dsfmgr(8) System Manager's Manual dsfmgr(8)
dsfmgr - Device special file management utility
/sbin/dsfmgr [-QSxV] -a class dir_name [entry_type [mode]]
dsfmgr [-QSxV] -a category s_1 s_2 s_3 dev_dir flags node_type mode prefix
dsfmgr [-QSxV] -r class dir_name...
dsfmgr [-QSxV] -r category s_1 s_2 s_3
dsfmgr [-QSxV] -a | -r cfginfo any_data...
dsfmgr [-QSxVF] -c | -d dir_name......
dsfmgr [-QSxVF] -D | -p [dir_name] node_name......
dsfmgr [-QSxVF] -e | -m base_name_1 [base_name_2 | instance] ... ......
dsfmgr [-QSxVF] -n | -o node_name......
dsfmgr [-QSxVF] -C | -k | -K | -O | -v
dsfmgr [-QSxV] -N
dsfmgr [-xV] -s | -h
dsfmgr [-EVx -ff ilename] - | --
Adds an entry to the database files controlled by dsfmgr. This command can be used on three different files as follows: The class option
is used to add an entry to the device special file directory definition file. This option requires a directory name to be specified, such
as disk or tape. You can optionally specify the full path of the directory, such as /dev/sound. If only the directory name is specified,
the full path is the specified directory preceded by dev. The entry_type can be l (the default) or c for local or cluster. The mode speci-
fies protection for the directory as a 3 digit octal value. The default protection is 755. The category option is used to add an entry to
the device special file definition file. The following information is required: Three search strings for s_1 to s_3 that enable a unique
device to be selected. A target device directory, such as /dev/tape. The instance width. A value of 1 to 15 specifies the minimum number
of digits for the instance width number. A value of 0 (zero) means that there is no number. [Internal Use Only.] The cfginfo option is
used to add an entry to the hardware configuration information file. Removes an existing entry from one of the database files controlled
by dsfmgr. This command can be used on three different files: When the class option is specified, the entry is removed from the device spe-
cial file directory definition file. This requires a class name to be specified, such as disk or scanner. When the category option is
specified, the entry is removed from the device special file definition file. Three search strings for s_n must be specified. [Internal
Use Only.] When the cfginfo option is specified the entry is removed from the hardware configuration information file. Creates a device
directory such as /sound named by the class entry in the device class directory database file. Deletes the specified device directory that
is named by a corresponding class entry in the device class directory database file. Deletes the device special file for the named node.
Optionally, specify a directory name, such as /dev/tape. The node_name can be either specific, such as dsk21b, or have a wildcard suffix
such as dsk21*. Note that if the wildcard character is to be interpreted by the command shell, it must be protected. Echoes commands.
This option is useful if the input is redirected to a file on stdin, as described in the -f option. Specifies a source from which dsfmgr
commands can be read: The specified file containing dsfmgr commands Standard input The controlling terminal
Using the -E option echoes commands as they are read. Creates a new device special file for the named node. The node_name can be
either specific, such as dsk21b, or have a wildcard suffix such as dsk21*. Creates one device special file in the previous (legacy)
format, such as rz*, for the existing named device. The node_name should be the device special file name in the correct format such
as fd0a. This option is not available in a clustered environment.
This option is the only available method of creating individual tape device special files, in the format -o tzn. You cannot use the
-O to create all tape device special files, but you can use the -O option to create all rz* format device special files. Deletes
device special files named with the previous (legacy) rz*, or tz* format for the existing named device(s). Optionally, specify a
directory name, such as /dev. The node_name can be either specific, such as rz13b have a wildcard in place of the partition letter,
such as rz13*. Note that if the wildcard character is to be interpreted by the shell, it must be preceded by the escape character.
Exchanges the device special files for the named nodes. Use this option to reassign device special files between nodes by exchanging
or "swapping" them. The base_name is the device name and instance, such as dsk0. Note that devices must be of the same type and the
first named device must be an active (known) device. Moves the device special file for one named node to another. Use this option
to reassign device special files, such as assigning the device special files from a failed disk device to its replacement. Note that
devices must be of the same type. Verifies the following: The device class directory default database The device category to class
directory default database The /dev directory structure The /dev nodes Sets new base names into the kernel, and if -x is specified,
old nodenames in the dfsl database. Creates all device directories such as /dev/disk or /dev/tape, as specified in the device spe-
cial file directory definition file, including symbolic links. This command displays a list of all directories created, or a full
pathname if verbose mode is specified. Creates all device special files for newly-added devices. When a device is added to the
system, this command is used to initially create the default device special files for that device. Creates all device special
files. This command is used to create all device special files for all devices detected. This option runs automatically at system
start up, creating all the device special files known by the system. Creates all device special files in the previous (legacy) for-
mat, such as rz*. This option is not available in a clustered environment.
