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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for ifconfig (opensolaris section 1m)

ifconfig(1M)						  System Administration Commands					      ifconfig(1M)

NAME
ifconfig - configure network interface parameters
SYNOPSIS
ifconfig interface [address_family] [address [/prefix_length] [dest_address]] [addif address [/prefix_length]] [removeif address [/prefix_length]] [arp | -arp] [auth_algs authentication algorithm] [encr_algs encryption algorithm] [encr_auth_algs authentication algorithm] [auto-revarp] [broadcast address] [deprecated | -deprecated] [preferred | -preferred] [destination dest_address] [ether [address]] [failover | -failover] [group [name | ""]] [index if_index] [ipmp] [metric n] [modlist] [modinsert mod_name@pos] [modremove mod_name@pos] [mtu n] [netmask mask] [plumb] [unplumb] [private | -private] [nud | -nud] [set [address] [/netmask]] [standby | -standby] [subnet subnet_address] [tdst tunnel_dest_address] [token address/prefix_length] [tsrc tunnel_src_address] [trailers | -trailers] [up] [down] [usesrc [name | none]] [xmit | -xmit] [encaplimit n | -encaplimit] [thoplimit n] [router | -router] [zone zonename | -zone | -all-zones] ifconfig [address_family] interface {auto-dhcp | dhcp} [primary] [wait seconds] drop | extend | inform | ping | release | start | status
DESCRIPTION
The command ifconfig is used to assign an address to a network interface and to configure network interface parameters. The ifconfig com- mand must be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an interface's address or other operating parameters. If no option is specified, ifconfig displays the current configuration for a network interface. If an address family is specified, ifconfig reports only the details specific to that address family. Only privileged users may modify the configuration of a network interface. Options appearing within braces ({}) indicate that one of the options must be specified. DHCP Configuration The forms of ifconfig that use the auto-dhcp or dhcp arguments are used to control the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ("DHCP") config- uration of the interface. In this mode, ifconfig is used to control operation of dhcpagent(1M), the DHCP client daemon. Once an interface is placed under DHCP control by using the start operand, ifconfig should not, in normal operation, be used to modify the address or charac- teristics of the interface. If the address of an interface under DHCP is changed, dhcpagent will remove the interface from its control.
OPTIONS
The following options are supported: addif address Create the next unused logical interface on the specified physical interface. all-zones Make the interface available to every shared-IP zone on the system. The appropriate zone to which to deliver data is determined using the tnzonecfg database. This option is available only if the system is configured with the Solaris Trusted Extensions feature. The tnzonecfg database is described in the tnzonecfg(4) man page, which is part of the Solaris Trusted Extensions Reference Manual. anycast Marks the logical interface as an anycast address by setting the ANYCAST flag. See "INTERFACE FLAGS," below, for more information on anycast. -anycast Marks the logical interface as not an anycast address by clearing the ANYCAST flag. arp Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol ("ARP") in mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses (default). This is currently implemented for mapping between IPv4 addresses and MAC addresses. -arp Disable the use of the ARP on a physical interface. ARP cannot be disabled on an IPMP IP interface. auth_algs authentication algorithm For a tunnel, enable IPsec AH with the authentication algorithm specified. The algorithm can be either a number or an algorithm name, including any to express no preference in algorithm. All IPsec tunnel properties must be specified on the same command line. To disable tunnel security, specify an auth_alg of none. It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel. auto-dhcp Use DHCP to automatically acquire an address for this interface. This option has a completely equivalent alias called dhcp. For IPv6, the interface specified must be the zeroth logical interface (the physical interface name), which has the link-local address. primary Defines the interface as the primary. The interface is defined as the preferred one for the delivery of client-wide configuration data. Only one interface can be the primary at any given time. If another interface is subsequently selected as the primary, it replaces the previous one. Nominating an interface as the primary one will not have much significance once the client work station has booted, as many applications will already have started and been configured with data read from the previous primary interface. wait seconds The ifconfig command will wait until the operation either completes or for the interval specified, whichever is the sooner. If no wait interval is given, and the operation is one that cannot complete immediately, ifconfig will wait 30 seconds for the requested operation to complete. The symbolic value forever may be used as well, with obvious meaning. drop Remove the specified interface from DHCP control without notifying the DHCP server, and record the current lease for later use. Additionally, for IPv4, set the IP address to zero. For IPv6, unplumb all logical interfaces plumbed by dhcpagent. extend Attempt to extend the lease on the interface's IP address. This is not required, as the agent will automatically extend the lease well before it expires. inform Obtain network configuration parameters from DHCP without obtaining a lease on IP addresses. This is useful in situations where an IP address is obtained through mechanisms other than DHCP. ping Check whether the interface given is under DHCP control, which means that the interface is managed by the DHCP agent and is working properly. An exit status of 0 means success. release Relinquish the IP addresses on the interface by notifying the server and discard the current lease. For IPv4, set the IP address to zero. For IPv6, all logical interfaces plumbed by dhcpagent are unplumbed. start Start DHCP on the interface. status Display the DHCP configuration status of the interface. auto-revarp Use the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to automatically acquire an address for this interface. This will fail if the inter- face does not support RARP; for example, IPoIB (IP over InfiniBand), and on IPv6 interfaces. broadcast address For IPv4 only. Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the network. The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's. A "+" (plus sign) given for the broadcast value causes the broadcast address to be reset to a default appropriate for the (possibly new) address and netmask. The arguments of ifconfig are interpreted left to right. Therefore example% ifconfig -a netmask + broadcast + and example% ifconfig -a broadcast + netmask + may result in different values being assigned for the broadcast addresses of the interfaces. deprecated Marks the logical interface as deprecated. An address associated with a deprecated interface will not be used as source address for outbound packets unless either there are no other addresses available on the interface or the application has bound to this address explicitly. The status display shows DEPRECATED as part of flags. See for information on the flags supported by ifconfig. -deprecated Marks a logical interface as not deprecated. An address associated with such an interface could be used as a source address for out- bound packets. preferred Marks the logical interface as preferred. This option is only valid for IPv6 addresses. Addresses assigned to preferred logical inter- faces are preferred as source addresses over all other addresses configured on the system, unless the address is of an inappropriate scope relative to the destination address. Preferred addresses are used as source addresses regardless of which physical interface they are assigned to. For example, you can configure a preferred source address on the loopback interface and advertise reachability of this address by using a routing protocol. -preferred Marks the logical interface as not preferred. destination dest_address Set the destination address for a point-to point interface. dhcp This option is an alias for option auto-dhcp down Mark a logical interface as "down". (That is, turn off the IFF_UP bit.) When a logical interface is marked "down," the system does not attempt to use the address assigned to that interface as a source address for outbound packets and will not recognize inbound packets destined to that address as being addressed to this host. Additionally, when all logical interfaces on a given physical interface are "down," the physical interface itself is disabled. When a logical interface is down, all routes that specify that interface as the output (using the -ifp option in the route(1M) command or RTA_IFP in a route(7P) socket) are removed from the forwarding table. Routes marked with RTF_STATIC are returned to the table if the interface is brought back up, while routes not marked with RTF_STATIC are simply deleted. When all logical interfaces that could possibly be used to reach a particular gateway address are brought down (specified without the interface option as in the previous paragraph), the affected gateway routes are treated as though they had the RTF_BLACKHOLE flag set. All matching packets are discarded because the gateway is unreachable. encaplimit n Set the tunnel encapsulation limit for the interface to n. This option applies to IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels only. The tun- nel encapsulation limit controls how many more tunnels a packet may enter before it leaves any tunnels, that is, the tunnel nesting level. -encaplimit Disable generation of the tunnel encapsulation limit. This option applies only to IPv4-in-IPv6 and IPv6-in-IPv6 tunnels. encr_auth_algs authentication algorithm For a tunnel, enable IPsec ESP with the authentication algorithm specified. It can be either a number or an algorithm name, including any or none, to indicate no algorithm preference. If an ESP encryption algorithm is specified but the authentication algorithm is not, the default value for the ESP authentication algorithm will be any. It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel. encr_algs encryption algorithm For a tunnel, enable IPsec ESP with the encryption algorithm specified. It can be either a number or an algorithm name. Note that all IPsec tunnel properties must be specified on the same command line. To disable tunnel security, specify the value of encr_alg as none. If an ESP authentication algorithm is specified, but the encryption algorithm is not, the default value for the ESP encryption will be null. It is now preferable to use the ipsecconf(1M) command when configuring a tunnel's security properties. If ipsecconf was used to set a tunnel's security properties, this keyword will not affect the tunnel. ether [ address ] If no address is given and the user is root or has sufficient privileges to open the underlying datalink, then display the current Eth- ernet address information. Otherwise, if the user is root or has sufficient privileges, set the Ethernet address of the interfaces to address. The address is an Ethernet address represented as x:x:x:x:x:x where x is a hexadecimal number between 0 and FF. Similarly, for the IPoIB (IP over Infini- Band) interfaces, the address will be 20 bytes of colon-separated hex numbers between 0 and FF. Some, though not all, Ethernet interface cards have their own addresses. To use cards that do not have their own addresses, refer to section 3.2.3(4) of the IEEE 802.3 specification for a definition of the locally administered address space. Note that all IP inter- faces in an IPMP group must have unique hardware addresses; see in.mpathd(1M). -failover Set NOFAILOVER on the logical interface. This makes the associated address available for use by in.mpathd to perform probe-based fail- ure detection for the associated physical IP interface. As a side effect, DEPRECATED will also be set on the logical interface. This operation is not permitted on an IPMP IP interface. failover Clear NOFAILOVER on the logical interface. This is the default. These logical interfaces are subject to migration when brought up (see IP MULTIPATHING GROUPS). group [ name |""] When applied to a physical interface, it places the interface into the named group. If the group does not exist, it will be created, along with one or more IPMP IP interfaces (for IPv4, IPv6, or both). Any UP addresses that are not also marked NOFAILOVER are subject to migration to the IPMP IP interface (see IP MULTIPATHING GROUPS). Specifying a group name of "" removes the physical IP interface from the group. When applied to a physical IPMP IP interface, it renames the IPMP group to have the new name. If the name already exists, or a name of "" is specified, it fails. Renaming IPMP groups is discouraged. Instead, the IPMP IP interface should be given a meaningful name when it is created by means of the ipmp subcommand, which the system will also use as the IPMP group name. index n Change the interface index for the interface. The value of n must be an interface index (if_index) that is not used on another inter- face. if_index will be a non-zero positive number that uniquely identifies the network interface on the system. ipmp Create an IPMP IP interface with the specified name. An interface must be separately created for use by IPv4 and IPv6. The address_fam- ily parameter controls whether the command applies