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GFDL(1) 										  GFDL(1)

NAME
       GFDL - The GNU Free Documentation License

					Version 1.1, March 2000

       Copyright (c) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307  USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but
       changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE
       The  purpose  of  this  License	is  to make a manual, textbook, or other written document
       "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy  and  re-
       distribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Sec-
       ondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a	way  to  get  credit  for
       their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

       This  License  is  a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document
       must themselves be free in the same sense.  It complements the GNU General Public License,
       which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

       We  have  designed  this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because
       free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals	providing
       the  same  freedoms  that  the software does.  But this License is not limited to software
       manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or  whether  it
       is  published  as  a  printed book.  We recommend this License principally for works whose
       purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
       This License applies to any manual or other work that contains  a  notice  placed  by  the
       copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.  The "Docu-
       ment", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a	licensee,
       and is addressed as "you."

       A  "Modified  Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion
       of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into  another  lan-
       guage.

       A  "Secondary  Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that
       deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of	the  Document  to
       the  Document's	overall  subject  (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
       fall directly within that overall subject.  (For example, if the Document  is  in  part	a
       textbook  of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.)	The rela-
       tionship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related  mat-
       ters,  or  of  legal,  commercial,  philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
       them.

       The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles  are  designated,  as
       being  those  of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released
       under this License.

       The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts
       or  Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this Li-
       cense.

       A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a  for-
       mat  whose  specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed
       and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or  (for  images  com-
       posed  of  pixels)  generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing
       editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation  to
       a  variety  of formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise
       Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage  subsequent
       modification  by  readers  is not Transparent.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
       "Opaque."

       Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain  ASCII  without  markup,
       Texinfo	input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
       standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification.  Opaque  formats  include
       PostScript,  PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
       processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally avail-
       able,  and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes
       only.

       The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page  itself,  plus  such	following
       pages  as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the
       title page.  For works in formats which do not have any title page as such,  "Title  Page"
       means  the  text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the be-
       ginning of the body of the text.

2. VERBATIM COPYING
       You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or  noncommer-
       cially,	provided  that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying
       this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and  that  you  add  no
       other  conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use technical measures
       to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make  or  distrib-
       ute.   However,	you  may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a
       large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

       You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,  and  you  may  publicly
       display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
       If  you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's
       license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies  in  covers  that  carry,
       clearly	and  legibly,  all  these  Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
       Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly  and	legibly  identify
       you  as	the  publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present the full title with
       all words of the title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material  on  the
       covers  in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
       the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
       in other respects.

       If  the	required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put
       the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover,  and  continue  the
       rest onto adjacent pages.

       If  you	publish  or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you
       must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each	Opaque	copy,  or
       state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location contain-
       ing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
       network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard
       network protocols.  If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent  steps,
       when  you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent
       copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after  the
       last  time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
       that edition to the public.

       It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document	well  be-
       fore  redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with
       an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS
       You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document  under  the  conditions  of
       sections  2  and  3  above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely
       this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document,  thus	licensing
       distribution  and  modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it.
       In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

       A.     Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the
	      Document,  and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be
	      listed in the History section of the Document).  You may use the same  title  as	a
	      previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

       B.     List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
	      authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,	together  with	at  least
	      five  of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it
	      has less than five).

       C.     State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,  as  the
	      publisher.

       D.     Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E.     Add  an  appropriate  copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other
	      copyright notices.

       F.     Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the  pub-
	      lic  permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the
	      form shown in the Addendum below.

       G.     Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections  and  required
	      Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

       H.     Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I.     Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stat-
	      ing at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as
	      given  on  the  Title Page.  If there is no section entitled "History" in the Docu-
	      ment, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
	      given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated
	      in the previous sentence.

       J.     Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a
	      Transparent  copy  of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the
	      Document for previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the "Histo-
	      ry"  section.   You  may	omit  a network location for a work that was published at
	      least four years before the Document itself, or if the original  publisher  of  the
	      version it refers to gives permission.

       K.     In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's
	      title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of	the  con-
	      tributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L.     Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in
	      their titles.  Section numbers or the equivalent are not	considered  part  of  the
	      section titles.

       M.     Delete  any section entitled "Endorsements."  Such a section may not be included in
	      the Modified Version.

       N.     Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title  with
	      any Invariant Section.

       If  the	Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as
       Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at	your  op-
       tion  designate	some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles
       to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.  These  titles
       must be distinct from any other section titles.

       You  may  add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorse-
       ments of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer  review
       or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
       standard.

       You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25
       words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.
       Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of	Back-Cover  Text  may  be  added  by  (or
       through	arrangements  made  by) any one entity.  If the Document already includes a cover
       text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
       you  are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on
       explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

       The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give  permission  to
       use  their  names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Ver-
       sion.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
       You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,  under  the
       terms  defined  in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
       combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the	original  documents,  unmodified,
       and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

       The  combined  work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical In-
       variant Sections may be replaced with a single copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sec-
       tions  with  the  same  name  but  different contents, make the title of each such section
       unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or pub-
       lisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the
       section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license	notice	of  the  combined
       work.

       In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various origi-
       nal documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections enti-
       tled  "Acknowledgements",  and  any  sections entitled "Dedications."  You must delete all
       sections entitled "Endorsements."

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
       You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other  documents  released  under
       this  License,  and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents
       with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the  rules
       of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

       You  may  extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually
       under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into  the  extracted  docu-
       ment,  and  follow  this  License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
       document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
       A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent docu-
       ments or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole
       count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is  claimed
       for  the  compilation.  Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does
       not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of
       their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

       If  the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document,
       then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cov-
       er  Texts  may  be  placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
       Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION
       Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may  distribute  translations  of
       the Document under the terms of section 4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations
       requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations
       of  some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant
       Sections.  You may include a translation of this License provided that  you  also  include
       the  original  English  version	of  this  License.  In case of a disagreement between the
       translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version
       will prevail.

9. TERMINATION
       You  may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly pro-
       vided for under this License.  Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute
       the  Document  is  void,  and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
       However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not
       have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
       The  Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documenta-
       tion License from time to time.	Such new versions  will  be  similar  in  spirit  to  the
       present	version,  but  may  differ  in	detail	to address new problems or concerns.  See
       http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

       Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version  number.	If  the  Document
       specifies  that	a  particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" ap-
       plies to it, you have the option of following the terms	and  conditions  either  of  that
       specified  version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
       Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version number of	this  Li-
       cense,  you  may  choose  any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
       Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
       To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License  in  the
       document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (c) [year]  [your name].  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
       modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections
       being [list their titles], with the Front-Cover Texts being [list], and with the Back-
       Cover Texts being [list].  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
       Free Documentation License."

       If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"  instead  of  saying
       which  ones are invariant.  If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts"
       instead of "Front-Cover Texts being [list]"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

       If your document contains nontrivial examples of  program  code,  we  recommend	releasing
       these  examples	in  parallel  under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
       General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

4th Berkeley Distribution		  2001 April 23 				  GFDL(1)
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