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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for sysv-make (opensolaris section 1)

sysV-make(1)				  User Commands 			     sysV-make(1)

NAME
       sysV-make - maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/lib/svr4.make [-f makefile] [-eiknpqrst] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       This  is the "vanilla" System V version of make. If the environment variable USE_SVR4_MAKE
       is set, then the command make will invoke this version of  make. (See also the ENVIRONMENT
       section.)

       make  allows  the  programmer  to maintain, update, and regenerate groups of computer pro-
       grams. make executes commands in makefile to update one or more target  names  (names  are
       typically  programs).  If  the  -f option is not present, then makefile, Makefile, and the
       Source Code Control System (SCCS) files s.makefile and s.Makefile are tried in  order.  If
       makefile  is  `-' the standard input is taken. More than one -f makefile argument pair may
       appear.

       make updates a target only if its dependents are newer than the target.	All  prerequisite
       files  of  a target are added recursively to the list of targets. Missing files are deemed
       to be outdated.

       The following list of four directives can be included in makefile to  extend  the  options
       provided by make. They are used in makefile as if they were targets:

       .DEFAULT:       If  a  file  must  be  made but there are no explicit commands or relevant
		       built-in rules, the commands associated with the name .DEFAULT are used if
		       it exists.

       .IGNORE:        Same effect as the -i option.

       .PRECIOUS:      Dependents  of the .PRECIOUS entry will not be removed when quit or inter-
		       rupt are hit.

       .SILENT:        Same effect as the -s option.

   Options
       The options for make are listed below:

       -e	      Environment variables override assignments within makefiles.

       -f makefile    Description filename (makefile is assumed to be the name of  a  description
		      file).

       -i	      Ignore error codes returned by invoked commands.

       -k	      Abandon  work  on  the  current  entry  if  it fails, but continue on other
		      branches that do not depend on that entry.

       -n	      No execute mode. Print commands, but do  not  execute  them.  Even  command
		      lines beginning with an `@' are printed.

       -p	      Print out the complete set of macro definitions and target descriptions.

       -q	      Question.  make returns a zero or non-zero status code depending on whether
		      or not the target file has been updated.

       -r	      Do not use the built-in rules.

       -s	      Silent mode. Do not print command lines before executing.

       -t	      Touch the target files (causing them to be updated) rather than  issue  the
		      usual commands.

   Creating the makefile
       The  makefile  invoked  with  the  -f  option  is  a carefully structured file of explicit
       instructions for updating and regenerating programs, and contains a  sequence  of  entries
       that specify dependencies.  The first line of an entry is a blank-separated, non-null list
       of targets, then a `:', then a (possibly null) list of prerequisite files or dependencies.
       Text  following	a `;' and all following lines that begin with a tab are shell commands to
       be executed to update the target. The first non-empty line that does not begin with a  tab
       or `#' begins a new dependency or macro definition. Shell commands may be continued across
       lines with a backslash-new-line (\-NEWLINE) sequence. Everything printed by  make  (except
       the initial TAB) is passed directly to the shell as is. Thus,

	 echo a\
	 b

       will produce

       ab

       exactly the same as the shell would.

       Number-sign (#) and NEWLINE surround comments including contained `\-NEWLINE' sequences.

       The  following  makefile  says that pgm depends on two files a.o and b.o, and that they in
       turn depend on their corresponding source files (a.c and b.c) and a common file incl.h:

	 pgm: a.o b.o
		 cc a.o b.o -o pgm
	 a.o: incl.h a.c
		 cc -c a.c
	 b.o: incl.h b.c
		 cc -c b.c

       Command lines are executed one at a time, each by its own  shell.  The  SHELL  environment
       variable  can  be  used	to  specify  which shell make should use to execute commands. The
       default is /usr/bin/sh. The first one or two characters in a command can be the following:
       `@',  `-', `@-', or `-@'. If `@' is present, printing of the command is suppressed. If `-'
       is present, make ignores an error. A line is printed when it is	executed  unless  the  -s
       option  is  present,  or the entry .SILENT: is included in makefile, or unless the initial
       character sequence contains a @. The -n option specifies printing without execution;  how-
       ever,  if  the command line has the string $(MAKE) in it, the line is always executed (see
       the discussion of the MAKEFLAGS macro in the make Environment sub-section below).  The  -t
       (touch) option updates the modified date of a file without executing any commands.

       Commands  returning  non-zero status normally terminate make. If the -i option is present,
       if the entry .IGNORE: is included in makefile, or if the initial character sequence of the
       command contains `-', the error is ignored. If the -k option is present, work is abandoned
       on the current entry, but continues on other branches that do not depend on that entry.

       Interrupt and quit cause the target to be deleted unless the target is a dependent of  the
       directive .PRECIOUS.

   make Environment
       The environment is read by make. All variables are assumed to be macro definitions and are
       processed as such. The environment variables are processed before any makefile  and  after
       the  internal rules; thus, macro assignments in a makefile override environment variables.
       The -e option causes the environment to override the macro assignments in a makefile. Suf-
       fixes  and  their associated rules in the makefile will override any identical suffixes in
       the built-in rules.