to IPv4 or IPv6 (IPv4 if unspecified). All IPMP IP interfaces have the IPMP flag set. metric n Set the routing metric of the interface to n; if no value is specified, the default is 0. The routing metric is used by the routing protocol. Higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favorable. Metrics are counted as addition hops to the destination net- work or host. modinsert mod_name@pos Insert a module with name mod_name to the stream of the device at position pos. The position is relative to the stream head. Position 0 means directly under stream head. Based upon the example in the modlist option, use the following command to insert a module with name ipqos under the ip module and above the firewall module: example% ifconfig eri0 modinsert ipqos@2 A subsequent listing of all the modules in the stream of the device follows: example% ifconfig eri0 modlist 0 arp 1 ip 2 ipqos 3 firewall 4 eri modlist List all the modules in the stream of the device. The following example lists all the modules in the stream of the device: example% ifconfig eri0 modlist 0 arp 1 ip 2 firewall 4 eri modremove mod_name@pos Remove a module with name mod_name from the stream of the device at position pos. The position is relative to the stream head. Based upon the example in the modinsert option, use the following command to remove the firewall module from the stream after inserting the ipqos module: example% ifconfig eri0 modremove firewall@3 A subsequent listing of all the modules in the stream of the device follows: example% ifconfig eri0 modlist 0 arp 1 ip 2 ipqos 3 eri Note that the core IP stack modules, for example, ip and tun modules, cannot be removed. mtu n Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to n. For many types of networks, the mtu has an upper limit, for example, 1500 for Ethernet. This option sets the FIXEDMTU flag on the affected interface. netmask mask For IPv4 only. Specify how much of the address to reserve for subdividing networks into subnetworks. The mask includes the network part of the local address and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask contains 1's for the bit posi- tions in the 32-bit address which are to be used for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part. The mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion. The mask can be specified in one of four ways: 1. with a single hexadecimal number with a leading 0x, 2. with a dot-notation address, 3. with a "+" (plus sign) address, or 4. with a pseudo host name/pseudo network name found in the network database networks(4). If a "+" (plus sign) is given for the netmask value, the mask is looked up in the netmasks(4) database. This lookup finds the longest matching netmask in the database by starting with the interface's IPv4 address as the key and iteratively masking off more and more low order bits of the address. This iterative lookup ensures that the netmasks(4) database can be used to specify the netmasks when vari- able length subnetmasks are used within a network number. If a pseudo host name/pseudo network name is supplied as the netmask value, netmask data may be located in the hosts or networks data- base. Names are looked up by first using gethostbyname(3NSL). If not found there, the names are looked up in getnetbyname(3SOCKET). These interfaces may in turn use nsswitch.conf(4) to determine what data store(s) to use to fetch the actual value. For both inet and inet6, the same information conveyed by mask can be specified as a prefix_length attached to the address parameter. nud Enables the neighbor unreachability detection mechanism on a point-to-point physical interface. -nud Disables the neighbor unreachability detection mechanism on a point-to-point physical interface. plumb For a physical IP interface, open the datalink associated with the physical interface name and set up the plumbing needed for IP to use the datalink. When used with a logical interface name, this command is used to create a specific named logical interface on an existing physical IP interface. An interface must be separately plumbed for IPv4 and IPv6 according to the address_family parameter (IPv4 if unspecified). Before an interface has been plumbed, it will not be shown by ifconfig -a. Note that IPMP IP interfaces are not tied to a specific datalink and are instead created with the ipmp subcommand. private Tells the in.routed routing daemon that a specified logical interface should not be advertised. -private Specify unadvertised interfaces. removeif address Remove the logical interface on the physical interface specified that matches the address specified. router Enable IP forwarding on the interface. When enabled, the interface is marked ROUTER, and IP packets can be forwarded to and from the interface. Enabling ROUTER on any IP interface in an IPMP group enables it on all IP interfaces in that IPMP group. -router Disable IP forwarding on the interface. IP packets are not forwarded to and from the interface. Disabling ROUTER on any IP interface in an IPMP group disables it on all IP interfaces in that IPMP group. set Set the address, prefix_length or both, for a logical interface. standby Mark the physical IP interface as a STANDBY interface. If an interface is marked STANDBY and is part of an IPMP group, the interface will not be used for data traffic unless another interface in the IPMP group becomes unusable. When a STANDBY interface is functional but not being used for data traffic, it will also be marked INACTIVE. This operation is not permitted on an IPMP IP interface. -standby Clear STANDBY on the interface. This is the default. subnet Set the subnet address for an interface. tdst tunnel_dest_address Set the destination address of a tunnel. The address should not be the same as the dest_address of the tunnel, because no packets leave the system over such a tunnel. thoplimit n Set the hop limit for a tunnel interface. The hop limit value is used as the TTL in the IPv4 header for the IPv6-in-IPv4 and IPv4-in- IPv4 tunnels. For IPv6-in-IPv6 and IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnels, the hop limit value is used as the hop limit in the IPv6 header. token address/prefix_length Set the IPv6 token of an interface to be used for address autoconfiguration. example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 token ::1/64 trailers This flag previously caused a nonstandard encapsulation of IPv4 packets on certain link levels. Drivers supplied with this release no longer use this flag. It is provided for compatibility, but is ignored. -trailers Disable the use of a "trailer" link level encapsulation. tsrc tunnel_src_address Set the source address of a tunnel. This is the source address on an outer encapsulating IP header. It must be an address of another interface already configured using ifconfig. unplumb For a physical or IPMP interface, remove all associated logical