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MC(1)				      GNU Midnight Commander				    MC(1)

       mc - Visual shell for Unix-like systems.

       mc [-abcCdfhPstuUVx] [-l log] [dir1 [dir2]] [-v file]

       GNU  Midnight  Commander  is a directory browser/file manager for Unix-like operating sys-

       -a     Disable usage of graphic characters for line drawing.

       -b     Force black and white display.

       -c     Force color mode, please check the section Colors for more information.

       -C arg Specify a different color set in the command line.  The format of arg is documented
	      in the Colors section.

       -d     Disable mouse support.

       -f     Display the compiled-in search paths for Midnight Commander files.

       -k     Reset  softkeys to their default from the termcap/terminfo database. Only useful on
	      HP terminals when the function keys don't work.

       -l file
	      Save the ftpfs dialog with the server in file.

       -P file
	      Print the last working directory to the specified file.  This option is  not  meant
	      to be used directly.  Instead, it's used from a special shell script that automati-
	      cally changes the current directory of the shell to the last directory the Midnight
	      Commander  was in.  Source the file /usr/share/mc/bin/mc.sh (bash and zsh users) or
	      /usr/share/mc/bin/mc.csh (tcsh users) respectively to define mc as an alias to  the
	      appropriate shell script.

       -s     Turn  on	the  slow terminal mode, in this mode the program will not draw expensive
	      line drawing characters and will toggle verbose mode off.

       -t     Used only if the code was compiled with Slang and terminfo: it makes  the  Midnight
	      Commander  use  the  value  of  the  TERMCAP  variable for the terminal information
	      instead of the information on the system wide terminal database

       -u     Disable use of the concurrent shell (only makes sense if the Midnight Commander has
	      been built with concurrent shell support).

       -U     Enable  use  of the concurrent shell support (only makes sense if the Midnight Com-
	      mander was built with the subshell support set as an optional feature).

       -v file
	      Start the internal viewer to view the specified file.

       -V     Display the version of the program.

       -x     Force xterm mode.  Used when running on xterm-capable terminals (two screen  modes,
	      and able to send mouse escape sequences).

       If specified, the first path name is the directory to show in the selected panel; the sec-
       ond path name is the directory to be shown in the other panel.

       The screen of the Midnight Commander is divided into four parts.  Almost all of the screen
       space is taken up by two directory panels.  By default, the second line from the bottom of
       the screen is the shell command line, and the bottom line shows the function  key  labels.
       The  topmost line is the menu bar line.	The menu bar line may not be visible, but appears
       if you click the topmost line with the mouse or press the F9 key.

       The Midnight Commander provides a view of two directories at the same  time.  One  of  the
       panels  is  the current panel (a selection bar is in the current panel). Almost all opera-
       tions take place on the current panel. Some  file  operations  like  Rename  and  Copy  by
       default	use  the  directory  of  the unselected panel as a destination (don't worry, they
       always ask you for confirmation first). For more information,  see  the	sections  on  the
       Directory Panels, the Left and Right Menus and the File Menu.

       You  can execute system commands from the Midnight Commander by simply typing them. Every-
       thing you type will appear on the shell command line, and when you press  Enter	the  Mid-
       night  Commander  will execute the command line you typed; read the Shell Command Line and
       Input Line Keys sections to learn more about the command line.

Mouse Support
       The Midnight Commander comes with mouse support.  It is activated whenever you are running
       on  an  xterm(1) terminal (it even works if you take a telnet, ssh or rlogin connection to
       another machine from the xterm) or if you are running on a Linux console and have the  gpm
       mouse server running.

       When you left click on a file in the directory panels, that file is selected; if you click
       with the right button, the file is marked (or unmarked, depending on the previous state).

       Double-clicking on a file will try to execute the command if it is an executable  program;
       and  if the extension file has a program specified for the file's extension, the specified
       program is executed.

       Also, it is possible to execute the commands assigned to the function key labels by click-
       ing on them.

       If  a mouse button is clicked on the top frame line of the directory panel, it is scrolled
       one page up.  Likewise, a click on the bottom frame line will  cause  scrolling	one  page
       down.  This frame line method works also in the Help Viewer and the Directory Tree.

       The  default  auto  repeat  rate  for  the  mouse buttons is 400 milliseconds. This may be
       changed to other values by editing the ~/.mc/ini file and changing  the	mouse_repeat_rate

       If  you are running the Midnight Commander with the mouse support, you can get the default
       mouse behavior (cutting and pasting text) by holding down the Shift key.

       Some commands in the Midnight Commander involve the use of the Control (sometimes  labeled
       CTRL  or CTL) and the Meta (sometimes labeled ALT or even Compose) keys. In this manual we
       will use the following abbreviations:

	      means hold the Control key while typing the character <chr>.  Thus  C-f  would  be:
	      hold the Control key and type f.

	      means hold the Meta or Alt key down while typing <chr>.  If there is no Meta or Alt
	      key, type ESC, release it, then type the character <chr>.

	      means hold the Shift key down while typing <chr>.

       All input lines in the Midnight Commander use an approximation to the GNU  Emacs  editor's
       key bindings.

       There are many sections which tell about the keys. The following are the most important.

       The  File  Menu section documents the keyboard shortcuts for the commands appearing in the
       File menu. This section includes the function keys. Most of these  commands  perform  some
       action, usually on the selected file or the tagged files.

       The Directory Panels section documents the keys which select a file or tag files as a tar-
       get for a later action (the action is usually one from the file menu).

       The Shell Command Line section list the keys which are used for entering and editing  com-
       mand  lines.  Most of these copy file names and such from the directory panels to the com-
       mand line (to avoid excessive typing) or access the command line history.

       Input Line Keys are used for editing input lines. This means both the command line and the
       input lines in the query dialogs.

  Miscellaneous Keys
       Here are some keys which don't fall into any of the other categories:

       Enter  if  there  is  some text in the command line (the one at the bottom of the panels),
	      then that command is executed. If there is no text in the command line then if  the
	      selection  bar  is  over	a directory the Midnight Commander does a chdir(2) to the
	      selected directory and reloads the information on the panel; if the selection is an
	      executable file then it is executed. Finally, if the extension of the selected file
	      name matches one of the extensions in the extensions file  then  the  corresponding
	      command is executed.

       C-l    repaint all the information in the Midnight Commander.

       C-x c  run the Chmod command on a file or on the tagged files.

       C-x o  run the Chown command on the current file or on the tagged files.

       C-x l  run the link command.

       C-x s  run the symbolic link command.

       C-x i  set the other panel display mode to information.

       C-x q  set the other panel display mode to quick view.

       C-x !  execute the External panelize command.

       C-x h  run the add directory to hotlist command.

       M-!    executes the Filtered view command, described in the view command.

       M-?    executes the Find file command.

       M-c    pops up the quick cd dialog.

       C-o    when  the  program  is  being run in the Linux or SCO console or under an xterm, it
	      will show you the output of the previous command.  When ran on the  Linux  console,
	      the  Midnight  Commander uses an external program (cons.saver) to handle saving and
	      restoring of information on the screen.

       When the subshell support is compiled in, you can type C-o at any time  and  you  will  be
       taken  back to the Midnight Commander main screen, to return to your application just type
       C-o.  If you have an application suspended by using this trick, you won't be able to  exe-
       cute other programs from the Midnight Commander until you terminate the suspended applica-

  Directory Panels
       This section lists the keys which operate on the directory panels. If you want to know how
       to change the appearance of the panels take a look at the section on Left and Right Menus.

       Tab, C-i
	      change the current panel. The old other panel becomes the new current panel and the
	      old current panel becomes the new other panel. The selection bar moves from the old
	      current panel to the new current panel.

       Insert, C-t
	      to  tag  files  you may use the Insert key (the kich1 terminfo sequence) or the C-t
	      (Control-t) sequence. To untag files, just retag a tagged file.

       M-g, M-r, M-j
	      used to select the top file in a panel, the middle file and the bottom one, respec-

       C-s, M-s
	      start  a	filename  search in the directory listing. When the search is active, the
	      user input will be added to the search string instead of the command line.  If  the
	      Show  mini-status  option  is enabled the search string is shown on the mini-status
	      line. When typing, the selection bar will move to the next file starting	with  the
	      typed letters. The backspace or DEL keys can be used to correct typing mistakes. If
	      C-s is pressed again, the next match is searched for.

       M-t    toggle the current display listing to show the next  display  listing  mode.   With
	      this  it is possible to quickly switch from long listing to regular listing and the
	      user defined listing mode.

       C-\ (control-backslash)
	      show the directory hotlist and change to the selected directory.

       +  (plus)
	      this is used to select (tag) a group of files. The Midnight Commander  will  prompt
	      for a regular expression describing the group. When Shell Patterns are enabled, the
	      regular expression is much like the regular expressions in the  shell  (*  standing
	      for  zero  or more characters and ?  standing for one character). If Shell Patterns
	      is off, then the tagging of files is done with normal regular expressions  (see  ed

       If the expression starts or ends with a slash (/), then it will select directories instead
       of files.

       \ (backslash)
	      use the "\" key to unselect a group of files. This is the opposite of the Plus key.

       up-key, C-p
	      move the selection bar to the previous entry in the panel.

       down-key, C-n
	      move the selection bar to the next entry in the panel.

       home, a1, M-<
	      move the selection bar to the first entry in the panel.

       end, c1, M->
	      move the selection bar to the last entry in the panel.

       next-page, C-v
	      move the selection bar one page down.

       prev-page, M-v
	      move the selection bar one page up.

       M-o    make the current directory of the current panel also the current directory  of  the
	      other  panel.   Put  the other panel to the listing mode if needed.  If the current
	      panel is panelized, the other panel doesn't become panelized.

       C-PageUp, C-PageDown
	      only when supported by the terminal: change to ".." and to the  currently  selected
	      directory respectively.

       M-y    moves  to  the previous directory in the history, equivalent to clicking the < with
	      the mouse.

       M-u    moves to the next directory in the history, equivalent to clicking the >	with  the

       M-S-h, M-H
	      displays the directory history, equivalent to depressing the 'v' with the mouse.

  Shell Command Line
       This  section  lists  keys  which are useful to avoid excessive typing when entering shell

	      copy the currently selected file name to the command line.

	      same a M-Enter, this one only works on the Linux console.

       M-Tab  does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname completion for you.

       C-x t, C-x C-t
	      copy the tagged files (or if there are no tagged files, the selected file)  of  the
	      current panel (C-x t) or of the other panel (C-x C-t) to the command line.

