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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for ldap (opensolaris section 1)

ldap(1) 				  User Commands 				  ldap(1)

NAME
       ldap - LDAP as a naming repository

DESCRIPTION
       LDAP  refers  to  Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, which is an industry standard for
       accessing directory servers. By initializing the client using ldapclient(1M) and using the
       keyword	ldap  in  the  name  service switch file, /etc/nsswitch.conf, Solaris clients can
       obtain naming information from an LDAP server. Information such as  usernames,  hostnames,
       and  passwords  are  stored on the LDAP server in a Directory Information Tree or DIT. The
       DIT consists of entries which in turn are composed of attributes.  Each	attribute  has	a
       type and one or more values.

       Solaris	LDAP  clients  use  the  LDAP  v3 protocol to access naming information from LDAP
       servers. The LDAP server must  support  the  object  classes  and  attributes  defined  in
       RFC2307bis  (draft),  which  maps  the naming service model on to LDAP. As an alternate to
       using the schema defined in RFC2307bis (draft), the system can be configured to use  other
       schema  sets and the schema mapping feature is configured to map between the two. Refer to
       the System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS,  and  LDAP)  for
       more details.

       The  ldapclient(1M)  utility  can  make a Solaris machine an LDAP client by setting up the
       appropriate directories, files, and configuration information. The LDAP client caches this
       configuration information in local cache files. This configuration information is accessed
       through the ldap_cachemgr(1M) daemon. This daemon also refreshes the  information  in  the
       configuration  files  from the LDAP server, providing better performance and security. The
       ldap_cachemgr must run at all times for the proper operation of the naming services.

       There are two types of configuration information, the information available through a pro-
       file,  and the information configured per client. The profile contains all the information
       as to how the client accesses the directory. The credential information for proxy user  is
       configured on a per client basis and is not downloaded through the profile.

       The profile contains server-specific parameters that are required by all clients to locate
       the servers for the desired LDAP domain. This information could be the server's IP address
       and  the search base Distinguished Name (DN), for instance. It is configured on the client
       from the default profile during client initialization and is periodically updated  by  the
       ldap_cachemgr daemon when the expiration time has elapsed.

       Client profiles can be stored on the LDAP server and can be used by the ldapclient utility
       to initialize an LDAP client. Using the client profile is the easiest way to  configure	a
       client machine. See ldapclient(1M).

       Credential information includes client-specific parameters that are used by a client. This
       information could be the Bind DN (LDAP "login" name) of the client and  the  password.  If
       these parameters are required, they are manually defined during the initialization through
       ldapclient(1M).

       The naming information is stored in containers on the LDAP server. A container is  a  non-
       leaf  entry in the DIT that contains naming service information. Containers are similar to
       maps in NIS and tables in NIS+. A default mapping between the NIS databases and	the  con-
       tainers	in  LDAP  is  presented  below. The location of these containers as well as their
       names can be overridden through the use of serviceSearchDescriptors. For more information,
       see ldapclient(1M).

       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |     Database	    |	Object Class	 |	   Container	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |passwd		    |posixAccount	 | ou=people,dc=...	     |
       |		    |shadowAccount	 |			     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |group		    |posixGroup 	 | ou=Group,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |services	    |ipService		 | ou=Services,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |protocols	    |ipProtocol 	 | ou=Protocols,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |rpc		    |oncRpc		 | ou=Rpc,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |hosts		    |ipHost		 | ou=Hosts,dc=...	     |
       |ipnodes 	    |ipHost		 | ou=Hosts,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |ethers		    |ieee802Device	 | ou=Ethers,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |bootparams	    |bootableDevice	 | ou=Ethers,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |networks	    |ipNetwork		 | ou=Networks,dc=...	     |
       |netmasks	    |ipNetwork		 | ou=Networks,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |netgroup	    |nisNetgroup	 | ou=Netgroup,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |aliases 	    |mailGroup		 | ou=Aliases,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |publickey	    |nisKeyObject	 |			     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |generic 	    |nisObject		 | nisMapName=...,dc=...     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |printers	    |printerService	 | ou=Printers,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |auth_attr	    |SolarisAuthAttr	 | ou=SolarisAuthAttr,dc=... |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |prof_attr	    |SolarisProfAttr	 | ou=SolarisProfAttr,dc=... |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |exec_attr	    |SolarisExecAttr	 | ou=SolarisProfAttr,dc=... |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |user_attr	    |SolarisUserAttr	 | ou=people,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+
       |audit_user	    |SolarisAuditUser	 | ou=people,dc=...	     |
       +--------------------+--------------------+---------------------------+