IP interfaces and tear down any plumbing needed for IP to use the interface. For an IPMP IP interface, this command will fail if the group is not empty. For a logical interface, the logical interface is removed. An interface must be separately unplumbed for IPv4 and IPv6 according to the address_family parameter (IPv4 if unspecified). Upon suc- cess, the interface name will no longer appear in the output of ifconfig -a. up Mark a logical interface UP. As a result, the IP module will accept packets destined to the associated address (unless the address is zero), along with any associated multicast and broadcast IP addresses. Similarly, the IP module will allow packets to be sent with the associated address as a source address. At least one logical interface must be UP for the associated physical interface to send or receive packets usesrc [ name | none ] Specify a physical interface to be used for source address selection. If the keyword none is used, then any previous selection is cleared. When an application does not choose a non-zero source address using bind(3SOCKET), the system will select an appropriate source address based on the outbound interface and the address selection rules (see ipaddrsel(1M)). When usesrc is specified and the specified interface is selected in the forwarding table for output, the system looks first to the specified physical interface and its associated logical interfaces when selecting a source address. If no usable address is listed in the forwarding table, the ordinary selection rules apply. For example, if you enter: # ifconfig eri0 usesrc vni0 ...and vni0 has address 10.0.0.1 assigned to it, the system will prefer 10.0.0.1 as the source address for any packets originated by local connections that are sent through eri0. Further examples are provided in the EXAMPLES section. While you can specify any physical interface (or even loopback), be aware that you can also specify the virtual IP interface (see vni(7D)). The virtual IP interface is not associated with any physical hardware and is thus immune to hardware failures. You can spec- ify any number of physical interfaces to use the source address hosted on a single virtual interface. This simplifies the configuration of routing-based multipathing. If one of the physical interfaces were to fail, communication would continue through one of the remain- ing, functioning physical interfaces. This scenario assumes that the reachability of the address hosted on the virtual interface is advertised in some manner, for example, through a routing protocol. Because the ifconfig preferred option is applied to all interfaces, it is coarser-grained than the usesrc option. It will be overridden by usesrc and setsrc (route subcommand), in that order. IPMP and the usesrc option are mutually exclusive. That is, if an interface is part of an IPMP group or marked STANDBY, then it cannot be specified by means of usesrc, and vice-versa. xmit Enable a logical interface to transmit packets. This is the default behavior when the logical interface is up. -xmit Disable transmission of packets on an interface. The interface will continue to receive packets. zone zonename Place the logical interface in zone zonename. The named zone must be active in the kernel in the ready or running state. The interface is unplumbed when the zone is halted or rebooted. The zone must be configure to be an shared-IP zone. zonecfg(1M) is used to assign network interface names to exclusive-IP zones. -zone Place IP interface in the global zone. This is the default.
OPERANDS
The interface operand, as well as address parameters that affect it, are described below. interface A string of one of the following forms: o name physical-unit, for example, eri0 or ce1 o name physical-unit:logical-unit, for example, eri0:1 o ip.tunN or ip6.tunN, for tunnels If the interface name starts with a dash (-), it is interpreted as a set of options which specify a set of interfaces. In such a case, -a must be part of the options and any of the additional options below can be added in any order. If one of these interface names is given, the commands following it are applied to all of the interfaces that match. -a Apply the command to all interfaces of the specified address family. If no address family is supplied, either on the command line or by means of /etc/default/inet_type, then all address families will be selected. -d Apply the commands to all "down" interfaces in the system. -D Apply the commands to all interfaces not under DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) control. -u Apply the commands to all "up" interfaces in the system. -Z Apply the commands to all interfaces in the user's zone. -4 Apply the commands to all IPv4 interfaces. -6 Apply the commands to all IPv6 interfaces. address_family The address family is specified by the address_family parameter. The ifconfig command currently supports the following families: inet and inet6. If no address family is specified, the default is inet. ifconfig honors the DEFAULT_IP setting in the /etc/default/inet_type file when it displays interface information . If DEFAULT_IP is set to IP_VERSION4, then ifconfig will omit information that relates to IPv6 interfaces. However, when you explicitly specify an address family (inet or inet6) on the ifconfig command line, the command line overrides the DEFAULT_IP settings. address For the IPv4 family (inet), the address is either a host name present in the host name data base (see hosts(4)) or in the Network Information Service (NIS) map hosts, or an IPv4 address expressed in the Internet standard "dot notation". For the IPv6 family (inet6), the address is either a host name present in the host name data base (see hosts(4)) or in the Network Information Service (NIS) map ipnode, or an IPv6 address expressed in the Internet standard colon-separated hexadecimal format repre- sented as x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x where x is a hexadecimal number between 0 and FFFF. prefix_length For the IPv4 and IPv6 families (inet and inet6), the prefix_length is a number between 0 and the number of bits in the address. For inet, the number of bits in the address is 32; for inet6, the number of bits in the address is 128. The prefix_length denotes the num- ber of leading set bits in the netmask. dest_address If the dest_address parameter is supplied in addition to the address parameter, it specifies the address of the correspondent on the other end of a point-to-point link. tunnel_dest_address An address that is or will be reachable through an interface other than the tunnel being configured. This tells the tunnel where to send the tunneled packets. This address must not be the same as the interface destination address being configured. tunnel_src_address An address that is attached to an already configured interface that has been configured "up" with ifconfig.