       C-x p, C-x C-p
	      the  first  key  sequence copies the current path name to the command line, and the
	      second one copies the unselected panel's path name to the command line.

       C-q    the quote command can be used to insert characters that are  otherwise  interpreted
	      by the Midnight Commander (like the '+' symbol)

       M-p, M-n
	      use  these  keys	to  browse through the command history. M-p takes you to the last
	      entry, M-n takes you to the next one.

       M-h    displays the history for the current input line.

  General Movement Keys
       The help viewer, the file viewer and the directory tree use common code to handle  moving.
       Therefore  they	accept	exactly the same keys. Each of them also accepts some keys of its

       Other parts of the Midnight Commander use some of the same movement keys, so this  section
       may be of use for those parts too.

       Up, C-p
	      moves one line backward.

       Down, C-n
	      moves one line forward.

       Prev Page, Page Up, M-v
	      moves one page up.

       Next Page, Page Down, C-v
	      moves one page down.

       Home, A1
	      moves to the beginning.

       End, C1
	      move to the end.

       The help viewer and the file viewer accept the following keys in addition the to ones men-
       tioned above:

       b, C-b, C-h, Backspace, Delete
	      moves one page up.

       Space bar
	      moves one page down.

       u, d   moves one half of a page up or down.

       g, G   moves to the beginning or to the end.

  Input Line Keys
       The input lines (they are used for the command line and for the query dialogs in the  pro-
       gram) accept these keys:

       C-a    puts the cursor at the beginning of line.

       C-e    puts the cursor at the end of the line.

       C-b, move-left
	      move the cursor one position left.

       C-f, move-right
	      move the cursor one position right.

       M-f    moves one word forward.

       M-b    moves one word backward.

       C-h, backspace
	      delete the previous character.

       C-d, Delete
	      delete the character in the point (over the cursor).

       C-@    sets the mark for cutting.

       C-w    copies  the  text  between the cursor and the mark to a kill buffer and removes the
	      text from the input line.

       M-w    copies the text between the cursor and the mark to a kill buffer.

       C-y    yanks back the contents of the kill buffer.

       C-k    kills the text from the cursor to the end of the line.

       M-p, M-n
	      Use these keys to browse through the command history. M-p takes  you  to	the  last
	      entry, M-n takes you to the next one.

       M-C-h, M-Backspace
	      delete one word backward.

       M-Tab  does the filename, command, variable, username and hostname completion for you.

Menu Bar
       The  menu  bar  pops up when you press F9 or click the mouse on the top row of the screen.
       The menu bar has five menus: "Left", "File", "Command", "Options" and "Right".

       The Left and Right Menus allow you to modify the appearance of the left and  right  direc-
       tory panels.

       The  File  Menu	lists  the  actions you can perform on the currently selected file or the
       tagged files.

       The Command Menu lists the actions which are more general and bear no relation to the cur-
       rently selected file or the tagged files.

       The Options Menu lists the actions which allow you to customize the Midnight Commander.

  Left and Right (Above and Below) Menus
       The outlook of the directory panels can be changed from the Left and Right menus (they are
       named Above and Below when the horizontal panel split is chosen from  the  Layout  options

    Listing Mode...
       The  listing  mode  view  is  used to display a listing of files, there are four different
       listing modes available: Full, Brief, Long and User.  The full directory  view  shows  the
       file name, the size of the file and the modification time.

       The brief view shows only the file name and it has two columns (therefore showing twice as
       many files as other views). The long view is similar to the output of ls -l  command.  The
       long view takes the whole screen width.

       If you choose the "User" display format, then you have to specify the display format.

       The  user  display  format  must start with a panel size specifier.  This may be "half" or
       "full", and they specify a half screen panel and a full screen panel respectively.

       After the panel size, you may specify the two columns mode on the panel, this is  done  by
       adding the number "2" to the user format string.

       After  this  you add the name of the fields with an optional size specifier.  This are the
       available fields you may display:

       name   displays the file name.

       size   displays the file size.

       bsize  is an alternative form of the size format. It displays the size of  the  files  and
	      for directories it just shows SUB-DIR or UP--DIR.

       type   displays	a  one	character  wide type field.  This character is similar to what is
	      displayed by ls with the -F flag - * for executable files, / for directories, @ for
	      links,  = for sockets, - for character devices, + for block devices, | for pipes, ~
	      for symbolic links to directories and !	for  stale  symlinks  (links  that  point

       mark   an asterisk if the file is tagged, a space if it's not.

       mtime  file's last modification time.

       atime  file's last access time.

       ctime  file's creation time.

       perm   a string representing the current permission bits of the file.

       mode   an octal value with the current permission bits of the file.

       nlink  the number of links to the file.

       ngid   the GID (numeric).

       nuid   the UID (numeric).

       owner  the owner of the file.

       group  the group of the file.

       inode  the inode of the file.

       Also you can use following keywords to define the panel layout:

       space  a space in the display format.

       |      add a vertical line to the display format.

       To force one field to a fixed size (a size specifier), you just add : followed by the num-
       ber of characters you want the field to have.  If the number is followed by the symbol  +,
       then  the  size	specifies the minimal field size - if the program finds out that there is
       more space on the screen, it will then expand that field.

       For example, the Full display corresponds to this format:

       half type name | size | mtime

       And the Long display corresponds to this format:

       full perm space nlink space owner space group space size space mtime space name

       This is a nice user display format:

       half name | size:7 | type mode:3

       Panels may also be set to the following modes:

       Info   The info view display information related to the currently  selected  file  and  if
	      possible information about the current file system.

       Tree   The tree view is quite similar to the directory tree feature. See the section about
	      it for more information.

       Quick View
	      In this mode, the panel will switch to a reduced viewer that displays the  contents
	      of  the  currently  selected file, if you select the panel (with the tab key or the
	      mouse), you will have access to the usual viewer commands.

    Sort Order...
       The eight sort orders are by name, by extension, by modification time, by access time, and
       by inode information modification time, by size, by inode and unsorted.	In the Sort order
       dialog box you can choose the sort order and you may also specify if you want to  sort  in
       reverse order by checking the reverse box.

       By  default  directories  are sorted before files but this can be changed from the Options
       menu (option Mix all files).

       The filter command allows you to specify a shell pattern (for example *.tar.gz) which  the
       files  must  match  to be shown. Regardless of the filter pattern, the directories and the
       links to directories are always shown in the directory panel.

       The reread command reload the list of files in the directory. It is useful if  other  pro-
       cesses  have  created  or removed files.  If you have panelized file names in a panel this
       will reload the directory contents and remove the panelized information (See  the  section
       External panelize for more information).

  File Menu
       The Midnight Commander uses the F1 - F10 keys as keyboard shortcuts for commands appearing
       in the file menu.  The escape sequences for the function keys  are  terminfo  capabilities
       kf1  trough  kf10.   On	terminals  without function key support, you can achieve the same
       functionality by pressing the ESC key and then a number in the range 1  through	9  and	0
       (corresponding to F1 to F9 and F10 respectively).

       The File menu has the following commands (keyboard shortcuts in parentheses):

       Help (F1)

       Invokes	the  built-in  hypertext help viewer. Inside the help viewer, you can use the Tab
       key to select the next link and the Enter key to follow that  link.  The  keys  Space  and
       Backspace  are used to move forward and backward in a help page. Press F1 again to get the
       full list of accepted keys.

       Menu (F2)

       Invoke the user menu.  The user menu provides an easy way to provide users with a menu and
       add extra features to the Midnight Commander.

       View (F3, Shift-F3)

       View  the currently selected file. By default this invokes the Internal File Viewer but if
       the option "Use internal view" is off, it invokes an external file viewer specified by the
       PAGER environment variable.  If PAGER is undefined, the "view" command is invoked.  If you
       use Shift-F3 instead, the viewer will be invoked without doing any formatting  or  prepro-
       cessing to the file.

       Filtered View (M-!)

       This  command  prompts  for a command and its arguments (the argument defaults to the cur-
       rently selected file name), the output from such command is shown  in  the  internal  file

       Edit (F4)

       Currently  it  invokes  the  vi	editor, or the editor specified in the EDITOR environment
       variable, or the Internal File Editor if the use_internal_edit option is on.

       Copy (F5)

       Pop up an input dialog with destination that defaults to the directory in the non-selected
       panel  and  copies  the currently selected file (or the tagged files, if there is at least
       one file tagged) to the directory specified by the user in the input dialog.  During  this
       process,  you  can  press C-c or ESC to abort the operation. For details about source mask
       (which will be usually either * or ^\(.*\)$ depending on setting of  Use  shell	patterns)
       and possible wildcards in the destination see Mask copy/rename.

       On  some systems, it is possible to do the copy in the background by clicking on the back-
       ground button (or pressing M-b in the dialog box).  The Background Jobs is used to control
       the background process.

       Link (C-x l)

       Create a hard link to the current file.

       SymLink (C-x s)

       Create a symbolic link to the current file. To those of you who don't know what links are:
       creating a link to a file is a bit like copying the file, but both the source filename and
       the  destination  filename  represent the same file image. For example, if you edit one of
       these files, all changes you make will appear  in  both	files.	Some  people  call  links
       aliases or shortcuts.

       A  hard link appears as a real file. After making it, there is no way of telling which one
       is the original and which is the link. If you delete either one of them the other  one  is
       still  intact. It is very difficult to notice that the files represent the same image. Use
       hard links when you don't even want to know.

       A symbolic link is a reference to the name of the original file. If the original  file  is
       deleted	the symbolic link is useless. It is quite easy to notice that the files represent
       the same image. The Midnight Commander shows an "@"-sign in front of the file name  if  it
       is  a  symbolic	link to somewhere (except to directory, where it shows a tilde (~)).  The
       original file which the link points to is shown on mini-status line if the Show	mini-sta-
       tus option is enabled. Use symbolic links when you want to avoid the confusion that can be
       caused by hard links.

       Rename/Move (F6)

       Pop up an input dialog that defaults to the directory in the non-selected panel and  moves
       the  currently selected file (or the tagged files if there is at least one tagged file) to
       the directory specified by the user in the input dialog. During the process, you can press
       C-c  or ESC to abort the operation. For more details look at Copy operation above, most of
       the things are quite similar.

       On some systems, it is possible to do the copy in the background by clicking on the  back-
       ground button (or pressing M-b in the dialog box).  The Background Jobs is used to control
       the background process.

       Mkdir (F7)

       Pop up an input dialog and creates the directory specified.

