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man(1)											   man(1)

NAME
       man - format and display the on-line manual pages

SYNOPSIS
       man  [-acdfFhkKtwW]  [--path]  [-m  system] [-p string] [-C config_file] [-M pathlist] [-P
       pager] [-B browser] [-H htmlpager] [-S section_list] [section] name ...

DESCRIPTION
       man formats and displays the on-line manual pages.  If you specify section, man only looks
       in  that  section  of  the manual.  name is normally the name of the manual page, which is
       typically the name of a command, function, or file.  However, if name contains a slash (/)
       then man interprets it as a file specification, so that you can do man ./foo.5 or even man
       /cd/foo/bar.1.gz.

       See below for a description of where man looks for the manual page files.

OPTIONS
       -C  config_file
	      Specify the configuration file to use; the default is /private/etc/man.conf.   (See
	      man.conf(5).)

       -M  path
	      Specify  the list of directories to search for man pages.  Separate the directories
	      with colons.  An empty list is the same as not specifying -M at  all.   See  SEARCH
	      PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       -P  pager
	      Specify  which  pager to use.  This option overrides the MANPAGER environment vari-
	      able,  which  in	turn  overrides  the  PAGER  variable.	 By  default,  man   uses
	      /usr/bin/less -is.

       -B     Specify  which  browser  to  use	on HTML files.	This option overrides the BROWSER
	      environment variable. By default, man uses /usr/bin/less-is,

       -H     Specify a command that renders HTML files as text.  This option overrides the HTML-
	      PAGER environment variable. By default, man uses /bin/cat,

       -S  section_list
	      List is a colon separated list of manual sections to search.  This option overrides
	      the MANSECT environment variable.

       -a     By default, man will exit after displaying the first manual page it  finds.   Using
	      this  option  forces  man to display all the manual pages that match name, not just
	      the first.

       -c     Reformat the source man page, even when an up-to-date cat page exists.  This can be
	      meaningful  if  the  cat page was formatted for a screen with a different number of
	      columns, or if the preformatted page is corrupted.

       -d     Don't actually display the man pages, but do print gobs of debugging information.

       -D     Both display and print debugging info.

       -f     Equivalent to whatis.

       -F or --preformat
	      Format only - do not display.

       -h     Print a help message and exit.

       -k     Equivalent to apropos.

       -K     Search for the specified string in *all* man pages. Warning: this is probably  very
	      slow!  It  helps	to  specify a section.	(Just to give a rough idea, on my machine
	      this takes about a minute per 500 man pages.)

       -m  system
	      Specify an alternate set of man pages to search based on the system name given.

       -p  string
	      Specify the sequence of preprocessors to	run  before  nroff  or	troff.	 Not  all
	      installations will have a full set of preprocessors.  Some of the preprocessors and
	      the letters used to designate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p), tbl (t), vgrind
	      (v), refer (r).  This option overrides the MANROFFSEQ environment variable.

       -t     Use /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc -c to format the manual page, passing the output to
	      stdout.  The default output format of /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc -c is Postscript,
	      refer  to  the  manual  page  of /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc -c for ways to pick an
	      alternate format.

       Depending on the selected format and the availability of printing devices, the output  may
       need to be passed through some filter or another before being printed.

       -w or --path
	      Don't  actually  display	the  man pages, but do print the location(s) of the files
	      that would be formatted or displayed. If no argument is given: display (on  stdout)
	      the list of directories that is searched by man for man pages. If manpath is a link
	      to man, then "manpath" is equivalent to "man --path".

       -W     Like -w, but print file names one per line, without additional  information.   This
	      is useful in shell commands like man -aW man | xargs ls -l


CAT PAGES
       Man  will  try  to save the formatted man pages, in order to save formatting time the next
       time these pages are needed.  Traditionally, formatted versions of pages in  DIR/manX  are
       saved  in  DIR/catX,  but other mappings from man dir to cat dir can be specified in /pri-
       vate/etc/man.conf.  No cat pages are saved when the required cat directory does not exist.
       No  cat	pages  are saved when they are formatted for a line length different from 80.  No
       cat pages are saved when man.conf contains the line NOCACHE.

       It is possible to make man suid to a user man. Then, if a cat directory has owner man  and
       mode  0755  (only writable by man), and the cat files have owner man and mode 0644 or 0444
       (only writable by man, or not writable at all), no ordinary user can change the cat  pages
       or  put	other  files  in the cat directory. If man is not made suid, then a cat directory
       should have mode 0777 if all users should be able to leave cat pages there.

       The option -c forces reformatting a page, even if a recent cat page exists.

HTML PAGES
       Man will find HTML pages if they live in directories named as expected to be ".html", thus
       a  valid  name  for  an	HTML  version of the ls(1) man page would be /usr/share/man/html-
       man1/ls.1.html.

SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES
       man uses a sophisticated method of finding manual page  files,  based  on  the  invocation
       options	and environment variables, the /private/etc/man.conf configuration file, and some
       built in conventions and heuristics.

       First of all, when the name argument to man contains a slash (/), man assumes it is a file
       specification itself, and there is no searching involved.

       But  in	the  normal  case  where  name doesn't contain a slash, man searches a variety of
       directories for a file that could be a manual page for the topic named.

