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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for emacs (redhat section 1)

EMACS(1)			     General Commands Manual				 EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU  Emacs  is  a  version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs,
       Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can  read  on
       line using Info, a subsystem of Emacs.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date doc-
       umentation.  This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to  do  so;  the  Emacs
       maintainers' priority goal is to minimize the amount of time this man page takes away from
       other more useful projects.
       The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and  it
       is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know
       how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help
       facility.   Help  Tutorial  (CTRL-h  t)	requests  an interactive tutorial which can teach
       beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)  helps  you
       find  a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given char-
       acter's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function specified  by

       Emacs's	Undo  can  undo  several  steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to
       recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail),  outline
       editing	(Outline),  compiling  (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell),
       running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and  automated  psychotherapy

       There  is  an  extensive  reference  manual, but users of other Emacses should have little
       trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use  basic  fea-
       tures fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and
	       the number).

       -q      Do not load an init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.   This  must  be
	       the first argument specified in the command line.

       The  following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encoun-

       -f function
	       Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  This option must be
	       the  first  in the argument list.  You must use -l and -f options to specify files
	       to execute and functions to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.	If  you  run  Emacs  from
       under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.	You will probably want to
       start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original win-

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
	       Specifies  the  name  which  should be assigned to the initial Emacs window.  This
	       controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.

       -title name
	       Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -i      Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window.

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will find the  various
	       X  fonts  in  the  /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only accept
	       fixed width fonts.  Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
	       the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font.
	       Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form  widthxheight  are  generally  fixed
	       width, as is the font fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

	       When  you  specify  a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font

       -bw pixels
	       Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of pixels specified  by  pixels.
	       Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

       -ib pixels
	       Set  the  window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pix-
	       els.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

       -geometry geometry
	       Set the Emacs window's width, height, and position  as  specified.   The  geometry
	       specification  is  in  the  standard X format; see X(1) for more information.  The
	       width and height are specified in characters; the default is 80 by 24.

       -fg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the text.

	       See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of valid color names.

       -bg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       -ms color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
	       Create the Emacs window on the display specified  by  displayname.   Must  be  the
	       first option specified in the command line.

       -nw     Tells  Emacs  not  to use its special interface to X.  If you use this switch when
	       invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.	This must
	       be the first option specified in the command line.

       You  can  set  X  default  values  for  your  Emacs  windows in your .Xresources file (see
       xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for
       the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
	       Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If  reverseVideo's  value  is  set  to on, the window will be displayed in reverse

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
	       If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window  will  iconify  into  the  "kitchen

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
	       For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       geometry (class Geometry)
	       Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
	       Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and white display, the window's charac-
       teristics will default as follows: the foreground color will be set to  black,  the  back-
       ground  color will be set to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text and
       mouse cursors will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.

       left		    Set point.
       middle		    Paste text.
       right		    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right	    Paste text.
       CTRL-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right	    Select this window, then split it into two windows.  Same  as  typing
			    CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	    X  buffer  menu--hold  the	buttons  and  keys down, wait for menu to
			    appear, select buffer, and release.   Move	mouse  out  of	menu  and
			    release to cancel.
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
       CTRL-SHIFT-right     Select window with mouse, and delete all other windows.  Same as typ-
			    ing CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the  Free  Software  Foundation,
       which develops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS for ordering information.
       Your  local  Emacs  maintainer might also have copies available.  As with all software and
       publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies  of  the  Emacs
       manual.	The TeX source to the manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of Emacs) to refer
       to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the complete  text  of  the  Emacs
       reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -	Lisp  source files and compiled files that define
       most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc  -  various programs that are used with GNU Emacs, and
       some files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the  documentation	strings  for  the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce
       the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES discusses GNU Emacs vs.  other  versions
       of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE  lists  people  offering  various  services to
       assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting,  porting  and  customiza-
       These  files also have information useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs
       Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files that are made for all files being modified in
       Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There   is   a	mailing   list,   bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu  on  the  internet  (ucb-
       vax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs	and  fixes.   But
       before  reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a
       misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.  We ask you  to  read	the  section  ``Reporting
       Emacs  Bugs''  near  the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs  you  are  running  in
       every bug report that you send in.

       Do  not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to get
       them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible.  For personal	assistance,  look
       in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do  not	send  anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send requests to be
       added to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu-emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or  the
       corresponding UUCP address).  For more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if  they  can  be  iso-
       lated,  so  it  is  in  your interest to report them in such a way that they can be easily

       Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs running in Raw mode on  some
       Unix versions.

       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in
       the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which
       also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but
       it is never included in the scope of any license covering those systems.   Such	inclusion
       violates  the  terms  on which distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of
       the General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions  to
       redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute
       your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will  be  a  complete
       replacement  for  Berkeley Unix.  Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the
       GNU system.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.	Joachim  Martillo
       and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
       the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free
       Software  Foundation;  with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-
       Cover Texts.

       This document is part of  a  collection	distributed  under  the  GNU  Free  Documentation
       License.   If you want to distribute this document separately from the collection, you can
       do so by adding a copy of the license to the document, as described in section  6  of  the
       license.   A  copy  of the license is included in the gfdl(1) man page, and in the section
       entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution		 1995 December 7				 EMACS(1)

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