INTERFACE FLAGS
The ifconfig command supports the following interface flags. The term "address" in this context refers to a logical interface, for example, eri0:0, while "interface " refers to the physical interface, for example, eri0. ADDRCONF The address is from stateless addrconf. The stateless mechanism allows a host to generate its own address using a combination of infor- mation advertised by routers and locally available information. Routers advertise prefixes that identify the subnet associated with the link, while the host generates an "interface identifier" that uniquely identifies an interface in a subnet. In the absence of informa- tion from routers, a host can generate link-local addresses. This flag is specific to IPv6. ANYCAST Indicates an anycast address. An anycast address identifies the nearest member of a group of systems that provides a particular type of service. An anycast address is assigned to a group of systems. Packets are delivered to the nearest group member identified by the any- cast address instead of being delivered to all members of the group. BROADCAST This broadcast address is valid. This flag and POINTTOPOINT are mutually exclusive CoS This interface supports some form of Class of Service (CoS) marking. An example is the 802.1D user priority marking supported on VLAN interfaces. For IPMP IP interfaces, this will only be set if all interfaces in the group have CoS set. Note that this flag is only set on interfaces over VLAN links and over Ethernet links that have their dladm(1M) tagmode link property set to normal. DEPRECATED This address is deprecated. This address will not be used as a source address for outbound packets unless there are no other addresses on this interface or an application has explicitly bound to this address. An IPv6 deprecated address is part of the standard mechanism for renumbering in IPv6 and will eventually be deleted when not used. For both IPv4 and IPv6, DEPRECATED is also set on all NOFAILOVER addresses, though this may change in a future release. DHCPRUNNING The logical interface is managed by dhcpagent(1M). DUPLICATE The logical interface has been disabled because the IP address configured on the interface is a duplicate. Some other node on the net- work is using this address. If the address was configured by DHCP or is temporary, the system will choose another automatically, if possible. Otherwise, the system will attempt to recover this address periodically and the interface will recover when the conflict has been removed from the network. Changing the address or netmask, or setting the logical interface to up will restart duplicate detec- tion. Setting the interface to down terminates recovery and removes the DUPLICATE flag. FAILED The in.mpathd daemon has determined that the interface has failed. FAILED interfaces will not be used to send or receive IP data traf- fic. If this is set on a physical IP interface in an IPMP group, IP data traffic will continue to flow over other usable IP interfaces in the IPMP group. If this is set on an IPMP IP interface, the entire group has failed and no data traffic can be sent or received over any interfaces in that group. FIXEDMTU The MTU has been set using the -mtu option. This flag is read-only. Interfaces that have this flag set have a fixed MTU value that is unaffected by dynamic MTU changes that can occur when drivers notify IP of link MTU changes. INACTIVE The physical interface is functioning but is not used to send or receive data traffic according to administrative policy. This flag is initially set by the standby subcommand and is subsequently controlled by in.mpathd. It also set when FAILBACK=no mode is enabled (see in.mpathd(1M)) to indicate that the IP interface has repaired but is not being used. IPMP Indicates that this is an IPMP IP interface. LOOPBACK Indicates that this is the loopback interface. MULTI_BCAST Indicates that the broadcast address is used for multicast on this interface. MULTICAST The interface supports multicast. IP assumes that any interface that supports hardware broadcast, or that is a point-to-point link, will support multicast. NOARP There is no address resolution protocol (ARP) for this interface that corresponds to all interfaces for a device without a broadcast address. This flag is specific to IPv4. NOFAILOVER The address associated with this logical interface is available to in.mpathd for probe-based failure detection of the associated physi- cal IP interface. NOLOCAL The interface has no address , just an on-link subnet. NONUD NUD is disabled on this interface. NUD (neighbor unreachability detection) is used by a node to track the reachability state of its neighbors, to which the node actively sends packets, and to perform any recovery if a neighbor is detected to be unreachable. This flag is specific to IPv6. NORTEXCH The interface does not exchange routing information. For RIP-2, routing packets are not sent over this interface. Additionally, mes- sages that appear to come over this interface receive no response. The subnet or address of this interface is not included in adver- tisements over other interfaces to other routers. NOXMIT Indicates that the address does not transmit packets. RIP-2 also does not advertise this address. OFFLINE The interface is offline and thus cannot send or receive IP data traffic. This is only set on IP interfaces in an IPMP group. See if_mpadm(1M) and cfgadm(1M). POINTOPOINT Indicates that the address is a point-to-point link. This flag and BROADCAST are mutually exclusive PREFERRED This address is a preferred IPv6 source address. This address will be used as a source address for IPv6 communication with all IPv6 destinations, unless another address on the system is of more appropriate scope. The DEPRECATED flag takes precedence over the PRE- FERRED flag. PRIVATE Indicates that this address is not advertised. For RIP-2, this interface is used to send advertisements. However, neither the subnet nor this address are included in advertisements to other routers. ROUTER Indicates that IP packets can be forwarded to and from the interface. RUNNING Indicates that the required resources for an interface are allocated. For some interfaces this also indicates that the link is up. For IPMP IP interfaces, RUNNING is set as long as one IP interface in the group is active. STANDBY Indicates that this physical interface will not be used for data traffic unless another interface in the IPMP group becomes unusable. The INACTIVE and FAILED flags indicate whether it is actively being used. TEMPORARY Indicates that this is a temporary IPv6 address as defined in RFC 3041. UNNUMBERED This flag is set when the local IP address on the link matches the local address of some other link in the system UP Indicates that the logical interface (and the associated physical interface) is up. The IP module will accept packets destined to UP addresses (unless the address is zero), along with any associated multicast and broadcast IP addresses. Similarly, the IP module will allow packets to be sent with an UP address as a source address. VIRTUAL Indicates that the physical interface has no underlying hardware. It is not possible to transmit or receive packets through a virtual interface. These interfaces are useful for configuring local addresses that can be used on multiple interfaces. (See also the usesrc option.) XRESOLV Indicates that the interface uses an IPv6 external resolver.