       Delete (F8)

       Delete the currently selected file or the tagged files in the  currently  selected  panel.
       During the process, you can press C-c or ESC to abort the operation.

       Quick cd (M-c) Use the quick cd command if you have full command line and want to cd some-

       Select group (+)

       This is used to select (tag) a group of files. The Midnight Commander will  prompt  for	a
       regular	expression  describing	the  group.  When Shell Patterns are enabled, the regular
       expression is much like the filename globbing in the shell (* standing for  zero  or  more
       characters  and ?  standing for one character). If Shell Patterns is off, then the tagging
       of files is done with normal regular expressions (see ed (1)).

       To mark directories instead of files, the expression must start or end with a '/'.

       Unselect group (\)

       Used to unselect a group of files. This is the opposite of the Select group command.

       Quit (F10, Shift-F10)

       Terminate the Midnight Commander.  Shift-F10 is used when you want to  quit  and  you  are
       using  the  shell  wrapper.  Shift-F10 will not take you to the last directory you visited
       with the Midnight Commander, instead it will stay at the directory where you  started  the
       Midnight Commander.

    Quick cd
       This  command  is  useful if you have a full command line and want to cd somewhere without
       having to yank and paste the command line. This command pops up a small dialog, where  you
       enter  everything  you  would enter after cd on the command line and then you press enter.
       This features all the things that are already in the internal cd command.

  Command Menu
       The Directory tree command shows a tree figure of the directories.

       The Find file command allows you to search for a specific file. The "Swap panels"  command
       swaps the contents of the two directory panels.

       The "Panels on/off" command shows the output of the last shell command. This works only on
       xterm and on Linux and SCO console.

       The Compare directories (C-x d) command compares the directory panels with each other. You
       can  then  use the Copy (F5) command to make the panels identical. There are three compare
       methods. The quick method compares only file size and file date. The thorough method makes
       a  full byte-by-byte compare. The thorough method is not available if the machine does not
       support the mmap(2) system call.  The size-only compare	method	just  compares	the  file
       sizes and does not check the contents or the date times, it just checks the file size.

       The Command history command shows a list of typed commands. The selected command is copied
       to the command line. The command history can also be accessed by typing M-p or M-n.

       The Directory hotlist (C-\) command makes changing of the current directory to often  used
       directories faster.

       The  External  panelize	allows you to execute an external program, and make the output of
       that program the contents of the current panel.

       Extension file edit command allows you to specify programs to executed  when  you  try  to
       execute,  view, edit and do a bunch of other thing on files with certain extensions (file-
       name endings). The Menu file edit command may be used for editing  the  user  menu  (which
       appears by pressing F2).

    Directory Tree
       The Directory Tree command shows a tree figure of the directories. You can select a direc-
       tory from the figure and the Midnight Commander will change to that directory.

       There are two ways to invoke the tree. The real directory tree command is  available  from
       Commands menu. The other way is to select tree view from the Left or Right menu.

       To  get rid of long delays the Midnight Commander creates the tree figure by scanning only
       a small subset of all the directories. If the directory which you want to see is  missing,
       move to its parent directory and press C-r (or F2).

       You can use the following keys:

       General movement keys are accepted.

       Enter.	In  the directory tree, exits the directory tree and changes to this directory in
       the current panel. In the tree view, changes to this directory  in  the	other  panel  and
       stays in tree view mode in the current panel.

       C-r, F2 (Rescan).  Rescan this directory. Use this when the tree figure is out of date: it
       is missing subdirectories or shows some subdirectories which don't exist any more.

       F3 (Forget).  Delete this directory from the tree figure. Use this to remove clutter  from
       the  figure.  If  you  want  the  directory back to the tree figure press F2 in its parent

       F4 (Static/Dynamic).  Toggle between the dynamic navigation mode (default) and the  static
       navigation mode.

       In  the static navigation mode you can use the Up and Down keys to select a directory. All
       known directories are shown.

       In the dynamic navigation mode you can use the Up and Down keys to select a sibling direc-
       tory,  the  Left key to move to the parent directory, and the Right key to move to a child
       directory. Only the parent, sibling and children directories are shown,	others	are  left
       out. The tree figure changes dynamically as you traverse.

       F5 (Copy).  Copy the directory.

       F6 (RenMov).  Move the directory.

       F7 (Mkdir).  Make a new directory below this directory.

       F8 (Delete).  Delete this directory from the file system.

       C-s,  M-s.   Search  the  next  directory  matching the search string. If there is no such
       directory these keys will move one line down.

       C-h, Backspace.	Delete the last character of the search string.

       Any other character.  Add the character to the search string and move to the  next  direc-
       tory  which  starts  with  these  characters. In the tree view you must first activate the
       search mode by pressing C-s. The search string is shown in the mini status line.

       The following actions are available only in the directory tree. They aren't  supported  in
       the tree view.

       F1 (Help).  Invoke the help viewer and show this section.

       Esc, F10.  Exit the directory tree. Do not change the directory.

       The  mouse  is supported. A double-click behaves like Enter. See also the section on mouse

    Find File
       The Find File feature first asks for the start directory for the search and  the  filename
       to  be  searched  for. By pressing the Tree button you can select the start directory from
       the directory tree figure.

       The contents field accepts regular expressions similar to egrep(1). That means you have to
       escape characters with a special meaning to egrep with "\", e.g. if you search for "strcmp
       (" you will have to input "strcmp \(" (without the double quotes).

       You can start the search by pressing the OK button.  During the search you can  stop  from
       the Stop button and continue from the Start button.

       You  can browse the filelist with the up and down arrow keys. The Chdir button will change
       to the directory of the currently selected file. The Again button will ask for the parame-
       ters  for  a  new  search. The Quit button quits the search operation. The Panelize button
       will place the found files to the current directory panel so that you  can  do  additional
       operations on them (view, copy, move, delete and so on). After panelizing you can press C-
       r to return to the normal file listing.

       It is possible to have a list of directories that the Find File command should skip during
       the  search (for example, you may want to avoid searches on a CD-ROM or on a NFS directory
       that is mounted across a slow link).

       Directories to be skipped should be set on the variable find_ignore_dirs in the Misc  sec-
       tion of your ~/.mc/ini file.

       Directory components should be separated with a colon, here is an example:


       You  may  consider using the External panelize command for some operations. Find file com-
       mand is for simple queries only, while using External panelize you can  do  as  mysterious
       searches as you would like.

    External panelize
       The  External  panelize	allows you to execute an external program, and make the output of
       that program the contents of the current panel.

       For example, if you want to manipulate in one of the panels all the symbolic links in  the
       current directory, you can use external panelization to run the following command:

       find . -type l -print

       Upon  command completion, the directory contents of the panel will no longer be the direc-
       tory listing of the current directory, but all the files that are symbolic links.

       If you want to panelize all of the files that have been downloaded from your  FTP  server,
       you can use this awk command to extract the file name from the transfer log files:

       awk '$9 ~! /incoming/ { print $9 }' < /usr/adm/xferlog

       You  may  want  to save often used panelize commands under a descriptive name, so that you
       can recall them quickly. You do this by typing the command on the input line and  pressing
       Add  new  button. Then you enter a name under which you want the command to be saved. Next
       time, you just choose that command from the list and do not have to type it again.

       The Directory hotlist command shows  the  labels  of  the  directories  in  the	directory
       hotlist.   The  Midnight  Commander  will  change  to  the  directory corresponding to the
       selected label.	From the hotlist dialog, you can remove already  created  label/directory
       pairs  and  add	new ones.  To add new directories quickly, you can use the Add to hotlist
       command (C-x h), which adds the current directory into the directory hotlist, asking  just
       for the label for the directory.

       This makes cd to often used directories faster. You may consider using the CDPATH variable
       as described in internal cd command description.

    Extension File Edit
       This will invoke your editor on the file ~/.mc/bindings.  The format of this file  follow-

       All lines starting with # or empty lines are thrown away.

       Lines starting in the first column should have following format:

       keyword/expr, i.e. everything after the slash until new line is expr.

       keyword can be:

       shell  -  expr  is  an extension (no wildcards).  File matches it its name ends with expr.
	      Example: shell/.tar matches *.tar.

       regex  - expr is a regular expression.  File matches  if  its  name  matches  the  regular

       type   -  expr is a regular expression.	File matches if the output of file %f without the
	      initial "filename:" part matches regular expression expr.

	      - matches any file.  expr is ignored.

	      - denotes a common section.  expr is the name of the section.

       Other lines should start with a space or tab and should be of the format:  keyword=command
       (with  no  spaces  around  =),  where  keyword should be: Open (invoked on Enter or double
       click), View (F3), Edit (F4) or Include (to add rules from the common  section).   command
       is any one-line shell command, with the simple macro substitution.

       Rules  are  matched  from  top to bottom, thus the order is important.  If the appropriate
       action is missing, search continues as if this rule didn't match (i.e. if a  file  matches
       the  first  and second entry and View action is missing in the first one, then on pressing
       F3 the View action from the second entry will be used).	 default  should  match  all  the

    Background Jobs
       This  lets  you	control the state of any background Midnight Commander process (only copy
       and move files operations can be done in the background).  You can stop, restart and  kill
       a background job from here.

    Menu File Edit
       The  user  menu	is  a menu of useful actions that can be customized by the user. When you
       access the user menu, the file .mc.menu from the current directory is used if  it  exists,
       but only if it is owned by user or root and is not world-writable.  If no such file found,
       ~/.mc/menu is tried in the same way, and otherwise mc uses the  default	system-wide  menu

       The  format  of	the menu file is very simple. Lines that start with anything but space or
       tab are considered entries for the menu (in order to be able to use it like a hot key, the
       first  character  should  be a letter). All the lines that start with a space or a tab are
       the commands that will be executed when the entry is selected.

       When an option is selected all the command lines of the option are copied to  a	temporary
       file  in  the  temporary directory (usually /usr/tmp) and then that file is executed. This
       allows the user to put normal shell constructs in the menus. Also simple  macro	substitu-
       tion takes place before executing the menu code. For more information, see macro substitu-

       Here is a sample mc.menu file:

       A    Dump the currently selected file
	    od -c %f

       B    Edit a bug report and send it to root
	    vi /tmp/mail.$$
	    mail -s "Midnight Commander bug" root < /tmp/mail.$$

       M    Read mail
	    emacs -f rmail

       N    Read Usenet news
	    emacs -f gnus

       H    Call the info hypertext browser

       J    Copy current directory to other panel recursively
	    tar cf - . | (cd %D && tar xvpf -)

       K    Make a release of the current subdirectory
	    echo -n "Name of distribution file: "
	    read tar
	    ln -s %d `dirname %d`/$tar
	    cd ..
	    tar cvhf ${tar}.tar $tar

       = f *.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       X       Extract the contents of a compressed tar file
	    tar xzvf %f

       Default Conditions

       Each menu entry may be preceded by a condition. The condition must start  from  the  first
       column  with a '=' character. If the condition is true, the menu entry will be the default

       Condition syntax:   = <sub-cond>
	 or:		   = <sub-cond> | <sub-cond> ...
	 or:		   = <sub-cond> & <sub-cond> ...