       The MAKEFLAGS environment variable is processed by make	as  containing	any  legal  input
       option  (except	-f  and  -p) defined for the command line. Further, upon invocation, make
       "invents" the variable if it is not in the environment, puts the current options into  it,
       and  passes  it on to invocations of commands. Thus, MAKEFLAGS always contains the current
       input options. This feature proves very useful for "super-makes". In fact, as noted above,
       when the -n option is used, the command $(MAKE) is executed anyway; hence, one can perform
       a make -n recursively on a whole software system to see what  would  have  been	executed.
       This  result  is possible because the -n is put in MAKEFLAGS and passed to further invoca-
       tions of $(MAKE). This usage is one way of debugging all of the makefiles for  a  software
       project without actually doing anything.

   Include Files
       If  the	string include appears as the first seven letters of a line in a makefile, and is
       followed by a blank or a tab, the rest of the line is assumed to be a filename and will be
       read by	the current invocation, after substituting for any macros.

   Macros
       Entries	of  the  form  string1 = string2 are macro definitions. string2 is defined as all
       characters up to a comment character or an unescaped NEWLINE.  Subsequent  appearances  of
       $(string1[:subst1=[subst2]])  are  replaced  by string2. The parentheses are optional if a
       single-character macro name is used and there is  no  substitute  sequence.  The  optional
       :subst1=subst2  is  a  substitute sequence. If it is specified, all non-overlapping occur-
       rences of subst1 in the named macro are replaced by subst2. Strings (for the  purposes  of
       this  type  of substitution) are delimited by BLANKs, TABs, NEWLINE characters, and begin-
       nings of lines. An example of the use of the substitute sequence is shown in the Libraries
       sub-section below.

   Internal Macros
       There are five internally maintained macros that are useful for writing rules for building
       targets.

       $*    The macro $* stands for the filename part of the current dependent with  the  suffix
	     deleted. It is evaluated only for inference rules.

       $@    The  $@ macro stands for the full target name of the current target. It is evaluated
	     only for explicitly named dependencies.

       $<    The $< macro is only evaluated for inference rules or the .DEFAULT rule. It  is  the
	     module  that  is  outdated  with respect to the target (the "manufactured" dependent
	     file name). Thus, in the .c.o rule, the $< macro would evaluate to the .c	file.  An
	     example for making optimized .o files from .c files is:

	       .c.o:
		       cc -c -O $*.c

	     or:

	       .c.o:
		       cc -c -O $<

       $?    The $? macro is evaluated when explicit rules from the makefile are evaluated. It is
	     the list of prerequisites that are outdated with respect to the target,  and  essen-
	     tially those modules that must be rebuilt.

       $%    The  $%  macro is only evaluated when the target is an archive library member of the
	     form lib(file.o). In this case, $@ evaluates to lib and $% evaluates to the  library
	     member, file.o.

       Four  of the five macros can have alternative forms. When an upper case D or F is appended
       to any of the four macros, the meaning is changed to "directory	part"  for  D  and  "file
       part"  for  F.  Thus,  $(@D) refers to the directory part of the string $@. If there is no
       directory part, ./ is generated. The only macro excluded from this alternative form is $?.

   Suffixes
       Certain names (for instance, those ending with .o) have inferable  prerequisites  such  as
       .c, .s, etc. If no update commands for such a file appear in makefile, and if an inferable
       prerequisite exists, that prerequisite is compiled to make the target. In this case,  make
       has  inference  rules that allow building files from other files by examining the suffixes
       and determining an appropriate inference rule to use. The current default inference  rules
       are:

       .c      .c~	 .f	  .f~	  .s	   .s~	   .sh	    .sh~    .C	     .C~
       .c.a    .c.o	 .c~.a	  .c~.c   .c~.o    .f.a    .f.o     .f~.a   .f~.f    .f~.o
       .h~.h   .l.c	 .l.o	  .l~.c   .l~.l    .l~.o   .s.a     .s.o    .s~.a    .s~.o
       .s~.s   .sh~.sh	 .y.c	  .y.o	  .y~.c    .y~.o   .y~.y    .C.a    .C.o     .C~.a
       .C~.C   .C~.o	 .L.C	  .L.o	  .L~.C    .L~.L   .L~.o    .Y.C    .Y.o     .Y~.C
       .Y~.o   .Y~.Y

       The  internal rules for make are contained in the source file make.rules for the make pro-
       gram. These rules can be locally modified. To print out the rules compiled into	the  make
       on any machine in a form suitable for recompilation, the following command is used:

       make -pf - 2>/dev/null </dev/null

       A  tilde in the above rules refers to an SCCS file (see sccsfile(4)). Thus, the rule .c~.o
       would transform an SCCS C source file into an object file (.o). Because the s. of the SCCS
       files is a prefix, it is incompatible with the make suffix point of view. Hence, the tilde
       is a way of changing any file reference into an SCCS file reference.