LOGICAL INTERFACES
Solaris TCP/IP allows multiple logical interfaces to be associated with a physical network interface. This allows a single machine to be assigned multiple IP addresses, even though it may have only one network interface. Physical network interfaces have names of the form driver-name physical-unit-number, while logical interfaces have names of the form driver-name physical-unit-number:logical-unit-number. A physical interface is configured into the system using the plumb command. For example: example% ifconfig eri0 plumb Once a physical interface has been "plumbed", logical interfaces associated with the physical interface can be configured by separate -plumb or -addif options to the ifconfig command. example% ifconfig eri0:1 plumb allocates a specific logical interface associated with the physical interface eri0. The command example% ifconfig eri0 addif 192.168.200.1/24 up allocates the next available logical unit number on the eri0 physical interface and assigns an address and prefix_length. A logical interface can be configured with parameters ( address,prefix_length, and so on) different from the physical interface with which it is associated. Logical interfaces that are associated with the same physical interface can be given different parameters as well. Each logical interface must be associated with an existing and "up" physical interface. So, for example, the logical interface eri0:1 can only be configured after the physical interface eri0 has been plumbed. To delete a logical interface, use the unplumb or removeif options. For example, example% ifconfig eri0:1 down unplumb will delete the logical interface eri0:1.
IP MULTIPATHING GROUPS
Physical interfaces that share the same link-layer broadcast domain must be collected into a single IP Multipathing (IPMP) group using the group subcommand. Each IPMP group has an associated IPMP IP interface, which can either be explicitly created (the preferred method) by using the ipmp subcommand or implicitly created by ifconfig in response to placing an IP interface into a new IPMP group. Implicitly-cre- ated IPMP interfaces will be named ipmpN where N is the lowest integer that does not conflict with an existing IP interface name or IPMP group name. Each IPMP IP interface is created with a matching IPMP group name, though it can be changed using the group subcommand. Each IPMP IP inter- face hosts a set of highly-available IP addresses. These addresses will remain reachable so long as at least one interface in the group is active, where "active" is defined as having at least one UP address and having INACTIVE, FAILED, and OFFLINE clear. IP addresses hosted on the IPMP IP interface may either be configured statically or configured through DHCP by means of the dhcp subcommand. Interfaces assigned to the same IPMP group are treated as equivalent and monitored for failure by in.mpathd. Provided that active inter- faces in the group remain, IP interface failures (and any subsequent repairs) are handled transparently to sockets-based applications. IPMP is also integrated with the Dynamic Reconfiguration framework (see cfgadm(1M)), which enables network adapters to be replaced in a way that is invisible to sockets-based applications. The IP module automatically load-spreads all outbound traffic across all active interfaces in an IPMP group. Similarly, all UP addresses hosted on the IPMP IP interface will be distributed across the active interfaces to promote inbound load-spreading. The ipmpstat(1M) util- ity allows many aspects of the IPMP subsystem to be observed, including the current binding of IP data addresses to IP interfaces. When an interface is placed into an IPMP group, any UP logical interfaces are "migrated" to the IPMP IP interface for use by the group, unless: o the logical interface is marked NOFAILOVER; o the logical interface hosts an IPv6 link-local address; o the logical interface hosts an IPv4 0.0.0.0 address. Likewise, once an interface is in a group, if changes are made to a logical interface such that it is UP and not exempted by one of the conditions above, it will also migrate to the associated IPMP IP interface. Logical interfaces never migrate back, even if the physical interface that contributed the address is removed from the group. Each interface placed into an IPMP group may be optionally configured with a "test" address that in.mpathd will use for probe-based failure detection; see in.mpathd(1M). These addresses must be marked NOFAILOVER (using the -failover subcommand) prior to being marked UP. Test addresses may also be acquired through DHCP by means of the dhcp subcommand. For more background on IPMP, please see the IPMP-related chapters of the System Administration Guide: Network Interfaces and Network Virtu- alization. CONFIGURING IPV6 INTERFACES When an IPv6 physical interface is plumbed and configured "up" with ifconfig, it is automatically assigned an IPv6 link-local address for which the last 64 bits are calculated from the MAC address of the interface. example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 plumb up The following example shows that the link-local address has a prefix of fe80::/10. example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 ce0: flags=2000841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/10 Link-local addresses are only used for communication on the local subnet and are not visible to other subnets. If an advertising IPv6 router exists on the link advertising prefixes, then the newly plumbed IPv6 interface will autoconfigure logical interface(s) depending on the prefix advertisements. For example, for the prefix advertisement 2001:0db8:3c4d:0:55::/64, the autoconfigured interface will look like: eri0:2: flags=2080841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ADDRCONF,IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64 Even if there are no prefix advertisements on the link, you can still assign global addresses manually, for example: example% ifconfig eri0 inet6 addif \ 2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64 up To configure boot-time defaults for the interface eri0, place the following entry in the /etc/hostname6.eri0 file: addif 2001:0db8:3c4d:55:a00:20ff:fe8e:f3ad/64 up Configuring IPv6/IPv4 tunnels An IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel interface can send and receive IPv6 packets encapsulated in an IPv4 packet. Create tunnels at both ends pointing to each other. IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels