the search paths.

--shell-escape
Enable the \write18{command} construct.  The command can be any Bourne shell command.  This construct  is  normally  disallowed  for
security reasons.

--translate-file tcxname
Use the tcxname translation table.

--version
Print version information and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
See  the  Kpathsearch library documentation (the `Path specifications' node) for precise details of how the environment variables are used.
The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of the variables.

One caveat: In most TeX formats, you cannot use ~ in a filename you give directly to TeX, because ~ is an active character,  and  hence	is
expanded, not taken as part of the filename.  Other programs, such as Metafont, do not have this problem.

TEXMFOUTPUT
Normally, TeX puts its output files in the current directory.  If any output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it in the
directory specified in the environment variable TEXMFOUTPUT.  There is no default value for that variable.  For example, if you  say
tex  paper  and the current directory is not writable, if TEXMFOUTPUT has the value /tmp, TeX attempts to create /tmp/paper.log (and
/tmp/paper.dvi, if any output is produced.)

TEXINPUTS
Search path for \input and \openin files.  This should probably start with ``.'', so that user files are found before system  files.
An  empty  path  component  will	be  replaced  with  the  paths	defined  in  the  texmf.cnf  file.   For example, set TEXINPUTS to
".:/home/usr/tex:" to prepend the current direcory and ``/home/user/tex'' to the standard search path.

TEXEDIT
Command template for switching to editor.  The default, usually vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

FILES
The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.	Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

tex.pool
Encoded text of TeX's messages.

texfonts.map
Filename mapping definitions.

*.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

*.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

\$TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
The basic macro package described in the TeXbook.

BUGS
This version of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow when dimensions are added or subtracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but  when
it does the generated DVI file will be invalid.

mf(1), undump(1),
Donald E. Knuth, The TeXbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13447-0.
Leslie Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System, Addison-Wesley, 1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
K. Berry, Eplain: Expanded plain TeX, ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN 0-8218-2997-1.
TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

TRIVIA
TeX, pronounced properly, rhymes with ``blecchhh.''  The proper spelling in typewriter-like fonts is ``TeX'' and not ``TEX'' or ``tex.''

AUTHORS
TeX  was  designed  by  Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using his Web system for Pascal programs.  It was ported to Unix at Stanford by
Howard Trickey, and at Cornell by Pavel Curtis.	The version now offered with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated by the Web  to  C
system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

Web2C 7.3.1							   29 March 1999							    TEX(1)```