       Sub-condition is one of following:

	 y <pattern>	   syntax of current file matching pattern?
		      (for edit menu only)
	 f <pattern>	   current file matching pattern?
	 F <pattern>	   other file matching pattern?
	 d <pattern>	   current directory matching pattern?
	 D <pattern>	   other directory matching pattern?
	 t <type>	   current file of type?
	 T <type>	   other file of type?
	 x <filename>	   is it executable filename?
	 ! <sub-cond>	   negate the result of sub-condition

       Pattern is a normal shell pattern or a regular expression, according to the shell patterns
       option.	You  can  override  the  global  value	of  the  shell patterns option by writing
       "shell_patterns=x" on the first line of the menu file (where "x" is either 0 or 1).

       Type is one or more of the following characters:

	 n  not a directory
	 r  regular file
	 d  directory
	 l  link
	 c  character device
	 b  block device
	 f  FIFO (pipe)
	 s  socket
	 x  executable file
	 t  tagged

       For example 'rlf' means either regular file, link or fifo. The 't' type is a  little  spe-
       cial  because  it  acts	on the panel instead of the file. The condition '=t t' is true if
       there are tagged files in the current panel and false if not.

       If the condition starts with '=?' instead of '=' a debug trace will be shown whenever  the
       value of the condition is calculated.

       The conditions are calculated from left to right. This means
	    = f *.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       is calculated as
	    ( (f *.tar.gz) | (f *.tgz) ) & (t n)

       Here is a sample of the use of conditions:

       = f *.tar.gz | f *.tgz & t n
       L    List the contents of a compressed tar-archive
	    gzip -cd %f | tar xvf -

       Addition Conditions

       If the condition begins with '+' (or '+?') instead of '=' (or '=?') it is an addition con-
       dition. If the condition is true the menu entry will be included in the menu. If the  con-
       dition is false the menu entry will not be included in the menu.

       You  can  combine  default and addition conditions by starting condition with '+=' or '=+'
       (or '+=?' or '=+?' if you want debug trace). If you want to use two different  conditions,
       one for adding and another for defaulting, you can precede a menu entry with two condition
       lines, one starting with '+' and another starting with '='.

       Comments are started with '#'. The additional comment lines must start with '#', space  or

  Options Menu
       The  Midnight Commander has some options that may be toggled on and off in several dialogs
       which are accessible from this menu. Options are enabled if they have an asterisk  or  "x"
       in front of them.

       The  Configuration  command pops up a dialog from which you can change most of settings of
       the Midnight Commander.

       The Layout command pops up a dialog from which you specify a bunch of options how mc looks
       like on the screen.

       The Confirmation command pops up a dialog from which you specify which actions you want to

       The Display bits command pops up a dialog from which you may select  which  characters  is
       your terminal able to display.

       The  Learn keys command pops up a dialog from which you test some keys which are not work-
       ing on some terminals and you may fix them.

       The Virtual FS command pops up a dialog from which you specify some VFS related options.

       The Save setup command saves the current settings of the Left, Right and Options menus.	A
       small number of other settings is saved, too.

       The  options  in this dialog are divided into three groups: Panel Options, Pause after run
       and Other Options.

       Panel Options

       Show Backup Files.  If enabled, the Midnight Commander  will  show  files  ending  with	a
       tilde.  Otherwise, they won't be shown (like GNU's ls option -B).

       Show Hidden Files.  If enabled, the Midnight Commander will show all files that start with
       a dot (like ls -a).

       Mark moves down.  If enabled, the selection bar will move down when you mark a file  (with
       either C-t or the Insert key).

       Drop  down  menus.   When this option is enabled, the pull down menus will be activated as
       soon as you press the F9 key.  Otherwise, you will only get the menu title, and	you  will
       have  to  activate  the menu either with the arrow keys or with the hotkeys.  It is recom-
       mended if you are using hotkeys.

       Mix all files.  If this option is enabled, all  files  and  directories	are  shown  mixed
       together.   If  the option is off, directories (and links to directories) are shown at the
       beginning of the listing, and other files below.

       Fast directory reload.  If this option is enabled, the Midnight Commander will use a trick
       to determine if the directory contents have changed.  The trick is to reload the directory
       only if the i-node of the directory has changed; this means that reloads only happen  when
       files  are  created or deleted.	If what changes is the i-node for a file in the directory
       (file size changes, mode or owner changes, etc) the display  is	not  updated.	In  these
       cases, if you have the option on, you have to rescan the directory manually (with C-r).

       Pause after run

       After  executing  your commands, the Midnight Commander can pause, so that you can examine
       the output of the command.  There are three possible settings for this variable:

       Never.  Means that you do not want to see the output of your command.  If  you  are  using
       the Linux or SCO console or an xterm, you will be able to see the output of the command by
       typing C-o.

       On dumb terminals.  You will get the pause message on terminals that are  not  capable  of
       showing	the output of the last command executed (any terminal that is not an xterm or the
       Linux console).

       Always.	The program will pause after executing all of your commands.

       Other Options

       Verbose operation.  This toggles whether the file Copy, Rename and Delete  operations  are
       verbose	(i.e., display a dialog box for each operation). If you have a slow terminal, you
       may wish to disable the verbose operation. It is automatically turned off if the speed  of
       your terminal is less than 9600 bps.

       Compute	totals.   If  this  option is enabled, the Midnight Commander computes total byte
       sizes and total number of files prior to any Copy, Rename and Delete operations. This will
       provide	you  with  a more accurate progress bar at the expense of some speed. This option
       has no effect, if Verbose operation is disabled.

       Shell Patterns.	By default the Select, Unselect and Filter commands will  use  shell-like
       regular	expressions.  The following conversions are performed to achieve this: the '*' is
       replaced by '.*' (zero or more characters); the '?'  is replaced by '.' (exactly one char-
       acter) and '.' by the literal dot. If the option is disabled, then the regular expressions
       are the ones described in ed(1).

       Auto Save Setup.  If this option is enabled, when you exit the Midnight Commander the con-
       figurable options of the Midnight Commander are saved in the ~/.mc/ini file.

       Auto  menus.  If this option is enabled, the user menu will be invoked at startup.  Useful
       for building menus for non-unixers.

       Use internal editor.  If this option is enabled, the built-in file editor is used to  edit
       files.  If the option is disabled, the editor specified in the EDITOR environment variable
       is used.  If no editor is specified, vi is used.  See the section  on  the  internal  file

       Use  internal viewer.  If this option is enabled, the built-in file viewer is used to view
       files. If the option is disabled, the pager specified in the PAGER environment variable is
       used.   If no pager is specified, the view command is used.  See the section on the inter-
       nal file viewer.

       Complete: show all.  By default the Midnight Commander pops up all possible completions if
       the  completion is ambiguous only when you press M-Tab for the second time.  For the first
       time, it just completes as much as possible and beeps in the case  of  ambiguity.   Enable
       this  option  if  you  want  to see all possible completions even after pressing M-Tab the
       first time.

       Rotating dash.  If this option is enabled, the Midnight Commander shows a rotating dash in
       the upper right corner as a work in progress indicator.

       Lynx-like motion.  If this option is enabled, you may use the arrows keys to automatically
       chdir if the current selection is a subdirectory and the shell command line is  empty.  By
       default, this setting is off.

       Cd  follows links.  This option, if set, causes the Midnight Commander to follow the logi-
       cal chain of directories when changing current directory either in the  panels,	or  using
       the  cd	command. This is the default behavior of bash. When unset, the Midnight Commander
       follows the real directory structure, so cd .. if you've entered that directory through	a
       link  will  move you to the current directory's real parent and not to the directory where
       the link was present.

       Safe delete.  If this option is enabled, deleting files unintentionally becomes more  dif-
       ficult.	The default selection in the confirmation dialogs for deletion changes from "Yes"
       to "No".  This option is disabled by default.

       The layout dialog gives you a possibility to change the general layout of screen. You  can
       specify	whether  the menubar, the command prompt, the hintbar and the function keybar are
       visible. On the Linux or SCO console you can specify how many lines are shown in the  out-
       put window.

       The  rest of the screen area is used for the two directory panels. You can specify whether
       the area is split to the panels in vertical or horizontal  direction.  The  split  can  be
       equal or you can specify an unequal split.

       You  can specify whether permissions and file types should be highlighted with distinctive
       Colors.	If the permission highlighting is enabled, the parts of the perm and mode display
       fields  which  apply to the user running Midnight Commander are highlighted with the color
       defined by the selected keyword.  If the file type highlighting is enabled, files are col-
       ored according to their file type (e.g. directory, core file, executable, and so on).

       If  the	Show Mini-Status option is enabled, one line of status information about the cur-
       rently selected item is shown at the bottom of the panels.

       When run in a terminal emulator for X11, Midnight Commander sets the terminal window title
       to the current working directory and updates it when necessary.	If your terminal emulator
       is broken and you see some incorrect output on startup and directory change, turn off  the
       Xterm Window Title option.

       In this menu you configure the confirmation options for file deletion, overwriting, execu-
       tion by pressing enter and quitting the program.

    Display bits
       This is used to configure the range of visible characters on the screen.  This setting may
       be 7-bits if your terminal/curses supports only seven output bits, ISO-8859-1 displays all
       the characters in the ISO-8859-1 map and full 8 bits is for those terminals that can  dis-
       play full 8 bit characters.

    Learn keys
       This  dialog allows you to test and redefine functional keys, cursor arrows and some other
       keys to make them work properly on your terminal.  They often don't, since  many  terminal
       databases are incomplete or broken.

       You  can move around with the Tab key and with the vi moving keys ('h' left, 'j' down, 'k'
       up and 'l' right).  Once you press any cursor movement key and it is recognized,  you  can
       use that key as well.

