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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for mcedit (redhat section 1)

MCEDIT(1)			      GNU Midnight Commander				MCEDIT(1)

       mcedit - Internal file viewer of GNU Midnight Commander.

       mcedit [-bcCdfhstVx?] [+number] file

       mcedit  is  a  link to mc, the main GNU Midnight Commander executable.  Executing GNU Mid-
       night Commander under this name requests staring the internal editor and opening the  file
       specified  on the command line.	The editor is based on the terminal version of cooledit -
       standalone editor for X Window System.

	      Go  to the line specified by number (do not put a space between the + sign and  the

       -b     Force black and white display.

       -c     Force ANSI color mode on terminals that don't seem to have color support.

       -C <keyword>=<FGcolor>,<BGcolor>:<keyword>= ...
	      Specify  a  different color set.	See the Colors section in mc(1) for more informa-

       -d     Disable mouse support.

       -f     Display the compiled-in search path for GNU Midnight Commander data files.

       -t     Force using termcap database instead of terminfo.  This option is  only  applicable
	      if GNU Midnight Commander was compiled with S-Lang library with terminfo support.

       -V     Display the version of the program.

       -x     Force  xterm mode.  Used when running on xterm-capable terminals (two screen modes,
	      and able to send mouse escape sequences).

       The internal file editor is a full-featured full screen editor.	It can edit files  up  to
       64  megabytes.	It  is possible to edit binary files.  The features it presently supports
       are: block copy, move, delete, cut, paste; key for key undo; pull-down menus; file  inser-
       tion;  macro  commands;	regular  expression  search and replace (and our own scanf-printf
       search and replace); shift-arrow text highlighting (if supported by the terminal); insert-
       overwrite toggle; word wrap; autoindent; tunable tab size; syntax highlighting for various
       file types; and an option to pipe text blocks  through  shell  commands	like  indent  and

       The editor is easy to use and can be used without learning.  The pull-down menu is invoked
       by pressing F9.	You can learn other keys from the menu and from the button bar labels.

       In addition to that, Shift combined with arrows does text highlighting  (if  supported  by
       the  terminal):	Ctrl-Ins  copies  to the file ~/.mc/cedit/cooledit.clip, Shift-Ins pastes
       from ~/.mc/cedit/cooledit.clip, Shift-Del cuts to ~/.mc/cedit/cooledit.clip, and  Ctrl-Del
       deletes	highlighted  text.   Mouse highlighting also works on some terminals.  To use the
       standard mouse support provided by your terminal, hold the Shift key.   Please  note  that
       the mouse support in the terminal doesn't share the clipboard with mcedit.

       The  completion	key  (usually  Alt-Tab or Escape Tab) completes the word under the cursor
       using the words used earlier in the file.

       To define a macro, press Ctrl-R and then type out the keys you want to be executed.  Press
       Ctrl-R again when finished.  You can then assign the macro to any key you like by pressing
       that key.  The macro is executed when you press Ctrl-A and then	the  assigned  key.   The
       macro is also executed if you press Meta, Ctrl, or Esc and the assigned key, provided that
       the key is not used for any other function.  The macro commands are  stored  in	the  file
       ~/.mc/cedit/cooledit.macros.   Do  NOT edit this file if you are going to use macros again
       in the same editing session, because mcedit caches macro key defines  in  memory.   mcedit
       now  overwrites	a macro if a macro with the same key already exists, so you won't have to
       edit this file. You will also have to restart other running editors  for  macros  to  take

       F19  will  format  C,  C++,  Java or HTML code when it is highlighted.  An executable file
       called ~/.mc/cedit/edit.indent.rc will be created for you from the default template.  Feel
       free to edit it if you need.

       C-p  will  run ispell on a block of text in a similar way.  The script file will be called

       If some keys don't work, you can use Learn Keys in the Options menu.

       mcedit supports syntax highlighting.  This means that keywords and contexts (like  C  com-
       ments,  string constants, etc) are highlighted in different colors.  The following section
       explains the format of the file ~/.mc/cedit/Syntax.  The file ~/.mc/cedit/Syntax  is  res-
       canned  on  opening  of	a any new editor file.	The file contains rules for highlighting,
       each of which is given on a separate line, and define which keywords will  be  highlighted
       to what color.

       The  file is divided into sections, each beginning with a line with the file command.  The
       sections are normally put into separate files using the include command.

