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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for postgres (redhat section 1)

POSTGRES(1)			  PostgreSQL Server Applications		      POSTGRES(1)

       postgres - run a PostgreSQL server in single-user mode

       postgres  [ -A	0 | 1 ] [ -B nbuffers ] [ -c name=value ] [ -d debug-level ] [ -D datadir
       ] [ -e ] [ -E ] [ -f  s | i | t | n | m | h ] [ -F ] [ -i ] [ -N ] [ -o filename ] [ -O	]
       [ -P ] [ -s | -t  pa | pl | ex ] [ -S sort-mem ] [ -W seconds ] [ --name=value ] database

       postgres  [ -A	0 | 1 ] [ -B nbuffers ] [ -c name=value ] [ -d debug-level ] [ -D datadir
       ] [ -e ] [ -f  s | i | t | n | m | h ] [ -F ] [ -i ] [ -o filename ] [ -O ] [ -p  database
       ]  [ -P ] [ -s | -t  pa | pl | ex ] [ -S sort-mem ] [ -v protocol-version ] [ -W seconds ]
       [ --name=value ]

       The postgres executable is the actual PostgreSQL server process that processes queries. It
       is normally not called directly; instead a postmaster(1) multiuser server is started.

       The  second form above is how postgres is invoked by the postmaster(1) (only conceptually,
       since both postmaster and postgres are in fact the same program); it should not be invoked
       directly  this  way. The first form invokes the server directly in interactive single-user
       mode. The primary use for this mode is during bootstrapping by initdb(1).  Sometimes it is
       used for debugging or disaster recovery.

       When  invoked  in  interactive  mode  from  the	shell, the user can enter queries and the
       results will be printed to the screen, but in a form that is more  useful  for  developers
       than  end  users.  But  note  that running a single-user backend is not truly suitable for
       debugging the server since no realistic interprocess communication and locking  will  hap-

       When  running  a  stand-alone backend, the session user will be set to the user with ID 1.
       This user does not actually have to exist, so a stand-alone backend can be used	to  manu-
       ally  recover  from  certain  kinds  of accidental damage to the system catalogs. Implicit
       superuser powers are granted to the user with ID 1 in stand-alone mode.

       When postgres is started by a postmaster(1) then it inherits all options set by	the  lat-
       ter. Additionally, postgres-specific options can be passed from the postmaster with the -o

       You can avoid having to type these options by setting up a  configuration  file.  See  the
       Administrator's Guide for details. Some (safe) options can also be set from the connecting
       client in an application-dependent way.	For example, if the  environment  variable  PGOP-
       TIONS  is  set,	then  libpq-based clients will pass that string to the server, which will
       interpret it as postgres command-line options.

       The options -A, -B, -c, -d, -D, -F, and --name have the same meanings as the postmaster(1)
       except  that  -d 0 prevents the debugging level of the postmaster from being propagated to
       the backend.

       -e     Sets the default date style to ``European'', which  means  that  the  ``day  before
	      month''  (rather	than  month  before day) rule is used to interpret ambiguous date
	      input, and that the day is printed before the month in certain date output formats.
	      See the PostgreSQL User's Guide for more information.

       -o filename
	      Sends  all debugging and error output to filename.  If the backend is running under
	      the postmaster, this option is ignored, and the stderr inherited from the  postmas-
	      ter is used.

       -P     Ignore  system  indexes  while scanning/updating system tuples. The REINDEX command
	      for system tables/indexes requires this option to be used.

       -s     Print time information and other statistics at the end of each query.  This is use-
	      ful for benchmarking or for use in tuning the number of buffers.

       -S sort-mem
	      Specifies  the  amount  of  memory  to  be used by internal sorts and hashes before
	      resorting to temporary disk  files.  The	value  is  specified  in  kilobytes,  and
	      defaults	to  512  kilobytes.  Note  that for a complex query, several sorts and/or
	      hashes might be running in parallel, and each one will be allowed to use as much as
	      sort-mem kilobytes before it starts to put data into temporary files.

	      Specifies  the name of the database to be accessed. If it is omitted it defaults to
	      the user name.

       -E     Echo all queries.

       -N     Disables use of newline as a query delimiter.

       There are several other options that may be specified, used mainly for debugging purposes.
       These  are  listed  here  only  for the use by PostgreSQL system developers. Use of any of
       these options is highly discouraged. Furthermore, any of these options  may  disappear  or
       change in a future release without notice.

       -f { s | i | m | n | h }
	      Forbids the use of particular scan and join methods: s and i disable sequential and
	      index scans respectively, while n, m, and h disable  nested-loop,  merge	and  hash
	      joins respectively.

	      Note:  Neither  sequential  scans nor nested-loop joins can be disabled completely;
	      the -fs and -fn options simply discourage the optimizer from using those plan types
	      if it has any other alternative.

       -i     Prevents query execution, but shows the plan tree.

       -O     Allows the structure of system tables to be modified. This is used by initdb.

       -p database
	      Indicates  that  this  server  has been started by a postmaster and makes different
	      assumptions about buffer pool management, file descriptors, etc.

       -t pa[rser] | pl[anner] | e[xecutor]
	      Print timing statistics for each query relating to each of the  major  system  mod-
	      ules. This option cannot be used together with the -s option.

       -v protocol
	      Specifies  the  version number of the frontend/backend protocol to be used for this
	      particular session.

       -W seconds
	      As soon as this option is encountered, the process sleeps for the specified  amount
	      of seconds. This gives developers time to attach a debugger to the backend process.

       PGDATA Default data direction location

       For others, which have little influence during single-user mode, see postmaster(1).

       To stop a running query use the SIGINT signal. To tell postgres to reread the config file,
       use a SIGHUP signal. The postmaster uses SIGTERM to tell a postgres process to  quit  nor-
       mally  and  SIGQUIT  to terminate without the normal cleanup.  These should not be used by

       Start a stand-alone backend with a command like

       postgres -D $PGDATA other-options my_database

       Provide the correct path to the database area with -D, or make sure that  the  environment
       variable PGDATA is set.	Also specify the name of the particular database you want to work

       Normally, the stand-alone backend treats newline as the command entry terminator; there is
       no intelligence about semicolons, as there is in psql. To continue a command across multi-
       ple lines, you must type backslash just before each newline except the last one.

       But if you use the -N command line switch, then newline does not terminate command  entry.
       The  backend will read the standard input until the end-of-file (EOF) marker, then process
       the input as a single query string. Backslash-newline is not  treated  specially  in  this

       To  quit  the  session, type EOF (Control+D, usually).  If you've used -N, two consecutive
       EOFs are needed to exit.

       Note that the stand-alone backend does not provide sophisticated line-editing features (no
       command history, for example).

       initdb(1), ipcclean(1), postmaster(1)

Application				    2002-11-22				      POSTGRES(1)

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