       You  can  test  keys just by pressing each of them.  When you press a key and it is recog-
       nized properly, OK should appear next to the name of that key.  Once a key is marked OK it
       starts  working as usually, e.g. F1 pressed the first time will just check that the F1 key
       works, but after that it will show help.  The same applies to the arrow keys.  The Tab key
       should be working always.

       If  some  keys  do  not	work  properly then you won't see OK appear after pressing one of
       these.  Then you may want to redefine it.  Do it by pressing the button with the  name  of
       that  key (either by the mouse or by Enter or Space after selecting the button with Tab or
       arrows).  Then a message box will appear asking you to press that key.	Do  it	and  wait
       until the message box disappears.  If you want to abort, just press Escape once and wait.

       When  you  finish  with all the keys, you can Save them.  The definitions for the keys you
       have redefined will be written into the [terminal:TERM] section	of  your  ~/.mc/ini  file
       (where  TERM is the name of your current terminal).  The definitions of the keys that were
       already working properly are not saved.

    Virtual FS
       This option gives you control over the settings of the Virtual File System.

       The Midnight Commander keeps in memory the information related to some of the virtual file
       systems	to  speed  up  the access to the files in the file system (for example, directory
       listings fetched from FTP servers).

       Also, in order to access the contents of compressed files  (for	example,  compressed  tar
       files) the Midnight Commander needs to create temporary uncompressed files on your disk.

       Since  both  the  information in memory and the temporary files on disk take up resources,
       you may want to tune the parameters of the cached information to  decrease  your  resource
       usage or to maximize the speed of access to frequently used file systems.

       Because of the format of the tar archives, the Tar filesystem needs to read the whole file
       just to load the file entries.  Since most tar files are usually  kept  compressed  (plain
       tar  files  are	species in extinction), the tar file system has to uncompress the file on
       the disk in a temporary location and then access the uncompressed file as  a  regular  tar

       Now,  since  we all love to browse files and tar files all over the disk, it's common that
       you will leave a tar file and the re-enter it later.  Since  decompression  is  slow,  the
       Midnight  Commander  will  cache  the  information in memory for a limited time.  When the
       timeout expires, all the resources associated with the  file  system  are  released.   The
       default timeout is set to one minute.

       The  FTP  File  System (ftpfs) allows you to browse directories on remote FTP servers.  It
       has several options.

       ftp anonymous password is the password used when you login  as  "anonymous".   Some  sites
       require	a  valid e-mail address.  On the other hand, you probably don't want to give your
       real e-mail address to untrusted sites, especially if you are not using spam filtering.

       ftpfs keeps the directory listing it fetches from a FTP server  in  a  cache.   The  cache
       expire  time  is  configurable with the ftpfs directory cache timeout option.  A low value
       for this option may slow down every operation on the ftpfs because every  operation  would
       require sending a request to the FTP server.

       You can define an FTP proxy host for doing FTP.	Note that most modern firewalls are fully
       transparent at least for passive FTP (see below), so FTP proxies are considered obsolete.

       If Always use ftp proxy is not set, you can use the exclamation sign to enable  proxy  for
       certain hosts.  See FTP File System for examples.

       If this option is set, the program will do two things: consult the /usr/lib/mc/mc.no_proxy
       file for lines containing host names that are local (if the host name starts with  a  dot,
       it is assumed to be a domain) and to assume that any hostnames without dots in their names
       are directly accessible.  All other hosts will  be  accessed  through  the  specified  FTP

       You can enable using ~/.netrc file, which keeps login names and passwords for ftp servers.
       See netrc (5) for the description of the .netrc format.

       Use passive mode enables using FTP passive mode, when the connection for data transfer  is
       initiated  by  the  client,  not by the server.	This option is recommended and enabled by
       default.  If this option is turned off, the data connection is initiated  by  the  server.
       This may not work with some firewalls.

    Save Setup
       At  startup  the  Midnight  Commander will try to load initialization information from the
       ~/.mc/ini file. If this file doesn't exist, it will load the information from the  system-
       wide configuration file, located in /usr/share/mc/mc.ini. If the system-wide configuration
       file doesn't exist, MC uses the default settings.

       The Save Setup command creates the ~/.mc/ini file by saving the current	settings  of  the
       Left, Right and Options menus.

       If  you activate the auto save setup option, MC will always save the current settings when

       There also exist settings which can't be changed from the menus. To change these  settings
       you have to edit the setup file with your favorite editor. See the section on Special Set-
       tings for more information.

Executing operating system commands
       You may execute commands by typing them directly in the Midnight Commander's  input  line,
       or  by selecting the program you want to execute with the selection bar in one of the pan-
       els and hitting Enter.

       If you press Enter over a file that is not executable, the Midnight Commander  checks  the
       extension  of the selected file against the extensions in the Extensions File.  If a match
       is found then the code associated with that extension is executed.  A  very  simple  macro
       expansion takes place before executing the command.

  The cd internal command
       The  cd	command is interpreted by the Midnight Commander, it is not passed to the command
       shell for execution.  Thus it may not handle all of the nice macro expansion and substitu-
       tion that your shell does, although it does some of them:

       Tilde substitution.  The (~) will be substituted with your home directory, if you append a
       username after the tilde, then it will be substituted with  the	login  directory  of  the
       specified user.

       For  example, ~guest is the home directory for the user guest, while ~/guest is the direc-
       tory guest in your home directory.

       Previous directory.  You can jump to the directory you were previously by using	the  spe-
       cial directory name '-' like this: cd -

       CDPATH  directories.   If  the directory specified to the cd command is not in the current
       directory, then The Midnight Commander uses the value in the environment  variable  CDPATH
       to search for the directory in any of the named directories.

       For  example  you could set your CDPATH variable to ~/src:/usr/src, allowing you to change
       your directory to any of the directories inside the ~/src and /usr/src  directories,  from
       any  place  in the file system by using its relative name (for example cd linux could take
       you to /usr/src/linux).

  Macro Substitution
       When accessing a user menu, or executing an extension dependent command, or running a com-
       mand from the command line input, a simple macro substitution takes place.

       The macros are:

       %i     The indent of blank space, equal the cursor column position.  For edit menu only.

       %y     The syntax type of current file. For edit menu only.

       %k     The block file name.

       %e     The error file name.

       %m     The current menu name.

       %f and %p
	      The current file name.

       %x     The extension of current file name.

       %b     The current file name without extension.

       %d     The current directory name.

       %F     The current file in the unselected panel.

       %D     The directory name of the unselected panel.

       %t     The currently tagged files.

       %T     The tagged files in the unselected panel.

       %u and %U
	      Similar  to  the %t and %T macros, but in addition the files are untagged.  You can
	      use this macro only once per menu file entry or extension file entry, because  next
	      time there will be no tagged files.

       %s and %S
	      The selected files: The tagged files if there are any. Otherwise the current file.

       %cd    This  is a special macro that is used to change the current directory to the direc-
	      tory specified in front of it.  This is used primarily as an interface to the  Vir-
	      tual File System.

       %view  This macro is used to invoke the internal viewer.  This macro can be used alone, or
	      with arguments.  If you pass any arguments to this macro, they should  be  enclosed
	      in brackets.

	      The  arguments  are:  ascii  to  force the viewer into ascii mode; hex to force the
	      viewer into hex mode; nroff to tell the viewer that it should  interpret	the  bold
	      and  underline  sequences of nroff; unformatted to tell the viewer to not interpret
	      nroff commands for making the text bold or underlined.

       %%     The % character

       %{some text}
	      Prompt for the substitution. An input box is shown and the text inside  the  braces
	      is  used	as  a prompt. The macro is substituted by the text typed by the user. The
	      user can press ESC or F10 to cancel. This macro doesn't work on  the  command  line

	      If  environment  variable ENV is unset, the default is substituted.  Otherwise, the
	      value of ENV is substituted.

  The subshell support
       The subshell support is a compile time option, that works with the shells: bash, tcsh  and

       When the subshell code is activated the Midnight Commander will spawn a concurrent copy of
       your shell (the one defined in the SHELL variable and if it is not defined, then  the  one
       in  the /etc/passwd file) and run it in a pseudo terminal, instead of invoking a new shell
       each time you execute a command, the command will be passed to the subshell as if you  had
       typed  it.   This also allows you to change the environment variables, use shell functions
       and define aliases that are valid until you quit the Midnight Commander.

       If you are using  bash  you  can  specify  startup  commands  for  the  subshell  in  your
       ~/.mc/bashrc  file  and	special  keyboard maps in the ~/.mc/inputrc file.  tcsh users may
       specify startup commands in the ~/.mc/tcshrc file.

       When the subshell code is used, you can suspend applications at any time with the sequence
       C-o and jump back to the Midnight Commander, if you interrupt an application, you will not
       be able to run other external commands until you quit the application you interrupted.

       An extra added feature of using the subshell is that the prompt displayed by the  Midnight
       Commander is the same prompt that you are currently using in your shell.

       The OPTIONS section has more information on how you can control the subshell code.

       The Chmod window is used to change the attribute bits in a group of files and directories.
       It can be invoked with the C-x c key combination.

       The Chmod window has two parts - Permissions and File.

       In the File section are displayed the name of the file or directory and its permissions in
       octal form, as well as its owner and group.

       In  the	Permissions  section there is a set of check buttons which correspond to the file
       attribute bits.	As you change the attribute bits, you can see the octal value  change  in
       the File section.

       To move between the widgets (buttons and check buttons) use the arrow keys or the Tab key.
       To change the state of the check buttons or to select a button use Space.   You	can  also
       use the hotkeys on the buttons to quickly activate them.  Hotkeys are shown as highlighted
       letters on the buttons.

       To set the attribute bits, use the Enter key.

       When working with a group of files or directories, you just click on the bits you want  to
       set  or	clear.	Once you have selected the bits you want to change, you select one of the
       action buttons (Set marked or Clear marked).

       Finally, to set the attributes exactly to those specified, you can use the [Set all]  but-
       ton, which will act on all the tagged files.

       [Marked all] set only marked attributes to all selected files

       [Set marked] set marked bits in attributes of all selected files

       [Clean marked] clear marked bits in attributes of all selected files

       [Set] set the attributes of one file

       [Cancel] cancel the Chmod command

       The  Chown  command is used to change the owner/group of a file. The hot key for this com-
       mand is C-x o.

Advanced Chown
       The Advanced Chown command is the Chmod and Chown command combined into	one  window.  You
       can change the permissions and owner/group of files at once.