require the tunnel source and tunnel destination IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Solaris 8 supports both automatic and configured tunnels. For automatic tunnels, an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is used. The following demonstrates auto-tunnel configuration: example% ifconfig ip.atun0 inet6 plumb example% ifconfig ip.atun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address \ ::IPv4 address/96 up where IPv4-address is the IPv4 address of the interface through which the tunnel traffic will flow, and IPv4-address, ::<IPv4-address>, is the corresponding IPv4-compatible IPv6 address. The following is an example of a configured tunnel: example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 plumb tsrc my-ipv4-address \ tdst peer-ipv4-address up This creates a configured tunnel between my-ipv4-address and peer-ipv4-address with corresponding link-local addresses. For tunnels with global or site-local addresses, the logical tunnel interfaces need to be configured in the following form: example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 addif my-v6-address peer-v6-address up For example, example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 plumb tsrc 109.146.85.57 \ tdst 109.146.85.212 up example% ifconfig ip.tun0 inet6 addif 2::45 2::46 up To show all IPv6 interfaces that are up and configured: example% ifconfig -au6 ip.tun0: flags=2200851<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST,NONUD,IPv6> mtu 1480 index 3 inet tunnel src 109.146.85.57 tunnel dst 109.146.85.212 tunnel security settings --> use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1' tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 fe80::6d92:5539/10 --> fe80::6d92:55d4 ip.tun0:1: flags=2200851<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST,NONUD,IPv6> mtu 1480 index 3 inet6 2::45/128 --> 2::46 In the output above, note the line that begins with "tunnel security settings". The content of this line varies according to whether and how you have set your security settings. See "Display of Tunnel Security Settings," below. Configuring IPv4/IPv6 Tunnels An IPv4 over IPv6 tunnel interface can send and receive IPv4 packets encapsulated in an IPv6 packet. Create tunnels at both ends pointing to each other. IPv4 over IPv6 tunnels require the tunnel source and tunnel destination IPv6 and IPv4 addresses. The following demonstrates auto-tunnel configuration: example% ifconfig ip6.tun0 inet plumb tsrc my-ipv6-address \ tdst peer-ipv6-address my-ipv4-address \ peer-ipv4-address up This creates a configured tunnel between my-ipv6-address and peer-ipv6-address with my-ipv4-address and peer-ipv4-address as the endpoints of the point-to-point interface, for example: example% ifconfig ip6.tun0 inet plumb tsrc fe80::1 tdst fe80::2 \ 10.0.0.208 10.0.0.210 up To show all IPv4 interfaces that are up and configured: example% ifconfig -au4 lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 eri0: flags=1004843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,DHCP,IPv4> mtu 1500 \ index 2 inet 172.17.128.208 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.17.128.255 ip6.tun0: flags=10008d1<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,NOARP,MULTICAST,IPv4> \ mtu 1460 index 3 inet6 tunnel src fe80::1 tunnel dst fe80::2 tunnel security settings --> use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1' tunnel hop limit 60 tunnel encapsulation limit 4 inet 10.0.0.208 --> 10.0.0.210 netmask ff000000 In the output above, note the line that begins with "tunnel security settings". The content of this line varies according to whether and how you have set your security settings. See "Display of Tunnel Security Settings," below. Display of Tunnel Security Settings The ifconfig output for tunneled interfaces indicates security settings, if present, for a tunnel. The content of the line showing your settings differs depending on how you have made your settings: o If you set your security policy using the ifconfig -auth_algs, -encr_algs, and -encr_auth_algs options and do not use ipsec- conf(1M), ifconfig displays your settings for each of these options. o If you set your security policy using ipsecconf(1M) with the tunnel keyword (the preferred method), ifconfig displays: tunnel security settings --> use 'ipsecconf -ln -i ip.tun1' ...in effect, hiding your settings from those without privileges to view them. If you do net set security policy, using either ifconfig or ipsecconf, there is no tunnel security setting displayed.
EXAMPLES
Example 1 Using the ifconfig Command If your workstation is not attached to an Ethernet, the network interface, for example, eri0, should be marked "down" as follows: example% ifconfig eri0 down Example 2 Printing Addressing Information To print out the addressing information for each interface, use the following command: example% ifconfig -a Example 3 Resetting the Broadcast Address To reset each interface's broadcast address after the netmasks have been correctly set, use the next command: example% ifconfig -a broadcast + Example 4 Changing the Ethernet Address To change the Ethernet address for interface ce0, use the following command: example% ifconfig ce0 ether aa:1:2:3:4:5 Example 5 Configuring an IP-in-IP Tunnel To configure an IP-in-IP tunnel, first plumb it with the following command: example% ifconfig ip.tun0 plumb Then configure it as a point-to-point interface, supplying the tunnel source and the tunnel destination: example% ifconfig ip.tun0 myaddr mydestaddr tsrc another_myaddr \ tdst a_dest_addr up Use ipsecconf(1M), as described above, to configure tunnel security properties. Example 6 Configuring 6to4 Tunnels To configure 6to4 tunnels, use the following commands: example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address 6to4-address/64 up IPv4-address denotes the address of the encapsulating interface. 