       The  security  model for clients is defined by a combination of the credential level to be
       used, the authentication method, and the PAM modules to	be  used.  The	credential  level
       defines	what  credentials  the client should use to authenticate to the directory server,
       and the authentication method defines the method of choice. Both these  can  be	set  with
       multiple values. The Solaris LDAP supports the following values for credential level :
	 anonymous
	 proxy
	 self

       The Solaris LDAP supports the following values for authentication method:
	 none
	 simple
	 sasl/CRAM-MD5
	 sasl/DIGEST-MD5
	 sasl/GSSAPI
	 tls:simple
	 tls:sasl/CRAM-MD5
	 tls:sasl/DIGEST-MD5

       When  the credential level is configured as self, DNS must be configured and the authenti-
       cation method must be sasl/GSSAPI. The hosts and ipnodes  in  /etc/nsswitch.conf  must  be
       configured to use DNS, for example hosts: dns files and ipnodes: dns files.

       sasl/GSSAPI  automatically  uses GSSAPI confidentiality and integrity options, if they are
       configured on the directory server.

       The credential level of self enables per-user naming service lookups, or lookups that  use
       the  GSSAPI credentials of the user when connecting to the directory server. Currently the
       only GSSAPI mechanism supported in this model is Kerberos V5. Kerberos must be  configured
       before you can use this credential level. See kerberos(5) for details.

       More  protection  can be provided by means of access control, allowing the server to grant
       access for certain containers or entries. Access control is specified  by  Access  Control
       Lists  (ACLs)  that are defined and stored in the LDAP server. The Access Control Lists on
       the LDAP server are called Access Control Instructions (ACIs) by the the SunOne	Directory
       Server.	Each  ACL  or  ACI  specifies  one or more directory objects, for example, the cn
       attribute in a specific container, one or more clients to whom you grant or  deny  access,
       and  one  or  more  access  rights  that  determine what the clients can do to or with the
       objects. Clients can be users or applications. Access rights can be specified as read  and
       write,  for  example.  Refer to the System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Ser-
       vices (DNS, NIS, and LDAP) regarding the restrictions on ACLs and ACIs when using LDAP  as
       a naming repository.

       A  sample  nsswitch.conf(4)  file  called nsswitch.ldap is provided in the /etc directory.
       This is copied to /etc/nsswitch.conf by the ldapclient(1M) utility. This file uses LDAP as
       a repository for the different databases in the nsswitch.conf file.

       The following is a list of the user commands related to LDAP:

       idsconfig(1M)	 Prepares  a  SunOne Directory Server to be ready to support Solaris LDAP
			 clients.

       ldapaddent(1M)	 Creates LDAP entries from corresponding /etc files.

       ldapclient(1M)	 Initializes LDAP clients, or generates a  configuration  profile  to  be
			 stored in the directory.

       ldaplist(1)	 Lists the contents of the LDAP naming space.

FILES
       /var/ldap/ldap_client_cred    Files  that contain the LDAP configuration of the client. Do
       /var/ldap/ldap_client_file    not manually modify these files. Their content is not  guar-
				     anteed  to  be  human readable. Use ldapclient(1M) to update
				     them.

       /etc/nsswitch.conf	     Configuration file for the name-service switch.

       /etc/nsswitch.ldap	     Sample configuration file for the name-service  switch  con-
				     figured with LDAP and files.

       /etc/pam.conf		     PAM framework configuration file.

SEE ALSO
       ldaplist(1),   idsconfig(1M),   ldap_cachemgr(1M),  ldapaddent(1M),  ldapclient(1M),  nss-
       witch.conf(4), pam.conf(4), kerberos(5)pam_authtok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5), pam_auth-
       tok_store(5),   pam_dhkeys(5),	pam_ldap(5),   pam_passwd_auth(5),   pam_unix_account(5),
       pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5)

       System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP)

NOTES
       The pam_unix(5) module is no  longer  supported.  Similar  functionality  is  provided  by
       pam_authtok_check(5),	 pam_authtok_get(5),	 pam_authtok_store(5),	   pam_dhkeys(5),
       pam_passwd_auth(5), pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), andpam_unix_session(5).

SunOS 5.11				   28 Aug 2006					  ldap(1)


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