       The file command has three arguments.  The first argument is a regular expression that  is
       applied	to  the file name to determine if the following section applies to the file.  The
       second argument is the description of the file type.  It is used in cooledit; future  ver-
       sions  of  mcedit may use it as well.  The third optional argument is a regular expression
       to match the first line of text of the file.  The rules in the following section apply  if
       either the file name or the first line of text matches.

       A  section ends with the start of another section.  Each section is divided into contexts,
       and each context contains rules.  A context is a scope within the text that  a  particular
       set of rules belongs to.  For instance, the text within a C style comment (i.e. between /*
       and */) has its own color.  This is a context, although it has no further rules inside  it
       because there is probably nothing that we want highlighted within a C comment.

       A trivial C programming section might look like this:

       file .\*\\.c C\sProgram\sFile (#include|/\\\*)

       wholechars abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ_

       # default colors
       context default
	 keyword  whole  if	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  else	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  for	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  while	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  do	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  switch   yellow
	 keyword  whole  case	  yellow
	 keyword  whole  static   yellow
	 keyword  whole  extern   yellow
	 keyword	 {	  brightcyan
	 keyword	 }	  brightcyan
	 keyword	 '*'	  green

       # C comments
       context /\* \*/ brown

       # C preprocessor directives
       context linestart # \n red
	 keyword  \\\n	brightred

       # C string constants
       context " " green
	 keyword  %d	brightgreen
	 keyword  %s	brightgreen
	 keyword  %c	brightgreen
	 keyword  \\"	brightgreen

       Each context starts with a line of the form:

       context	[exclusive]  [whole|wholeright|wholeleft]  [linestart]	delim  [linestart]  delim
       [foreground] [background]

       The first context is an exception.  It must start with the command

       context default [foreground] [background]

       otherwise mcedit will report an error.  The linestart option  specifies	that  delim  must
       start at the beginning of a line.  The whole option tells that delim must be a whole word.
       To specify that a word must begin on the word boundary only on the left side, you can  use
       the wholeleft option, and similarly a word that must end on the word boundary is specified
       by wholeright.

       The set of characters that constitute a whole word can be changed at any point in the file
       with  the  wholechars command.  The left and right set of characters can be set separately

       wholechars [left|right] characters

       The exclusive option causes the text between the delimiters to be highlighted, but not the
       delimiters themselves.

       Each rule is a line of the form:

       keyword [whole|wholeright|wholeleft] [linestart] string foreground [background]

       Context	or  keyword strings are interpreted, so that you can include tabs and spaces with
       the sequences \t and \s.  Newlines and backslashes are specified with \n  and  \\  respec-
       tively.	Since whitespace is used as a separator, it may not be used as is.  Also, \* must
       be used to specify an asterisk.	The * itself is a wildcard that  matches  any  length  of
       characters.  For example,

	 keyword	 '*'	  green

       colors all C single character constants green.  You also could use

	 keyword	 "*"	  green

       to color string constants, but the matched string would not be allowed to span across mul-
       tiple newlines.	The wildcard may be used within context delimiters as well, but you  can-
       not have a wildcard as the last or first character.

       Important to note is the line

	 keyword  \\\n	brightgreen

       This  line  defines  a keyword containing the backslash and newline characters.	Since the
       keywords are matched before the context delimiters, this keyword prevents the context from
       ending  at  the	end  of  the  lines that end in a backslash, thus allowing C preprocessor
       directive to continue across multiple lines.

       The possible colors are: black, gray, red, brightred, green, brightgreen,  brown,  yellow,
       blue,  brightblue,  magenta, brightmagenta, cyan, brightcyan, lightgray and white.  If the
       syntax file is shared with cooledit, it is possible to specify different colors for mcedit
       and cooledit by separating them with a slash, e.g.

       keyword	#include  red/Orange

       mcedit uses the color before the slash.	See cooledit(1) for supported cooledit colors.

       Comments may be put on a separate line starting with the hash sign (#).

       Because of the simplicity of the implementation, there are a few intricacies that will not
       be dealt with correctly but these are a minor irritation.  On the whole, a broad  spectrum
       of quite complicated situations are handled with these simple rules.  It is a good idea to
       take a look at the syntax file to see some of the nifty tricks you can do  with	a  little
       imagination.   If  you cannot get by with the rules I have coded, and you think you have a
       rule that would be useful, please email me with your request.  However,	do  not  ask  for
       regular expression support, because this is flatly impossible.