       If you specify the -M pathlist option, pathlist is a colon-separated list of the  directo-
       ries that man searches.

       If  you don't specify -M but set the MANPATH environment variable, the value of that vari-
       able is the list of the directories that man searches.

       If you don't specify an explicit path list with -M or MANPATH, man develops its	own  path
       list  based  on the contents of the configuration file /private/etc/man.conf.  The MANPATH
       statements in the configuration file identify particular directories  to  include  in  the
       search path.

       Furthermore,  the  MANPATH_MAP statements add to the search path depending on your command
       search path (i.e. your PATH environment variable).  For each directory that may be in  the
       command search path, a MANPATH_MAP statement specifies a directory that should be added to
       the search path for manual page files.  man looks at the PATH variable and adds the corre-
       sponding  directories  to  the manual page file search path.  Thus, with the proper use of
       MANPATH_MAP, when you issue the command man xyz, you get a manual  page	for  the  program
       that would run if you issued the command xyz.

       In  addition,  for  each  directory  in	the command search path (we'll call it a "command
       directory") for which you do not have a MANPATH_MAP statement, man automatically looks for
       a  manual page directory "nearby" namely as a subdirectory in the command directory itself
       or in the parent directory of the command directory.

       You can disable the automatic "nearby" searches by including  a	NOAUTOPATH  statement  in
       /private/etc/man.conf.

       In  each  directory  in	the search path as described above, man searches for a file named
       topic.section, with an optional suffix on the section number and  possibly  a  compression
       suffix.	If it doesn't find such a file, it then looks in any subdirectories named manN or
       catN where N is the manual section number.  If the file is in  a  catN  subdirectory,  man
       assumes	it  is	a  formatted  manual  page file (cat page).  Otherwise, man assumes it is
       unformatted.  In either case, if the filename has a known compression suffix  (like  .gz),
       man assumes it is gzipped.

       If  you	want  to see where (or if) man would find the manual page for a particular topic,
       use the --path (-w) option.

ENVIRONMENT
       MANPATH
	      If MANPATH is set, man uses it as the path to search for	manual	page  files.   It
	      overrides  the  configuration file and the automatic search path, but is overridden
	      by the -M invocation option.  See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       MANPL  If MANPL is set, its value is used as the  display  page	length.   Otherwise,  the
	      entire man page will occupy one (long) page.

       MANROFFSEQ
	      If  MANROFFSEQ  is set, its value is used to determine the set of preprocessors run
	      before running nroff or troff.  By default, pages are passed through the	tbl  pre-
	      processor before nroff.

       MANSECT
	      If MANSECT is set, its value is used to determine which manual sections to search.

       MANWIDTH
	      If  MANWIDTH  is	set, its value is used as the width manpages should be displayed.
	      Otherwise the pages may be displayed over the whole width of your screen.

       MANPAGER
	      If MANPAGER is set, its value is used as the name of the program to use to  display
	      the  man	page.	If  not,  then	PAGER  is  used.  If  that  has  no value either,
	      /usr/bin/less -is is used.

       BROWSER
	      The name of a browser to use for displaying HTML manual pages.  If it is	not  set,
	      /usr/bin/less -is is used.

       HTMLPAGER
	      The  command  to	use  for  rendering HTML manual pages as text.	If it is not set,
	      /bin/cat is used.

       LANG   If LANG is set, its value defines the name of  the  subdirectory	where  man  first
	      looks  for  man pages. Thus, the command `LANG=dk man 1 foo' will cause man to look
	      for the foo man page in .../dk/man1/foo.1, and if it cannot find such a file,  then
	      in .../man1/foo.1, where ... is a directory on the search path.

       NLSPATH, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
	      The environment variables NLSPATH and LC_MESSAGES (or LANG when the latter does not
	      exist) play a role in locating the message catalog.  (But the English messages  are
	      compiled	in,  and  for  English	no catalog is required.)  Note that programs like
	      col(1) called by man also use e.g. LC_CTYPE.

       PATH   PATH helps determine the search path for manual page files.  See	SEARCH	PATH  FOR
	      MANUAL PAGES.

       SYSTEM SYSTEM  is  used	to  get  the  default  alternate system name (for use with the -m
	      option).

BUGS
       The -t option only works if a troff-like program is installed.
       If you see blinking \255 or <AD> instead of  hyphens,  put  `LESSCHARSET=latin1'  in  your
       environment.

TIPS
       If you add the line

	 (global-set-key [(f1)] (lambda () (interactive) (manual-entry (current-word))))

       to  your  .emacs  file, then hitting F1 will give you the man page for the library call at
       the current cursor position.

       To get a plain text version of a man page, without backspaces and underscores, try

	 # man foo | col -b > foo.mantxt

AUTHOR
       John W. Eaton was the original author of man.  Zeyd M. Ben-Halim  released  man	1.2,  and
       Andries	Brouwer  followed  up  with  versions  1.3  thru  1.5p.  Federico Lucifredi <flu-
       cifredi@acm.org> is the current maintainer.

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1), whatis(1), less(1), groff(1), man.conf(5).

					September 19, 2005				   man(1)
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