To create tape devices, use the -o tzn option. Displays the following data from the database: The contents of the Device Class
Directory Default Database file, /etc/dcdd.dat, showing scope (local or cluster), mode (protection, in octal), and class name. The
contents of the Category to Class-Directory, Prefix Database file, /etc/dccd.dat, showing: # - The entry number String 1 - The
device category, such as disk or tape String 2 - The names of the devices found in each category, such as generic or cdrom for disks
String 3 - Whether the device is block, character, rewind or norewind directory - The /dev subdirectory in which the device special
files are located iw - The instance width (the minimum number of digits for the instance) t - The type, which can be block or char-
acter mode - The current protection on the subdirectory, in octal (such as 755). prefix - The device special file prefix, such as
dsk, tape or cdrom Device Directory Tree, a listing of the class directories that exist under dev. Dev Nodes, a listing of the
individual device special files for each device. Old Device Nodes, a listing of the previous (legacy) format of individual device
special files, which will show names using the rz* or tz* format Displays help information on the command syntax. The -h -x options
display a list of the extended information including: A description of the supported environment variables The default setting of
the supported environment variables The current values of the supported environment variables, if any have been modified from the
default value A list of useful extended commands that are currently supported, such as: # dsfmgr -x -d delete_locks # dsfmgr -x -c
The first command removes any dsfmgr locks. The second creates the default directory tree for all files used by dsfmgr (normally
only done by installation routines).
The following options are supported only for specific command options as indicated in the SYNOPSIS section. Automatically fixes any prob-
lems found in the database on /dev tree. For example, if you use the -v option and it detects missing device special files for a device
node, specifying the -F option causes the files to be created. Quits the utility on error, implementing any changes up to the point of the
error. The default is to proceed and ignore all errors that are not fatal. Silent mode. The utility displays no information. This
option disables the -V option. Extended function, format, and information. Most commands will display more detailed information when the
-x option is used. See also the -h option. Verbose mode. The utility displays additional detailed information about what it did (disables
the -S option).
Note the following terms used in the context of dsfmgr: Whether a device is available only locally or to other processors on a cluster. Can
be l for local and c for cluster. The protection of the directory (See the chmod(1) reference page). A set of related devices, such as
disk, rdisk, tape, or ntape. The device directory where a device special file for a class in located. Such as disk, rdisk, tape, and ntape
under the /dev directory. A value of 1 to 15 specifies the minimum number of digits for the instance width number. A value of 0 (zero)
means that there is no number. A sequential decimal number allocated to each device special file basename. The first part of a base name,
such as dsk, cdrom, floppy, tape, tty, lp. The prefix unknown is a reserved prefix used to capture all nonconfigured devices, which are
created in the directory /dev/none. The base name of a device consists of the prefix and instance, such as dsk21. Identifies a subdivi-
sion of a device such as a disk partition. It can be either specific consisting of the base name and suffix, such as dsk21b or a wildcard
node name such as dsk21*. When used with dsfmgr: Can be basename[*], such as dsk2* Can be [prefix]instance, such as dsk12 or 12
This utility is used to manage device special files, using the file naming format introduced in Version 5.0. The dsfmgr utility is also
used to create and maintain device special files according to the previous (legacy) device naming format (for example, rz* for disks or tz*
for tapes. On single systems, previous device special files can coexist with the new device special files, and are located in their tradi-
tional directory, /dev. Coexistance is not supported on clustered systems.
File Naming Convention
The file naming convention specifies device names and device special files as follows: A class of devices is grouped according to a common
physical feature of the devices, such as disk, ntape, or scanner. This name is used as the subdirectory file name for the group of
devices, such as /dev/ntape. A device is a discrete system component, such as a disk or tape, each of which has a unique name. The device
name consists of a prefix, instance, and suffix. A device name exists for each type of device in a class. For example, under the class of
disk there are devices named dsk, floppy, and cdrom. Note that the prefix, instance, and suffix are optional, but at least one element must
exist for every device. These elements are defined as follows: A single prefix exists for each type of device in a class, such as dsk,
floppy, and cdrom. The instance number is a decimal number assigned to a specific device. For example, cdrom0 or cdrom3. The combination
of the prefix and the instance make the <firstterm role="strong">basename for a device. The suffix is a string defined by the device
driver that is appended to the basename. The suffix varies depending on the type of device as follows: The suffix is an alphabetic charac-
ter in the range a to h that identifies the partition being addressed. For example, dsk12a refers to partition a on hard disk device
instance 12. The suffix is an underscore followed by the chracter d (_d) and an integer that identifies the storage density of the tape
device. For example tape1_d0 refers to the density entry 0 (zero) on tape device 1. The density suffix conforms to the entries for the
device in the DDR database file, /etc/ddr.dbase Each individual device has a base name comprised of its device name, and a sequential (dec-
imal) instance number. For example, dsk12 and cdrom3. These names identify the discrete devices to the system and to any programs that
manipulate device names. For each device, one or more device special files exists in one or more class subdirectories. For example,
/dev/disk/dsk13c. Class directories exist for disk and tape device special files as described in the Directory Hierarchy section.
