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Plan 9 - man page for pic (plan9 section 1)

PIC(1)				     General Commands Manual				   PIC(1)

       pic, tpic - troff and tex preprocessors for drawing pictures

       pic [ files ]

       tpic [ files ]

       Pic is a troff(1) preprocessor for drawing figures on a typesetter.  Pic code is contained
       between .PS and .PE lines:

	      .PS optional-width optional-height

       or in a file mentioned in a .PS line:

	      .PS optional-width optional-height <file

       If optional-width is present, the picture is made that many inches wide, regardless of any
       dimensions  used internally.  The height is scaled in the same proportion unless optional-
       height is present.  If .PF is used instead of .PE, the typesetting position after printing
       is restored to what it was upon entry.

       An element-list is a list of elements:
	    primitive  attribute-list
	    placename : element
	    placename : position
	    var = expr
	    { element-list }
	    [ element-list ]
	    for var = expr to expr by expr do { anything }
	    if expr then { anything } else { anything }
	    copy file,	copy thru macro,  copy file thru macro
	    sh { commandline }
	    print expr
	    reset optional var-list

       Elements  are separated by newlines or semicolons; a long element may be continued by end-
       ing the line with a backslash.  Comments are introduced by a # and terminated  by  a  new-
       line.   Variable  names begin with a lower case letter; place names begin with upper case.
       Place and variable names retain their values from one picture to the next.

       After each primitive the  current  position  moves  in  the  current  direction	(up,down,
       left,right  (default))  by  the size of the primitive.  The current position and direction
       are saved upon entry to a {...} block and restored upon exit.   Elements  within  a  block
       enclosed  in  [...]   are  treated as a unit; the dimensions are determined by the extreme
       points of the contained objects.  Names, variables, and direction of motion within a block
       are local to that block.

       Troff-command is any line that begins with a period.  Such a line is assumed to make sense
       in the context where it appears; generally, this means only size and font changes.

       The primitive objects are:
	    box  circle  ellipse  arc  line  arrow  spline  move  text-list
       is a synonym for

       An attribute-list is a sequence of zero or more attributes; each attribute consists  of	a
       keyword, perhaps followed by a value.
	    h(eigh)t expr	wid(th) expr
	    rad(ius) expr	diam(eter) expr
	    up opt-expr 	down opt-expr
	    right opt-expr	left opt-expr
	    from position	to position
	    at position 	with corner
	    by expr, expr	then
	    dotted opt-expr	dashed opt-expr
	    chop opt-expr	->  <-	<->
	    invis		same
	    text-list		expr
       Missing	attributes and values are filled in from defaults.  Not all attributes make sense
       for all primitives; irrelevant ones are silently ignored.  The attribute causes	the  geo-
       metrical  center to be put at the specified place; causes the position on the object to be
       put at the specified place.  For lines, splines and arcs, and refer to arrowhead size.	A
       bare expr implies motion in the current direction.

       Text  is normally an attribute of some primitive; by default it is placed at the geometri-
       cal center of the object.  Stand-alone text is also permitted.  A text list is a  list  of
       text items:
	    "..." positioning ...
	    sprintf("format", expr, ...) positioning ...
	    center  ljust  rjust  above  below
       If there are multiple text items for some primitive, they are arranged vertically and cen-
       tered except as qualified.  Positioning requests apply to each item  independently.   Text
       items  may contain troff commands for size and font changes, local motions, etc., but make
       sure that these are balanced so that the entering state is restored before exiting.

       A position is ultimately an x,y coordinate pair, but it may be specified in other ways.
	    expr, expr
	    place +- expr, expr
	    place +- ( expr, expr )
	    ( position, position )x from one, y the other
	    expr [of the way] between position and position
	    expr < position , position >
	    ( position )

	    placename optional-corner
	    corner of placename
	    nth primitive optional-corner
	    corner of nth primitive
       An optional-corner is one of the eight compass points or the center or the start or end of
       a primitive.
	    .n	.e  .w	.s  .ne  .se  .nw  .sw	.c  .start  .end
	    top  bot  left  right  start  end
       Each object in a picture has an ordinal number; nth refers to this.
	    nth,     nth last

       The built-in variables and their default values are:
	    boxwid 0.75 	boxht 0.5
	    circlerad 0.25	arcrad 0.25
	    ellipsewid 0.75	ellipseht 0.5
	    linewid 0.5 	lineht 0.5
	    movewid 0.5 	moveht 0.5
	    textwid 0		textht 0
	    arrowwid 0.05	arrowht 0.1
	    dashwid 0.1 	arrowhead 2
	    scale 1
       These  may be changed at any time, and the new values remain in force from picture to pic-
       ture until changed again or reset by a statement.  Variables changed within [ and ] revert
       to  their previous value upon exit from the block.  Dimensions are divided by scale during

       Expressions in pic are evaluated in floating point.  All numbers  representing  dimensions
       are taken to be in inches.
	    expr op expr
	    - expr
	    ! expr
	    ( expr )
	    place .x  place .y	place .ht  place .wid  place .rad
	    sin(expr)  cos(expr)  atan2(expr,expr)  log(expr)  exp(expr)
	    sqrt(expr)	max(expr,expr)	min(expr,expr)	int(expr)  rand()
	    +  -  *  /	%  <  <=  >  >=  ==  !=  &&  ||

       The define and undef statements are not part of the grammar.
	    define name { replacement text }
	    undef name
       Occurrences of $1, $2, etc., in the replacement text will be replaced by the corresponding
       arguments if name is invoked as
	    name(arg1, arg2, ...)
       Non-existent arguments are replaced by null strings.  Replacement text  may  contain  new-
       lines.  The undef statement removes the definition of a macro.

       Tpic  is  a  tex(1) preprocessor that accepts pic language.  It produces Tex commands that
       define a box called \graph, which contains the picture.	The box may be output this way:


       arrow "input" above; box "process"; arrow "output" above
       A: ellipse
	  circle rad .1 with .w at A.e
	  circle rad .05 at 0.5 <A.c, A.ne>
	  circle rad .065 at 0.5 <A.c, A.ne>
	  spline from last circle.nw left .25 then left .05 down .05
	  arc from A.c to A.se rad 0.5
	  for i = 1 to 10 do { line from A.s+.025*i,.01*i down i/50 }

       arrow "input" above; box "process"; arrow "output" above move A: ellipse
	  circle rad .1 with .w at A.e
	  circle rad .05 at 0.5 <A.c, A.ne>
	  circle rad .065 at 0.5 <A.c, A.ne>
	  spline from last circle.nw left .25 then left .05 down .05
	  arc from A.c to A.se rad 0.5
	  for i = 1 to 10 do { line from A.s+.025*i,.01*i down i/50 }


       grap(1), doctype(1), troff(1)
       B. W. Kernighan, ``PIC--a Graphics Language for Typesetting'', Unix Research  System  Pro-
       grammer's Manual, Tenth Edition, Volume 2


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