       A rule with only one suffix (for example, .c:) is the definition of how to  build  x  from
       x.c. In effect, the other suffix is null. This feature is useful for building targets from
       only one source file, for example, shell procedures and simple C programs.

       Additional suffixes are given as the dependency list for .SUFFIXES. Order is  significant:
       the  first possible name for which both a file and a rule exist is inferred as a prerequi-
       site. The default list is:

       .SUFFIXES: .o .c .c~ .y .y~ .l .l~ .s .s~ .sh .sh~ .h .h~ .f .f~ .C .C~ .Y .Y~ .L .L~

       Here again, the above command for printing the internal rules will  display  the  list  of
       suffixes  implemented on the current machine. Multiple suffix lists accumulate; .SUFFIXES:
       with no dependencies clears the list of suffixes.

   Inference Rules
       The first example can be done more briefly.

	 pgm: a.o b.o
		 cc a.o b.o -o pgm
	 a.o b.o: incl.h

       This abbreviation is possible because make has a set of internal rules for building files.
       The user may add rules to this list by simply putting them in the makefile.

       Certain macros are used by the default inference rules to permit the inclusion of optional
       matter in any resulting commands. For example, CFLAGS, LFLAGS, and  YFLAGS  are	used  for
       compiler  options to cc(1B). Again, the previous method for examining the current rules is
       recommended.

       The inference of prerequisites can be controlled. The rule to create a file with suffix .o
       from a file with suffix .c is specified as an entry with .c.o: as the target and no depen-
       dents. Shell commands associated with the target define the rule for making a .o file from
       a  .c  file. Any target that has no slashes in it and starts with a dot is identified as a
       rule and not a true target.

   Libraries
       If a target or dependency name contains parentheses,  it  is  assumed  to  be  an  archive
       library,  the  string  within  parentheses referring to a member within the library. Thus,
       lib(file.o) and $(LIB)(file.o) both refer to an	archive  library  that	contains  file.o.
       (This  example  assumes	the  LIB  macro  has  been  previously	defined.)  The expression
       $(LIB)(file1.o file2.o) is not legal. Rules pertaining to archive libraries have the  form
       .XX.a where the XX  is the suffix from which the archive member is to be made. An unfortu-
       nate by-product of the current implementation requires the XX  to be  different	from  the
       suffix of the archive member. Thus, one cannot have lib(file.o) depend upon file.o explic-
       itly. The most common use of the archive interface follows. Here,  we  assume  the  source
       files are all C type source:

	 lib: lib(file1.o) lib(file2.o) lib(file3.o)
	      @echo lib is now up-to-date
	 .c.a:
		 $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $<
	      $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $*.o
		 rm -f $*.o

       In fact, the .c.a rule listed above is built into make and is unnecessary in this example.
       A more interesting, but more limited example of an archive library  maintenance	construc-
       tion follows:

	 lib: lib(file1.o) lib(file2.o) lib(file3.o)
		 $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $(?:.o=.c)
	      $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) lib $?
	      rm $?
	      @echo lib is now up-to-date
	 .c.a:;

       Here  the  substitution mode of the macro expansions is used. The $? list is defined to be
       the set of object filenames (inside lib) whose C source files are outdated. The	substitu-
       tion  mode  translates  the  .o to .c. (Unfortunately, one cannot as yet transform to .c~;
       however, this transformation may become possible in the future.)  Also note the	disabling
       of  the .c.a: rule, which would have created each object file, one by one. This particular
       construct speeds up archive library  maintenance  considerably.	This  type  of	construct
       becomes	very  cumbersome if the archive library contains a mix of assembly programs and C
       programs.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       USE_SVR4_MAKE	If this environment variable is set, then the make  command  will  invoke
			this  System  V  version  of  make. If this variable is not set, then the
			default version of  make(1S) is invoked.

			USE_SVR4_MAKE can be set as follows (Bourne shell):

			$ USE_SVR4_MAKE=``''; export USE_SVR4_MAKE

			or (C shell):

			% setenv USE_SVR4_MAKE

FILES
       [Mm]akefile
       s.[Mm]akefile

	   default makefiles

       /usr/bin/sh

	   default shell for make

       /usr/share/lib/make/make.rules

	   default rules for make

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWsprot 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       cc(1B), cd(1), make(1S), sh(1), printf(3C), sccsfile(4), attributes(5)

NOTES
       Some commands return non-zero status inappropriately; use -i or the `-' command line  pre-
       fix to overcome the difficulty.

       Filenames  containing  the  characters  `=', `:', and `@' will not work. Commands that are
       directly executed by the shell, notably cd(1), are ineffectual across  NEWLINEs	in  make.
       The  syntax  lib(file1.o  file2.o  file3.o)  is illegal. You cannot build lib(file.o) from
       file.o.

SunOS 5.11				    1 Nov 1999				     sysV-make(1)


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