See the System Administration guide for more information on device names and device special files, and a definitive list of the supported
device names. Usage examples, such as moving devices, are also supplied in that guide.
New device special files are located in a directory hierarchy starting at /dev which is a Context-Dependent Symbolic Link (CDSL) directory.
Refer to the System Administration guide for information on CDSLs.
When the operating system is installed, device special files are created for the existing disk and tape devices as follows: Block disk
device special files. Disk device special files have a different prefix for hard disks, floppy diskettes, and CD-ROM devices. Raw (char-
acter) disk device special files. Nonrewind tape device special files. Rewind tape device special files.
Normally, dsfmgr runs automatically during system startup. Hardware management procedures poll the system for all devices, finding any
devices added since the system was last booted. For the purposes of system administration, you might need to run the utility manually to:
Create device special files according to the previous (legacy) naming format. For example, if you have scripts that use the old format,
you can create the legacy device special files to support the scripts until you can modify your scripts to comply with the revised device
naming format. Recreate or reassign device names, such as when a device fails and must be replaced. Verify or examine the device special
file data, if device files or databases are lost or corrupted.
Developers and vendors of device drivers can use dsfmgr to create an environment for developing and testing a device driver, or for adding
new classes of devices to a system. The following additional features are available: Create and add a new class of devices, or remove an
existing device from the database Create or delete the class directories under /dev Create or delete device special files according to the
revised naming convention, and any required class directories if they do not already exist Create device special files according to the
legacy (rz*, tz*) naming convention Display the contents of the existing database entries and device special file assignments
Input or fatal errors will cause termination. Errors that are not fatal will cause termination only if the -Q option is set. The following
error values and messages will be displayed: There is a session ID mismatch. This is an internal error, which should be escalated via Tech-
nical Support. An incorrect inode type was specified.
The database is corrupt. Use the verify and fix options to correct it. The target of the operation already exists, specify a dif-
ferent target. A kdsreq error occurred. The device node for which the ACK was issued was not found. This is an internal error,
which should be escalated via Technical Support. An incorrect input value was specified. Specify a correct value. The specified
device record was not found in the status database. This general "no entry" error can indicate one of the following problems: There
was a problem accessing the databases, the inode was not found. During a database lookup the specified entry was not found. When
removing a class, category, or cfginfo the specified entry was not found. When creating or deleting a directory, the specified
entry was not found. This error indicates that a lock is in place, possibly by another instance of dsfmgr. This error occurs dur-
ing a malloc, indicating a memory problem (no memory). This error occurs during a kdsreq, indicating that the function code is
unknown. This is an internal error, which should be escalated via Technical Support. This error indicates that there was inconsis-
tent data, or data was not found in the dcc or dcddatabases. If this error is seen when making a device node, it indicates that the
new device node was not found after it was made. The specified file system is read-only. The session id is incorrect.
The following example adds the class disk in verbose mode: # dsfmgr -V -a class disk ADD_ENTRY: " l 0755 disk"
The message indicates that a nonclustered device with a default mode of 0755 was added. The following example verifies the current
database: # dsfmgr -v dsfmgr: verify all datum for system at /
Device Class Directory Default Database:
Device Category to Class Directory Database:
Dev directory structure:
Total errors: 0 The following example verifies and fixes errors in the current database: # dsfmgr -V -F -v dsfmgr: verify with fix
all datum for system at /
Device Class Directory Default Database:
Device Category to Class Directory Database:
Dev directory structure:
WARNING: node not found in log: /dev/tty00
WARNING: device node does not exist: /dev/tty01
mknod( "/dev/tty01", 020666, 2300001 ) = 0
WARNING: node not found in log: /dev/lp0
Total warnings: 3 The following command displays the current contents of the database: # dsfmgr -s dsfmgr: show all datum for sys-
tem at /
Location of the device files and subdirectories. The default device class subdirectories, containing device special files for the named
devices. [Internal use only.] The default configuration file. Device database files. Status information.
Commands: hwmgr(8), mknod(8)