File Operations
       When  you copy, move or delete files the Midnight Commander shows the file operations dia-
       log.  It shows the files currently being processed and uses up  to  three  progress  bars.
       The  file bar indicates the percentage of the current file that has been processed so far.
       The count bar shows how many of the tagged files have been handled.  The bytes  bar  indi-
       cates  the percentage of the total size of the tagged files that has been handled.  If the
       verbose option is off, the file and bytes bars are not shown.

       There are two buttons at the bottom of the dialog. Pressing the Skip button will skip  the
       rest  of  the  current file. Pressing the Abort button will abort the whole operation, the
       rest of the files are skipped.

       There are three other dialogs which you can run into during the file operations.

       The error dialog informs about error conditions	and  has  three  choices.   Normally  you
       select  either the Skip button to skip the file or the Abort button to abort the operation
       altogether.  You can also select the Retry button if you fixed the  problem  from  another

       The  replace  dialog  is  shown	when  you attempt to copy or move a file on the top of an
       existing file.  The dialog shows the dates and sizes of the both  files.   Press  the  Yes
       button  to overwrite the file, the No button to skip the file, the All button to overwrite
       all the files, the None button to never overwrite and the Update button	to  overwrite  if
       the  source  file  is  newer  than  the target file.  You can abort the whole operation by
       pressing the Abort button.

       The recursive delete dialog is shown when you try to  delete  a	directory  which  is  not
       empty.	Press  the  Yes button to delete the directory recursively, the No button to skip
       the directory, the All button to delete all the directories and the None  button  to  skip
       all  the  non-empty  directories.  You can abort the whole operation by pressing the Abort
       button.	If you selected the Yes or All button you will be asked for a confirmation.  Type
       "yes" only if you are really sure you want to do the recursive delete.

       If  you	have  tagged  files  and perform an operation on them only the files on which the
       operation succeeded are untagged. Failed and skipped files are left tagged.

Mask Copy/Rename
       The copy/move operations let you translate the names of files in an easy way.  To  do  it,
       you have to specify the correct source mask and usually in the trailing part of the desti-
       nation specify some wildcards.  All the files matching the source mask are  copied/renamed
       according  to  the target mask.	If there are tagged files, only the tagged files matching
       the source mask are renamed.

       There are other options which you can set:

       Follow links

       determines whether make the symlinks and hardlinks in the source directory (recursively in
       subdirectories)	new links in the target directory or whether would you like to copy their

       Dive into subdirs

       determines the behavior when the source directory is about to be copied,  but  the  target
       directory already exists.  The default action is to copy the contents of the source direc-
       tory into the target directory.	Enabling this option causes copying the source	directory
       itself into the target directory.

       For  example, you want to copy directory /foo containing file bar to /bla/foo, which is an
       already existing directory.  Normally (when Dive into subdirs is not set), mc  would  copy
       file /foo/bar into the file /bla/foo/bar.  By enabling this option the /bla/foo/foo direc-
       tory will be created, and /foo/bar will be copied into /bla/foo/foo/bar.

       Preserve attributes

       determines whether to preserve the permissions, timestamps and (if you are root) the  own-
       ership  of  the original files.	If this option is not set, the current value of the umask
       will be respected.

       Use shell patterns on

       When the shell patterns option is on you can use the '*' and '?'  wildcards in the  source
       mask.   They  work  like  they  do  in  the  shell.   In  the target mask only the '*' and
       '\<digit>' wildcards are allowed.  The first '*' wildcard in the target	mask  corresponds
       to  the	first wildcard group in the source mask, the second '*' corresponds to the second
       group and so on.  The '\1' wildcard corresponds to the first wildcard group in the  source
       mask,  the '\2' wildcard corresponds to the second group and so on all the way up to '\9'.
       The '\0' wildcard is the whole filename of the source file.

       Two examples:

       If the source mask is "*.tar.gz", the destination is  "/bla/*.tgz"  and	the  file  to  be
       copied is "foo.tar.gz", the copy will be "foo.tgz" in "/bla".

       Suppose you want to swap basename and extension so that "file.c" would become "c.file" and
       so on.  The source mask for this is "*.*" and the destination is "\2.\1".

       Use shell patterns off

       When the shell patterns option is off the MC doesn't do automatic  grouping  anymore.  You
       must  use '\(...\)' expressions in the source mask to specify meaning for the wildcards in
       the target mask. This is more flexible but also requires  more  typing.	Otherwise  target
       masks are similar to the situation when the shell patterns option is on.

       Two examples:

       If the source mask is "^\(.*\)\.tar\.gz$", the destination is "/bla/*.tgz" and the file to
       be copied is "foo.tar.gz", the copy will be "/bla/foo.tgz".

       Let's suppose you want to swap  basename  and  extension  so  that  "file.c"  will  become
       "c.file"  and so on. The source mask for this is "^\(.*\)\.\(.*\)$" and the destination is

       Case Conversions

       You can also change the case of the filenames.  If you use '\u'	or  '\l'  in  the  target
       mask, the next character will be converted to uppercase or lowercase correspondingly.

       If  you	use  '\U'  or  '\L'  in the target mask, the next characters will be converted to
       uppercase or lowercase correspondingly up to the next '\E' or next '\U', '\L' or  the  end
       of the file name.

       The '\u' and '\l' are stronger than '\U' and '\L'.

       For  example,  if the source mask is '*' (shell patterns on) or '^\(.*\)$' (shell patterns
       off) and the target mask is '\L\u*' the file names will be converted to have initial upper
       case and otherwise lower case.

       You can also use '\' as a quote character. For example, '\\' is a backslash and '\*' is an

Internal File Viewer
       The internal file viewer provides two display modes: ASCII and  hex.   To  toggle  between
       modes,  use  the  F4  key.  If you have the GNU gzip program installed, it will be used to
       automatically decompress the files on demand.

       The viewer will try to use the best method provided by your system or  the  file  type  to
       display the information.  The internal file viewer will interpret some string sequences to
       set the bold and underline attributes, thus making a pretty display of your files.

       When in hex mode, the search function accepts text in quotes and constant  numbers.   Text
       in  quotes  is  matched	exactly after removing the quotes.  Each number matches one byte.
       You can mix quoted text with constants like this:

       "String" -1 0xBB 012 "more text"

       Note that 012 is an octal number.  -1 is converted to 0xFF.

       Some internal details about the viewer: On systems that provide the mmap(2)  system  call,
       the  program  maps  the	file  instead  of  loading it; if the system does not provide the
       mmap(2) system call or the file matches an action that requires a filter, then the  viewer
       will  use its growing buffers, thus loading only those parts of the file that you actually
       access (this includes compressed files).

       Here is a listing of the actions associated with each key that the Midnight Commander han-
       dles in the internal file viewer.

       F1 Invoke the built-in hypertext help viewer.

       F2 Toggle the wrap mode.

       F4 Toggle the hex mode.

       F5 Goto line.  This will prompt you for a line number and will display that line.

       F6, /.  Regular expression search.

       ?, Reverse regular expression search.

       F7 Normal search / hex mode search.

       C-s,  F17,  n.	Start  normal search if there was no previous search expression else find
       next match.

       C-r.  Start reverse search if there was no  previous  search  expression  else  find  next

       F8  Toggle  Raw/Parsed  mode:  This will show the file as found on disk or if a processing
       filter has been specified in the mc.ext file, then the output  from  the  filter.  Current
       mode is always the other than written on the button label, since on the button is the mode
       which you enter by that key.

       F9 Toggle the format/unformat mode: when format mode is on the viewer will interpret  some
       string  sequences  to show bold and underline with different colors. Also, on button label
       is the other mode than current.

       F10, Esc.  Exit the internal file viewer.

       next-page, space, C-v.  Scroll one page forward.

       prev-page, M-v, C-b, backspace.	Scroll one page backward.

       down-key Scroll one line forward.

       up-key Scroll one line backward.

       C-l Refresh the screen.

       C-o Switch to the subshell and show the command screen.

       !  Like C-o, but run a new shell if the subshell is not running.

       [n] m Set the mark n.

       [n] r Jump to the mark n.

       C-f Jump to the next file.

       C-b Jump to the previous file.

       M-r Toggle the ruler.

       It's possible to instruct the file viewer how to display a file,  look  at  the	Extension
       File Edit section

Internal File Editor
       The  internal  file editor is a full-featured full screen editor.  It can edit files up to
       64 megabytes.  It is possible to edit binary files.  The internal file editor  is  invoked
       using F4 if the use_internal_edit option is set in the initialization file.

       The  features it presently supports are: block copy, move, delete, cut, paste; key for key
       undo; pull-down menus; file insertion;  macro  commands;  regular  expression  search  and
       replace	(and  our own scanf-printf search and replace); shift-arrow text highlighting (if
       supported by the terminal); insert-overwrite toggle; word wrap;	autoindent;  tunable  tab
       size;  syntax  highlighting  for  various  file	types;	and an option to pipe text blocks
       through shell commands like indent and ispell.

       The editor is very easy to use and requires no tutoring. To see what keys  do  what,  just
       consult	the appropriate pull-down menu. Other keys are: Shift movement keys do text high-
       lighting.   Ctrl-Ins  copies  to  the  file  cooledit.clip  and	Shift-Ins   pastes   from
       cooledit.clip.	Shift-Del  cuts  to cooledit.clip, and Ctrl-Del deletes highlighted text.
       Mouse highlighting also works, and you can override the mouse as usual by holding down the
       shift key while dragging the mouse to let normal terminal mouse highlighting work.

       To define a macro, press Ctrl-R and then type out the key strokes you want to be executed.
       Press Ctrl-R again when finished. You can then assign the macro to any  key  you  like  by
       pressing  that key. The macro is executed when you press Ctrl-A and then the assigned key.
       The macro is also executed if you press Meta, Ctrl, or Esc and the assigned key,  provided
       that  the key is not used for any other function. Once defined, the macro commands go into
       the file .mc/cedit/cooledit.macros in your home directory.  You	can  delete  a	macro  by
       deleting the appropriate line in this file.

       F19  will format the currently highlighted block (plain text or C or C++ code or another).
       This  is  controlled  by  the  file  /usr/share/mc/edit.indent.rc  which  is   copied   to
       .mc/cedit/edit.indent.rc in your home directory the first time you use it.

       You can use scanf search and replace to search and replace a C format string. First take a
       look at the sscanf and sprintf man pages to see what a format string is and how it  works.
       Consider  following  example.   Suppose	you  want  to  replace all occurrences of an open
       bracket, three comma separated numbers, and a close bracket, with  the  word  apples,  the
       third  number, the word oranges and then the second number.  Then fill in the Replace dia-
       log box as follows:

	Enter search string:
	Enter replacement string:
	 apples %d oranges %d
	Enter replacement argument order:

       The last line specifies that the third and then the second number are to be used in  place
       of the first and second.