       A  useful  hint is to work with as much as possible with the things you can do rather than
       try to do things that this implementation cannot deal with.  Also remember that the aim of
       syntax  highlighting  is  to  make  programming less prone to error, not to make code look

       The default colors may be changed by appending to the MC_COLOR_TABLE environment variable.
       Foreground and background colors pairs may be specified for example with:


       Most  options  can  now be set from the editors options dialog box.  See the Options menu.
       The following options are defined in ~/.mc/ini and have obvious counterparts in the dialog
       box.   You  can	modify	them  to change the editor behavior, by editing the file.  Unless
       specified, a 1 sets the option to on, and a 0 sets it to off, as is usual.

	      This option is ignored when invoking mcedit.

	      1 for Emacs keys, and 0 for normal Cooledit keys.

	      Interpret the tab character as being of this length.   Default  is  8.  You  should
	      avoid  using  other  than  8 since most other editors and text viewers assume a tab
	      spacing of 8. Use editor_fake_half_tabs to simulate a smaller tab spacing.

	      Never insert a tab space. Rather insert spaces (ascii 20h) to fill to  the  desired
	      tab size.

	      Pressing	return	will  tab across to match the indentation of the first line above
	      that has text on it.

	      Make a single backspace delete all the space to the left margin if there is no text
	      between the cursor and the left margin.

	      This will emulate a half tab for those who want to program with a tab spacing of 4,
	      but do not want the tab size changed from 8 (so that the code will be formatted the
	      same when displayed by other programs). When editing between text and the left mar-
	      gin, moving and tabbing will be as though a tab space were 4, while actually  using
	      spaces  and  normal tabs for an optimal fill.  When editing anywhere else, a normal
	      tab is inserted.

	      Possible values 0, 1 and 2.  The save mode (see the options menu also)  allows  you
	      to  change  the  method of saving a file.  Quick save (0) saves the file by immedi-
	      ately, truncating the disk file to zero length (i.e.  erasing it) and  the  writing
	      the  editor contents to the file.  This method is fast, but dangerous, since a sys-
	      tem error during a file save will leave the file only partially  written,  possibly
	      rendering  the  data  irretrievable.  When saving, the safe save (1) option enables
	      creation of a temporary file into which the file contents are  first  written.   In
	      the  event  of an problem, the original file is untouched.  When the temporary file
	      is successfully written, it is renamed to the  name  of  the  original  file,  thus
	      replacing  it.   The  safest  method is create backups (2).  Where a backup file is
	      created before any changes are made.  You can specify your own backup  file  exten-
	      sion  in	the  dialog.   Note that saving twice will replace your backup as well as
	      your original file.

       You can use scanf search and replace to search and replace a C format string.  First  take
       a  look	at  the  sscanf  and  sprintf man pages to see what a format string is and how it
       works.  Here's an example: suppose that you want to replace all	occurrences  of  an  open
       bracket,  three	comma  separated  numbers, and a close bracket, with the word apples, the
       third number, the word oranges and then the second number.  You would fill in the  Replace
       dialog box as follows:

       Enter search string
       Enter replace string
       apples %d oranges %d
       Enter replacement argument order

       The  last line specifies that the third and then the second number are to be used in place
       of the first and second.

       It is advisable to use this feature with Prompt On Replace on, because a match is  thought
       to  be found whenever the number of arguments found matches the number given, which is not
       always a real match. Scanf also treats whitespace as being elastic.  Note that  the  scanf
       format %[ is very useful for scanning strings, and whitespace.

       The  editor also displays non-us characters (160+).  When editing binary files, you should
       set display bits to 7 bits in the Midnight Commander options  menu  to  keep  the  spacing


	      The help file for the program.


	      The  default  system-wide setup for GNU Midnight Commander, used only if the user's
	      own ~/.mc/ini file is missing.


	      Global settings for the Midnight Commander.   Settings  in  this	file  affect  all
	      users, whether they have ~/.mc/ini or not.


	      User's  own  setup.  If this file is present, the setup is loaded from here instead
	      of the system-wide startup file.


	      User's own setup. If this file is present  then  the  setup  is  loaded  from  here
	      instead of the system-wide startup file.


	      User's own temporary directory where block commands are processed and saved.

       This program is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published
       by the Free Software Foundation.  See the built-in help	of  the  Midnight  Commander  for
       details on the License and the lack of warranty.

       The    latest	version    of	 this	program   can	be   found   at   ftp://ftp.ibib-

       cooledit(1), mc(1), gpm(1), terminfo(1), scanf(3).

       Paul Sheer (psheer@obsidian.co.za) is the original  author  of  the  Midnight  Commander's
       internal editor.

       Bugs should be reported to mc-devel@gnome.org

MC Version 4.6.0			   January 2003 				MCEDIT(1)

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