c89(1) General Commands Manual c89(1)
c89 - Standard C Compiler
c89 [-c] [-D name [=value]]... [-E] [-g] [-I directory]... [-L directory]... [-o outfile] [-O] [-s] [-U name]... file...
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards as follows:
c89: XPG4, XPG4-UNIX
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about industry standards and associated tags.
The following options are defined by the XPG4-UNIX standard. However, the compiler can also recognize the options defined in cc(1). Unlike
cc(1), c89 includes the -std1 option by default (for ANSI C standards checking). To check for full compliance to XPG4-UNIX, you must also
specify -D_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED. See standards(5) for more information. Suppress the loading phase of the compilation and force an object
file to be produced. Produce symbol table information for full symbolic debugging and suppress optimizations that limit full symbolic
debugging. Symbol types and stack-frame variables names are available. Global optimizations are not performed. Instruction scheduling does
not span source line boundaries. Trap instructions are inserted to ensure that exceptions are reported on the source lines that caused them
to be generated. Remove the symbol table and relocation bits to save space (this impairs the usefulness of the debuggers). This informa-
tion can also be removed by strip(1). Name the final output file output. If this option is used, the file a.out is undisturbed. Define
the name as if with a #define statement. If no definition is given, the name is defined as 1. Run only the C macro preprocessor on the
files and send the result to the standard output device. Specifies that #include files whose names do not begin with / are always sought
first in the directory of the file argument, then in directories specified in -I options, and finally in the standard directory,
/usr/include. Adds dir to the list of directories that are searched for libraries. Directories specified with -L are searched before the
standard directories. Enable global optimization, including code motion, strength reduction and test replacement, split lifetime analysis,
and code scheduling. Remove any definition of name previously defined with the -D option.
Compiles source code in conformance with the XPG4-UNIX standard.
The c89 command can process one or more of the following types of "file" arguments: Files whose names end with are assumed to be C source
programs. They are compiled, and each object program is left in the file whose name consists of the last component of the source with sub-
stituted for file is deleted only when a single source program is compiled and linked in a single step. Files whose names end with are
assumed to be libraries of object files. These files are passed directly to the linker. Files whose names end with are assumed to be
object files produced by a previous c89 command. These files are also passed directly to the linker.
The c89 command can take other types of file arguments, although they are not part of the standard specification. See cc(1) for a descrip-
tion of the other file types.
When the compiler is invoked, it defines the following C preprocessor macros that identify the language of the input files and the environ-
ments in which the code can run:
__LANGUAGE_C__ __unix__ __osf__ __alpha _SYSTYPE_BSD LANGUAGE_ASSEMBLY __LANGUAGE_ASSEMBLY__
You can reference these macros in #ifdef statements to isolate code that applies to a particular language or environment.
The diagnostics produced by c89 are intended to be self-explanatory. Occasional messages may be produced by the assembler or loader.
Compiles helloworld.c and produces the executable file helloworld.c c89 -o helloworld helloworld.c Compiles helloworld.c and creates the
object file helloworld.o. c89 -c helloworld.c Compiles a.c and b.c, producing a.o and b.o. The object files main.o, a.o, and b.o are then
linked together, using the library /a/b/c/libQ.a to resolve any references in a.o, and /a/b/c/libp.a to resolve any references in b.o. The
executable program is placed in the file a.out. Only one -L option is needed because libQ.a and libp.a reside in the same directory. c89
-L /a/b/c main.o a.c -l Q b.c -l p
The following environment variables affect compiler operation: Provides a default value for locale variables that are not set. If any of
these variables contains an invalid setting, the compiler behaves as if none were set. If set to a non-empty string, this variable over-
rides values in all locale variables, including LANG. Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
characters (for example, single-byte characters instead of multi-byte characters in arguments and input files). Determines the locale used
for diagnostic messages. Determines the locale of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES. Provides a pathname that overrides
the default directory for temporary files, if any.
For more information on these environment variables, see i18n_intro(5) and l10n_intro(5).
Input file Object file Loaded output Compiler error messages in English Temporary Compiler configuration file (optional) C front end C
macro preprocessor DEC C compiler Binary ucode and symbol table joiner Ucode loader Binary ucode and symbol table splitter Procedure inte-
grator Optional global ucode optimizer Post-link optimizer Code generator Symbolic to binary assembly language translator Binary assembly
language assembler and reorganizer Run-time startup Startup for profiling Standard library, see intro(3) Level 1 profiling library Standard
directory for #include files Interface between prof and cord Procedure rearranger Binary-to-symbolic ucode translator Symbolic-to-binary
ucode translator File produced for analysis by prof File produced for analysis by gprof
Commands: as(1), cc(1), ld(1)
Other: i18n_intro(5), l10n_intro(5), standards(5)
Guides: ANSI X3.159-1989
B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language
B. W. Kernighan, Programming in C -- a tutorial
D. M. Ritchie, C Reference Manual
Assembly Language Programmer's Guide
Compaq C Language Reference Manual