       It  is advisable to use this feature with Prompt on replace on, because a match is thought
       to be found whenever the number of arguments found matches the number given, which is  not
       always  a  real match. Scanf also treats whitespace as being elastic.  Note that the scanf
       format %[ is very useful for scanning strings, and whitespace.

       The editor also displays non-us characters (160+). When editing binary files,  you  should
       set display bits to 7 bits in the options menu to keep the spacing clean.

       Let the Midnight Commander type for you.

       Attempt to perform completion on the text before current position.  MC attempts completion
       treating the text as variable (if the text begins with $), username (if	the  text  begins
       with  ~),  hostname (if the text begins with @) or command (if you are on the command line
       in the position where you might type a command, possible completions  then  include  shell
       reserved  words	and  shell built-in commands as well) in turn.	If none of these matches,
       filename completion is attempted.

       Filename, username, variable and hostname completion works on  all  input  lines,  command
       completion  is command line specific.  If the completion is ambiguous (there are more dif-
       ferent possibilities), MC beeps and the following action depends on  the  setting  of  the
       Complete:  show	all  option in the Configuration dialog.  If it is enabled, a list of all
       possibilities pops up next to the current position and you can select with the arrow  keys
       and  Enter the correct entry.  You can also type the first letters in which the possibili-
       ties differ to move to a subset of all possibilities and complete as much as possible.  If
       you  press  M-Tab again, only the subset will be shown in the listbox, otherwise the first
       item which matches all the previous characters will be highlighted.  As soon as	there  is
       no  ambiguity,  dialog disappears, but you can hide it by canceling keys Esc, F10 and left
       and right arrow keys. If Complete: show all is disabled, the dialog pops up  only  if  you
       press M-Tab for the second time, for the first time MC just beeps.

Virtual File System
       The  Midnight Commander is provided with a code layer to access the file system; this code
       layer is known as the virtual file system switch.  The virtual file system  switch  allows
       the Midnight Commander to manipulate files not located on the Unix file system.

       Currently  the  Midnight  Commander  is packaged with some Virtual File Systems (VFS): the
       local file system, used for accessing the regular Unix file system;  the  ftpfs,  used  to
       manipulate  files  on  remote systems with the FTP protocol; the tarfs, used to manipulate
       tar and compressed tar files; the undelfs, used to recover deleted files on ext2 file sys-
       tems  (the default file system for Linux systems), fish (for manipulating files over shell
       connections such as rsh and ssh) and finally the mcfs (Midnight Commander file system),	a
       network	based  file system.  If the code was compiled with smbfs support, you can manipu-
       late files on remote systems with the SMB (CIFS) protocol.

       A generic extfs (EXTernal virtual File System) is provided in order to easily  expand  VFS
       capabilities using scripts and external software.

       The VFS switch code will interpret all of the path names used and will forward them to the
       correct file system, the formats used for each one of the file systems is described  later
       in their own section.

  FTP File System
       The  FTP  File System (ftpfs) allows you to manipulate files on remote machines.  To actu-
       ally use it, you can use the FTP link item in the menu or  directly  change  your  current
       directory using the cd command to a path name that looks like this:


       The user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.  If you specify the user element, the
       Midnight Commander will login to the remote machine as that user, otherwise  it	will  use
       your  login  name  or the login name from the ~/.netrc file.  The optional pass element is
       the password used for the connection.  Using the password in the VFS directory name is not
       recommended,  because  it  can  appear on the screen in clear text and can be saved to the
       directory history.

       To enable using FTP proxy, prepend !  (an exclamation sign) to the hostname.



       Please check the Virtual File System dialog box for ftpfs options.

  Tar File System
       The tar file system provides you with read-only access to your tar  files  and  compressed
       tar  files by using the chdir command.  To change your directory to a tar file, you change
       your current directory to the tar file by using the following syntax:


       The mc.ext file already provides a shortcut for tar files, this	means  that  usually  you
       just  point  to	a tar file and press return to enter into the tar file, see the Extension
       File Edit section for details on how this is done.



       The latter specifies the full path of the tar archive.

  FIle transfer over SHell filesystem
       The fish file system is a network based file system that  allows  you  to  manipulate  the
       files in a remote machine as if they were local. To use this, the other side has to either
       run fish server, or has to have bash-compatible shell.

       To connect to a remote machine, you just need to chdir into a special directory which name
       is in the following format:


       The  user, options and remote-dir elements are optional.  If you specify the user element,
       the Midnight Commander will try to login on the remote machine as that user, otherwise  it
       will use your login name.

       The options are 'C' - use compression and 'rsh' use rsh instead of ssh.	If the remote-dir
       element is present, your current directory on the remote machine will be set to this one.



  Network File System
       The Midnight Commander file system is a network base file system that allows you to manip-
       ulate  the  files  in  a  remote  machine  as if they were local.  To use this, the remote
       machine must be running the mcserv(8) server program.

       To connect to a remote machine, you just need to chdir into a special directory which name
       is in the following format:


       The user, port and remote-dir elements are optional.  If you specify the user element then
       the Midnight Commander will try to logon on the remote machine as that user, otherwise  it
       will use your login name.

       The  port  element  is  used  when the remote server is running on a special port (see the
       mcserv(8) manual page for more information about ports); finally, if the  remote-dir  ele-
       ment is present, your current directory on the remote machine will be set to this one.



  Undelete File System
       On  Linux  systems, if you asked configure to use the ext2fs undelete facilities, you will
       have the undelete file system available.  Recovery of deleted files is only  available  on
       ext2  file  systems.   The undelete file system is just an interface to the ext2fs library
       to: retrieve all of the deleted files names on an ext2fs and provides and to  extract  the
       selected files into a regular partition.

       To  use	this  file  system,  you  have	to chdir into the special file name formed by the
       "/#undel" prefix and the file name where the actual file system resides.

       For example, to recover deleted files on the second partition of the first  SCSI  disk  on
       Linux, you would use the following path name:


       It  may	take  a  while	for the undelfs to load the required information before you start
       browsing files there.

  SMB File System
       The smbfs allows you to manipulate files on remote machines with SMB (or  CIFS)	protocol.
       These  include  Windows	for  Workgroups,  Windows  9x/ME/XP, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and
       Samba.  To actually use it, you may try to use the panel command "SMB link..."	(accessi-
       ble from the menubar) or you may directly change your current directory to it using the cd
       command to a path name that looks like this:


       The user, service and remote-dir elements are optional.	The user, domain and password can
       be specified in an input dialog.



  EXTernal File System
       extfs  allows to integrate numerous features and file types into GNU Midnight Commander in
       an easy way, by writing scripts.

       Extfs filesystems can be divided into two categories:

       1. Stand-alone filesystems, which are not associated with any existing file.  They  repre-
       sent  certain  system-wide  data  as  a directory tree.	You can invoke them by typing 'cd
       #fsname' where fsname is an extfs short name (see below).  Examples  of	such  filesystems
       include	audio  (list  audio  tracks on the CD) or apt (list of all Debian packages in the

       For example, to list CD-Audio tracks on your CD-ROM drive, type

	 cd #audio

       2. 'Archive' filesystems (like rpm, patchfs and more), which represent contents of a  file
       as  a directory tree.  It can consist of 'real' files compressed in an archive (urar, rpm)
       or virtual files, like messages in a mailbox (mailfs) or parts of a patch  (patchfs).   To
       access  such  filesystems '#fsname' should be appended to the archive name.  Note that the
       archive itself can be on another vfs.

       For example, to list contents of a zip archive documents.zip type

	 cd documents.zip#uzip

       In many aspects, you could treat extfs like any other directory.  For  instance,  you  can
       add  it to the hotlist or change to it from directory history.  An important limitation is
       that you cannot invoke shell commands inside extfs, just like any other non-local VFS.

       Common extfs scripts included with Midnight Commander are:

       a      access 'A:' DOS/Windows diskette (cd #a).

       apt    front end to Debian's APT package management system (cd #apt).

       audio  audio CD ripping and playing (cd #audio or cd device#audio).

       bpp    package of Bad Penguin GNU/Linux distribution (cd file.bpp#bpp).

       deb    package of Debian GNU/Linux distribution (cd file.deb#deb).

       dpkg   Debian GNU/Linux installed packages (cd #deb).

       hp48   view and copy files to/from a HP48 calculator (cd #hp48).

       lslR   browsing of lslR listings as found on many FTPs (cd filename#lslR).

       mailfs mbox-style mailbox files support (cd mailbox#mailfs).

	      extfs to handle unified and context diffs (cd filename#patchfs).

       rpm    RPM package (cd filename#rpm).

       rpms   RPM database management (cd #rpms).

       ulha, urar, uzip, uzoo, uar, uha
	      archivers (cd archive#xxxx where xxxx is one of: ulha, urar, uzip, uzoo, uar, uha).

       You could bind file type/extension to specified extfs as described in the  Extension  File
       Edit section.  Here is an example entry for Debian packages:

		 Open=%cd %p#deb

       The Midnight Commander will try to detect if your terminal supports color using the termi-
       nal database and your terminal name.  Sometimes it gets confused, so you may  force  color
       mode or disable color mode using the -c and -b flag respectively.

       If  the program is compiled with the Slang screen manager instead of ncurses, it will also
       check the variable COLORTERM, if it is set, it has the same effect as the -c flag.

       You may specify terminals that always force color mode by adding the color_terminals vari-
       able  to  the  Colors  section of the initialization file.  This will prevent the Midnight
       Commander from trying to detect if your terminal supports color.  Example:


       The program can be compiled with both ncurses and slang, ncurses does not provide a way to
       force color mode: ncurses uses just the information in the terminal database.

       The  Midnight Commander provides a way to change the default colors.  Currently the colors
       are configured using the environment variable MC_COLOR_TABLE or the Colors section in  the
       initialization file.

       In  the Colors section, the default color map is loaded from the base_color variable.  You
       can specify an alternate color map for a terminal by using the terminal name as the key in
       this section.  Example:


       The format for the color definition is:

	 <keyword>=<foregroundcolor>,<backgroundcolor>:<keyword>= ...

