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xpc_objects(3) [osx man page]

xpc_objects(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 					    xpc_objects(3)

NAME
xpc -- boxed XPC objects reference SYNOPSIS
#include <xpc/xpc.h> xpc_object_t xpc_null_create(void); xpc_object_t xpc_bool_create(bool value); bool xpc_bool_get_value(xpc_object_t xbool); xpc_object_t xpc_int64_create(int64_t value); int64_t xpc_int64_get_value(xpc_object_t xint); xpc_object_t xpc_uint64_create(uint64_t value); uint64_t xpc_uint64_get_value(xpc_object_t xuint); xpc_object_t xpc_double_create(double value); double xpc_double_get_value(xpc_object_t xdouble); xpc_object_t xpc_date_create(int64_t interval); xpc_object_t xpc_date_create_from_current(void); int64_t xpc_date_get_value(xpc_object_t xdate); xpc_object_t xpc_data_create(const void *bytes, size_t length); xpc_object_t xpc_data_create_with_dispatch_data(dispatch_data_t ddata); size_t xpc_data_get_length(xpc_object_t xdata); const void * xpc_data_get_bytes_ptr(xpc_object_t xdata); size_t xpc_data_get_bytes(xpc_object_t xdata, void *buffer, size_t off, size_t length); xpc_object_t xpc_string_create(const char *string); xpc_object_t xpc_string_create_with_format(const char *fmt, ...); xpc_object_t xpc_string_create_with_format_and_arguments(const char *fmt, va_list ap); size_t xpc_string_get_length(xpc_object_t xstring); const char * xpc_string_get_string_ptr(xpc_object_t xstring); xpc_object_t xpc_uuid_create(const uuid_t uuid); const uint8_t * xpc_uuid_get_bytes(xpc_object_t xuuid); xpc_object_t xpc_fd_create(int fd); int xpc_fd_dup(xpc_object_t xfd); xpc_object_t xpc_shmem_create(void *region, size_t length); size_t xpc_shmem_map(xpc_object_t xshmem, void **region); DESCRIPTION
Most XPC objects are boxed representations of primitive C language types or low-level operating system handles. These boxed objects are immutable. See xpc_object(3) for information about functions common to all XPC objects. PRIMITIVE TYPES
XPC objects can encapsulate a wide variety of primitive C language types: INTEGERS Boxed representations of 64-bit wide signed and unsigned integer types may be created with xpc_int64_create() and xpc_uint64_create() respec- tively. The boxed values may be retrieved using xpc_int64_get_value() and xpc_uint64_get_value(). FLOATING POINT Boxed representations of double-precision floating point value representations may be created with the xpc_double_create() function and retrieved with the xpc_double_get_value() function. DATES Boxed representations of date and time values, expressed as an integral number of nanoseconds before or after the Unix epoch, can be created with the xpc_date_create() function and retrieved with the xpc_date_get_value() function. A date object representing the current date may be created with xpc_date_create_from_current() convenience function. NULL AND BOOLEAN SINGLETONS Boxed representations of null and Boolean values are expressed as XPC object singletons. The xpc_bool_create() function returns one of two constant singleton Boolean values: o XPC_BOOL_TRUE o XPC_BOOL_FALSE The singleton values may be compared using direct pointer equality. Similarly, no type checking is required when retreiving these values from collections: xpc_object_t xbool = xpc_dictionary_get_value(dictionary, "key"); if (xbool == XPC_BOOL_TRUE) { // Handle the true case. } else if (xbool == XPC_BOOL_FALSE) // Handle the false case. } else { // Handle the case where there was a type mismatch or where there was no // value for the key "key". } The xpc_null_create() function returns a constant singleton representation of a null value. There is currently no defined constant for this singleton. It is safe to call xpc_retain(3) and xpc_release(3) on Boolean and null objects. DATA, STRINGS AND UUIDS DATA Boxed representations of arbitrary byte values may be created with the xpc_data_create() function which takes a pointer to a buffer and length. A pointer to the underlying storage of the data object may be obtained using xpc_data_get_bytes_ptr(). Important: This pointer is only valid for the lifetime of the data object. The underlying storage of the pointer value must not be modified by the caller. When ARC is enabled, care needs to be taken that the data object is not released prematurely, see xpc_object(3) for details. The contents of a data object may be copied to an external buffer using the xpc_data_get_bytes() function. This function takes a pointer to a buffer of size length to which the data will be copied. The caller may also specify a non-zero offset into the source data at which to start the copy. The return value of this function is the number of bytes that were copied into the buffer. If the destination buffer is smaller than the size of the source data, as many bytes as possible will be copied and the return value will be equal to the number of bytes speci- fied in length. The underlying size of the data value may be determined using the xpc_data_get_length() function. When creating a data object, the contents of the provided buffer are copied into internal storage. If the caller wishes to avoid a copy, the buffer may first be encapsulated in a dispatch_data_t object and passed to xpc_data_create_with_dispatch_data(). See dispatch_data_create(3) for more information. Note: When the time comes to send a message, the XPC runtime will serialize the object graph, which will result in a copy of any data objects contained therein. This can be very costly for large amounts of data. To completely avoid any copying in the message-send path for large data objects (where "large" is defined by the system), you may create a data object using dispatch_data_create(3) with the DISPATCH_DATA_DESTRUCTOR_MUNMAP destructor specified. This will hint to the system that the data buffer may be safely