6to4-address denotes the address of the local IPv6 address of form 2002:IPv4-address:SUBNET-ID:HOSTID. The long form should be used to resolve any potential conflicts that might arise if the system administrator utilizes an addressing plan where the values for SUBNET-ID or HOSTID are reserved for something else. After the interface is plumbed, a 6to4 tunnel can be configured as follows: example% ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4-address up This short form sets the address. It uses the convention: 2002:IPv4-address::1 The SUBNET-ID is 0, and the HOSTID is 1. Example 7 Configuring IP Forwarding on an Interface To enable IP forwarding on a single interface, use the following command: example% ifconfig eri0 router To disable IP forwarding on a single interface, use the following command: example% ifconfig eri0 -router Example 8 Configuring Source Address Selection Using a Virtual Interface The following command configures source address selection such that every packet that is locally generated with no bound source address and going out on qfe2 prefers a source address hosted on vni0. example% ifconfig qfe2 usesrc vni0 The ifconfig -a output for the qfe2 and vni0 interfaces displays as follows: qfe2: flags=1100843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ROUTER,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 4 usesrc vni0 inet 1.2.3.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 1.2.3.255 ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e1 vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 5 srcof qfe2 inet 3.4.5.6 netmask ffffffff Observe, above, the usesrc and srcof keywords in the ifconfig output. These keywords also appear on the logical instances of the physical interface, even though this is a per-physical interface parameter. There is no srcof keyword in ifconfig for configuring interfaces. This information is determined automatically from the set of interfaces that have usesrc set on them. The following command, using the none keyword, undoes the effect of the preceding ifconfig usesrc command. example% ifconfig qfe2 usesrc none Following this command, ifconfig -a output displays as follows: qfe2: flags=1100843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,ROUTER,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 4 inet 1.2.3.4 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 1.2.3.255 ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e1 vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 5 inet 3.4.5.6 netmask ffffffff Note the absence of the usesrc and srcof keywords in the output above. Example 9 Configuring Source Address Selection for an IPv6 Address The following command configures source address selection for an IPv6 address, selecting a source address hosted on vni0. example% ifconfig qfe1 inet6 usesrc vni0 Following this command, ifconfig -a output displays as follows: qfe1: flags=2000841<UP,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 usesrc vni0 inet6 fe80::203:baff:fe17:4be0/10 ether 0:3:ba:17:4b:e0 vni0: flags=2002210041<UP,RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 5 srcof qfe1 inet6 fe80::203:baff:fe17:4444/128 vni0:1: flags=2002210040<RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 5 srcof qfe1 inet6 fec0::203:baff:fe17:4444/128 vni0:2: flags=2002210040<RUNNING,NOXMIT,NONUD,IPv6,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 5 srcof qfe1 inet6 2000::203:baff:fe17:4444/128 Depending on the scope of the destination of the packet going out on qfe1, the appropriately scoped source address is selected from vni0 and its aliases. Example 10 Using Source Address Selection with Shared-IP Zones The following is an example of how the usesrc feature can be used with the zones(5) facility in Solaris. The following commands are invoked in the global zone: example% ifconfig hme0 usesrc vni0 example% ifconfig eri0 usesrc vni0 example% ifconfig qfe0 usesrc vni0 Following the preceding commands, the ifconfig -a output for the virtual interfaces would display as: vni0: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 23 srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0 inet 10.0.0.1 netmask ffffffff vni0:1: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 23 zone test1 srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0 inet 10.0.0.2 netmask ffffffff vni0:2: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 23 zone test2 srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0 inet 10.0.0.3 netmask ffffffff vni0:3: flags=20011100c1<UP,RUNNING,NOARP,NOXMIT,ROUTER,IPv4,VIRTUAL> mtu 0 index 23 zone test3 srcof hme0 eri0 qfe0 inet 10.0.0.4 netmask ffffffff There is one virtual interface alias per zone (test1, test2, and test3). A source address from the virtual interface alias in the same zone is selected. The virtual interface aliases were created using zonecfg(1M) as follows: example% zonecfg -z test1 zonecfg:test1> add net zonecfg:test1:net> set physical=vni0 zonecfg:test1:net> set address=10.0.0.2 The test2 and test3 zone interfaces and addresses are created in the same way. Example 11 Turning Off DHCPv6 The following example shows how to disable automatic use of DHCPv6 on all interfaces, and immediately shut down DHCPv6 on the interface named hme0. See in.ndpd(1M) and ndpd.conf(4) for more information on the automatic DHCPv6 configuration mechanism. example% echo ifdefault StatefulAddrConf false >> /etc/inet/ndpd.conf example% pkill -HUP -x in.ndpd example% ifconfig hme0 dhcp release
FILES
/etc/netmasks Netmask data. /etc/default/inet_type Default Internet protocol type.
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +---------------------------------------+------------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------+ |Availability | SUNWcsu | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------+ |Interface Stability for command-line | Committed | |options | | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------+ |Interface Stability for command output | Uncommitted | +---------------------------------------+------------------------------+
SEE ALSO
dhcpinfo(1), cfgadm(1M), dhcpagent(1M), dladm(1M), if_mpadm(1M), in.mpathd(1M), in.ndpd(1M), in.routed(1M), ipmpstat(1M), ipsecconf(1M), ndd(1M), netstat(1M), zoneadm(1M), zonecfg(1M), ethers(3SOCKET), gethostbyname(3NSL), getnetbyname(3SOCKET), hosts(4), inet_type(4), ndpd.conf(4), netmasks(4), networks(4), nsswitch.conf(4), attributes(5), privileges(5), zones(5), arp(7P), ipsecah(7P), ipsecesp(7P), tun(7M) System Administration Guide: IP Services
DIAGNOSTICS
ifconfig sends messages that indicate if: o the specified interface does not exist o the requested address is unknown o the user is not privileged and tried to alter an interface's configuration
NOTES
Do not select the names broadcast, down, private, trailers, up or other possible option names when you choose host names. If you choose any one of these names as host names, it can cause unusual problems that are extremely difficult to diagnose. SunOS 5.11 17 Feb 2009 ifconfig(1M)

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