       The  colors  are  optional,  and  the  keywords are: normal, selected, marked, markselect,
       errors, input, reverse, gauge.  Menu colors are: menu, menusel, menuhot, menuhotsel.  Dia-
       log colors are: dnormal, dfocus, dhotnormal, dhotfocus.	Help colors are: helpnormal, hel-
       pitalic, helpbold, helplink, helpslink.	Viewer color is:  viewunderline.   Special  high-
       lighting  colors are: executable, directory, link, stalelink, device, special, core.  Edi-
       tor colors are: editnormal, editbold, editmarked.

       input determines the color of input lines used in query dialogs.

       gauge determines the color of the filled part of the progress bar (gauge), which  is  used
       to show the user the progress of file operations, such as copying.

       The  dialog boxes use the following colors: dnormal is used for the normal text, dfocus is
       the color used for the currently selected component, dhotnormal is the color used to  dif-
       ferentiate  the hotkey color in normal components, whereas the dhotfocus color is used for
       the highlighted color in the currently selected component.

       Menus use the same scheme but uses the menu, menusel, menuhot and menuhotsel tags instead.

       Help uses the following colors: helpnormal is used for normal text, helpitalic is used for
       text  which is emphasized in italic in the manual page, helpbold is used for text which is
       emphasized in bold in the manual page, helplink is used for not	selected  hyperlinks  and
       helpslink is used for selected hyperlink.

       Special	highlight  colors  determine  how  files  are displayed when file highlighting is
       enabled (see the section on Layout).  directory is used for directories or symbolic  links
       to directories; executable for executable files; link is used for symbolic links which are
       neither stale nor linked to a directory; stalelink  is  used  for  stale  symbolic  links;
       device - character and block devices; special is used for special files, such as pipes and
       sockets; core is for core files.

       The possible colors are: black, gray, red, brightred, green, brightgreen,  brown,  yellow,
       blue, brightblue, magenta, brightmagenta, cyan, brightcyan, lightgray and white. And there
       is a special keyword for transparent background. It is 'default'. The 'default'	can  only
       be used for background color. Example:


Special Settings
       Most  of  the  settings	of the Midnight Commander can be changed from the menus. However,
       there are a small number of settings which can only be changed by editing the setup file.

       These variables may be set in your ~/.mc/ini file:

	      By default the Midnight Commander clears the screen before executing a command.  If
	      you would prefer to see the output of the command at the bottom of the screen, edit
	      your ~/.mc/ini file and change the value of the field clear_before_exec to 0.

	      If you press F3 on a directory, normally MC enters that directory.  If this flag is
	      set  to  1,  then MC will ask for confirmation before changing the directory if you
	      have files tagged.

	      This value is the number	of  seconds  the  Midnight  Commander  will  wait  before
	      attempting  to  reconnect to an FTP server that has denied the login.  If the value
	      is zero, the login will no be retried.

	      Specifies how many screen updates can be skipped	at  most  in  the  internal  file
	      viewer.	Normally  this	value  is not significant, because the code automatically
	      adjusts the number of updates to skip according to the rate of incoming keystrokes.
	      However, on very slow machines or terminals with a fast keyboard auto repeat, a big
	      value can make screen updates too jumpy.

	      It seems that setting max_dirt_limit to 10 causes the best behavior,  and  that  is
	      the default value.

	      Controls	whenever scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or line by line on the

	      Controls if scrolling with the mouse is done by pages or line by line on the inter-
	      nal file viewer.

	      By   default   the   Midnight  Commander	treats	the  ESC  key  as  a  key  prefix
	      (old_esc_mode=0).  If this option is set (old_esc_mode=1), the ESC key will act  as
	      a prefix key for one second, and if no extra keys have arrived, then the ESC key is
	      interpreted as a cancel key (ESC ESC).

	      Allow special treatment for '+', '-', '*' in the command	line  (select,	unselect,
	      reverse  selection)  only  if  the  command line is empty.  You don't need to quote
	      those characters in the middle of the command line.  On the other hand, you  cannot
	      use them to change selection when the command line is not empty.

	      If set (the default), panel will scroll by half the display when the cursor reaches
	      the end or the beginning of the panel, otherwise it will just scroll a  file  at	a

	      This  variable  only works if you are not using the subshell support.  When you use
	      the C-o keystroke to go back to the user screen, if this one is set, you will get a
	      fresh  shell.  Otherwise, pressing any key will bring you back to the Midnight Com-

	      If this flag is set, then the home and end keys will work slightly different on the
	      panels,  instead of moving the selection to the first and last files in the panels,
	      they will act as follows:

	      The home key will: Go up to the middle line, if below it; else go to the	top  line
	      unless  it is already on the top line, in this case it will go to the first file in
	      the panel.

	      The end key has a similar behavior: Go down to the middle line, if over it; else go
	      to  the bottom line unless you already are at the bottom line, in such case it will
	      move the selection to the last file name in the panel.

	      If this variable is on (the default) it will spawn the file command  to  match  the
	      file types listed on the mc.ext file.

	      If  this	variable is on (default is off) when you browse the file system on a Tree
	      panel, it will automatically reload the  other  panel  with  the	contents  of  the
	      selected directory.

Terminal databases
       The Midnight Commander provides a way to fix your system terminal database without requir-
       ing root privileges.  The Midnight Commander searches in the  system  initialization  file
       (the mc.lib file located in the Midnight Commander library directory) and in the ~/.mc/ini
       file for the section "terminal:your-terminal-name" and then for the section "terminal:gen-
       eral", each line of the section contains a key symbol that you want to define, followed by
       an equal sign and the definition for the key.  You can use the special \e form  to  repre-
       sent the escape character and the ^x to represent the control-x character.

       The possible key symbols are:

       f0 to f20     Function keys f0-f20
       bs	     backspace
       home	     home key
       end	     end key
       up	     up arrow key
       down	     down arrow key
       left	     left arrow key
       right	     right arrow key
       pgdn	     page down key
       pgup	     page up key
       insert	     the insert character
       delete	     the delete character
       complete      to do completion

       For  example,  to  define the key insert to be the Escape + [ + O + p, you set this in the
       ini file:


       The complete key symbol represents the escape sequences	used  to  invoke  the  completion
       process, this is invoked with M-tab, but you can define other keys to do the same work (on
       those keyboard with tons of nice and unused keys everywhere).

       The program will retrieve all of its information relative to  the  MC_DATADIR  environment
       variable.  If this variable is not set, it will fall back to the /usr/share/mc directory.


	      The help file for the program.


	      The default system-wide extensions file.


	      User's  own  extension, view configuration and edit configuration file.  They over-
	      ride the contents of the system wide files if present.


	      The default system-wide setup for the Midnight Commander, used  only  if	the  user
	      doesn't have his own ~/.mc/ini file.


	      Global  settings	for  the  Midnight  Commander.	 Settings in this file affect all
	      users, whether they have ~/.mc/ini or not.  Currently, only terminal  settings  are
	      loaded from mc.lib.


	      User's  own  setup.  If  this  file  is  present then the setup is loaded from here
	      instead of the system-wide startup file.


	      This file contains the hints (cookies) displayed by the program.


	      This file contains the default system-wide applications menu.


	      User's own application menu. If this file is present it is used instead of the sys-
	      tem-wide applications menu.


	      The directory list for the directory tree and tree view features.


	      Local user-defined menu. If this file is present, it is used instead of the home or
	      system-wide applications menu.

       This program is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published
       by  the Free Software Foundation. See the built-in help for details on the License and the
       lack of warranty.

       The   latest   version	of   this   program   can    be    found    at	  ftp://ftp.ibib-

       ed(1), gpm(1), mcserv(8), terminfo(1), view(1), sh(1), bash(1), tcsh(1), zsh(1).

       The Midnight Commander page on the World Wide Web:

       Miguel  de  Icaza  (miguel@ximian.com),	Janne  Kukonlehto  (jtklehto@paju.oulu.fi), Radek
       Doulik	 (rodo@ucw.cz),    Fred    Leeflang    (fredl@nebula.ow.org),	 Dugan	   Porter
       (dugan@b011.eunet.es),	  Jakub     Jelinek	(jj@sunsite.mff.cuni.cz),    Ching    Hui
       (mr854307@cs.nthu.edu.tw), Andrej Borsenkow (borsenkow.msk@sni.de), Norbert Warmuth (nwar-
       muth@privat.circular.de),   Mauricio   Plaza   (mok@roxanne.nuclecu.unam.mx),  Paul  Sheer
       (psheer@icon.co.za), Pavel Machek (pavel@ucw.cz) and Pavel Roskin (proski@gnu.org) are the
       developers  of  this  package.	Alessandro Rubini (rubini@ipvvis.unipv.it) has been espe-
       cially  helpful	debugging  and	enhancing  the	program's  mouse  support,   John   Davis
       (davis@space.mit.edu)  also  made  his  S-Lang  library	available to us under the GPL and
       answered my questions about it, and the following people have contributed  code	and  many
       bug fixes (in alphabetical order):

       Adam  Tla/lka  (atlka@sunrise.pg.gda.pl),  alex@bcs.zp.ua  (Alex  I.   Tkachenko), Antonio
       Palama, DOS port (palama@posso.dm.unipi.it), Erwin van Eijk  (wabbit@corner.iaf.nl),  Gerd
       Knorr  (kraxel@cs.tu-berlin.de),  Jean-Daniel  Luiset  (luiset@cih.hcuge.ch),  Jon Stevens
       (root@dolphin.csudh.edu), Juan Francisco Grigera,  Win32  port  (j-grigera@usa.net),  Juan
       Jose   Ciarlante  (jjciarla@raiz.uncu.edu.ar),  Ilya  Rybkin  (rybkin@rouge.phys.lsu.edu),
       Marcelo Roccasalva  (mfroccas@raiz.uncu.edu.ar),  Massimo  Fontanelli  (MC8737@mclink.it),
       Sergey  Ya.  Korshunoff	(root@seyko.msk.su),  Thomas Pundt (pundtt@math.uni-muenster.de),
       Timur	     Bakeyev	     (timur@goff.comtat.kazan.su),	   Tomasz	  Cholewo
       (tjchol01@mecca.spd.louisville.edu),  Torben  Fjerdingstad (torben.fjerdingstad@uni-c.dk),
       Vadim Sinolitis (vvs@nsrd.npi.msu.su) and Wim Osterholt (wim@djo.wtm.tudelft.nl).

       See the file TODO in the distribution for information on what remains to be done.

       If you want to report a problem with the program, please send mail to  this  address:  mc-

       Provide	a detailed description of the bug, the version of the program you are running (mc
       -V displays this information), the operating system you are running the	program  on.   If
       the program crashes, we would appreciate a stack trace.

MC Version 4.6.0			   January 2003 				    MC(1)
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