shared copy-on-write with the recipient of the message. Important: Data objects created with the intention of eliminating copies can only be safely created VM objects that the caller owns. Buffers returned by malloc(3) do NOT satisfy this condition as the caller does not own the underlying VM object associated with an allocation returned by malloc(3). Similarly, if the caller receives a buffer from an external subsystem across an API boundary, this buffer is not owned by the caller unless part of the API contract specifies how the buffer should have been created. Sending buffers not owned by the call- er in this way can result in information leakage from elsewhere on the heap. STRINGS Boxed representations of C string values may be created using the xpc_string_create() function. The XPC framework assumes all strings are encoded as UTF-8 and does not support any other encodings. A pointer to the C string representation of a value may be obtained using xpc_string_get_string_ptr(). Important: This pointer is only valid for the lifetime of the string object. The underlying storage of the pointer value must not be modified by the caller. When ARC is enabled, care needs to be taken that the string object is not released prematurely, see xpc_object(3) for details. The length of the C string value may be determined using the xpc_string_get_length() function. This length is does not include the NUL termi- nator character, similar to strlen(3). String objects may also be constructed from printf(3) -style format strings using the xpc_string_create_with_format() function. Addition- ally, the xpc_string_create_with_format_and_arguments() function allows the caller to pass an existing va_list argument with which to con- struct the formatted string. UUIDs Boxed representations of UUID byte values may be created using xpc_uuid_create(). See uuid(3) for more information. A pointer to storage for the underlying UUID value may be obtained using xpc_uuid_get_bytes(). The returned pointer may be safely passed to the relevant uuid(3) functions. Important: This pointer is only valid for the lifetime of the UUID object. The underlying storage of the UUID value must not be modified by the caller. When ARC is enabled, care needs to be taken that the UUID object is not released prematurely, see xpc_object(3) for details. The pattern of returning a pointer instead of copying the result into a uuid_t enables some convenient code simplification. For example: if (uuid_compare(xpc_uuid_get_bytes(uuid_object), expected_uuid) == 0) { // They are the same. } OUT-OF-LINE TYPES Boxed representations of low-level operating system primitives such as file descriptors and shared memory regions may be created and shared between processes as part of an XPC dictionary that is sent as a message. FILE DESCRIPTORS Boxed representations of file descriptors may be created using the xpc_fd_create() function. Once created, there is no way to retrieve the original file descriptor from the boxed representation. Instead, the xpc_fd_dup() function can be used to create a new file descriptor in a similar manner to dup(2). The caller is responsible for calling close(2) on the descriptor returned by this function. Multiple calls to xpc_fd_dup() will produce multiple unique file descriptor values. If a failure occurs (i.e. process file descriptor table is full), the invalid file descriptor value -1 will be returned. SHARED MEMORY Boxed representations of shared memory regions allocated using mmap(2) with the MAP_SHARED flag passed in the flags argument may be created using the xpc_shmem_create() function. Memory objects created using malloc(3) are not supported. The region argument is a pointer to the beginning of the shared region and the length argument specifies the length of the shared region. The recipient of a shared memory object may map the underlying region into its address space using the xpc_shmem_map() function. As with file descriptor objects, each call to this function returns a distinct but equivalent mapping. On output, the region argument will point to the address of the new mapping, and the return value will be the size of that mapping. This size will always be an integral page size, as it is not possible to share memory regions at less than page granularity. The caller is responsible for unmapping the region with munmap(2). If the mapping operation failed, 0 will be returned. New mappings will be created with the maximum permission as specified by the creator of the region. Currently, there is no direct way to mod- ify the permissions that the recipient of a region will have. If the caller wishes to maintain read-write permissions to a region, for exam- ple, while giving others read-only access, it can create an equivalent mapping with the desired permissions using a combination of mach_make_memory_entry_64() and mach_vm_remap(). The details of this procedure are left as an exercise to the reader. Certain operations that can operate on subranges of a region, such as vm_copy(), vm_read(), and vm_write(), may fragment the underlying rep- resentation of a memory region in order to avoid physical copies. After this fragmentation has occurred, it is not safe to create a shared memory object out of the region. For this reason, it is recommended that any such operations be delayed until after the shared memory object has been created, as the existence of the object will hint to the VM that the region's internal representation should be kept contiguous. Note that this will necessarily defeat these optimizations and force physical copies of subranges. SEE ALSO
xpc_object(3), xpc_dictionary_create(3), xpc_array_create(3), xpc_connection_create(3), dispatch_data_create(3), printf(3), uuid(3), dup(2), close(2) Darwin 1 July, 2011 Darwin
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