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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for intro (opensolaris section 1)

Intro(1)				  User Commands 				 Intro(1)

       Intro, intro - introduction to commands and application programs

       This section describes, in alphabetical order, commands available with this operating sys-

       Pages of special interest are categorized as follows:

       1B    Commands found only in the SunOS/BSD Compatibility Package.

       1C    Commands for communicating with other systems.

       1F    Commands associated with Form and Menu Language Interpreter (FMLI).

       1S    Commands specific to SunOS.

       See the following sections of the SunOS Reference Manual for more information.

	   o	  Section 1M for system maintenance commands.

	   o	  Section 4 for information on file formats.

	   o	  Section 5 for descriptions of publicly available files and miscellaneous infor-
		  mation pages.

       For  tutorial information about these commands and procedures, see Solaris Advanced User's

   Manual Page Command Syntax
       Unless otherwise noted, commands described in the SYNOPSIS section of a manual page accept
       options and other arguments according to the following syntax and should be interpreted as
       explained below.

       name [-option...] [cmdarg...] where:

       [ ]	      Surround an option or cmdarg that is not required.

       ...	      Indicates multiple occurrences of the option or cmdarg.

       name	      The name of an executable file.

       { }	      The options and/or arguments enclosed  within  braces  are  interdependent,
		      such that everything enclosed must be treated as a unit.

       option	      (Always preceded by a "-".) noargletter... or, argletter optarg[,...]

       noargletter    A  single  letter representing an option without an option-argument. Notice
		      that more than one noargletter option can be grouped after one "-"  (Guide-
		      line 5, below).

       argletter      A single letter representing an option requiring an option-argument.

       optarg	      An  option-argument  (character  string)	satisfying a preceding argletter.
		      Notice that groups of optargs following an argletter must be  separated  by
		      commas,  or  separated by a tab or space character and quoted (Guideline 8,

       cmdarg	      Path name (or other command argument) not beginning with	"-",  or  "-"  by
		      itself indicating the standard input.

       Unless  otherwise  specified,  whenever	an  operand or option-argument is, or contains, a
       numeric value:

	   o	  The number is interpreted as a decimal integer.

	   o	  Numerals in the range 0 to 2147483647 are syntactically recognized  as  numeric

	   o	  When	the  utility description states that it accepts negative numbers as oper-
		  ands or option-arguments, numerals in the range -2147483647 to  2147483647  are
		  syntactically recognized as numeric values.

	   o	  Ranges greater than those listed here are allowed.

   Command Syntax Standard: Guidelines
       These command syntax guidelines are not followed by all current commands, but new commands
       are likely to obey them. getopts(1) should be used by all shell procedures to parse  posi-
       tional  parameters  and to check for legal options. It supports Guidelines 3-10 below. The
       enforcement of the other guidelines must be done by the command itself.

	   1.	  Command names (name above) should be between two and nine characters long.

	   2.	  Command names should include only lower-case letters and digits.

	   3.	  Option names (option above) must be one character long.

	   4.	  All options must be preceded by "-".

	   5.	  Options with no arguments can be grouped after a single "-".

	   6.	  The first option-argument (optarg above) following an option must  be  preceded
		  by a tab or space character.

	   7.	  Option-arguments cannot be optional.

	   8.	  Groups of option-arguments following an option must either be separated by com-
		  mas or separated by tab or space character and quoted (-o xxx,z,yy or -o"xxx	z

	   9.	  All options must precede operands (cmdarg above) on the command line.

	   10.	  "--" can be used to indicate the end of the options.

	   11.	  The order of the options relative to one another should not matter.

	   12.	  The relative order of the operands (cmdarg above) can affect their significance
		  in ways determined by the command with which they appear.

	   13.	  "-" preceded and followed by a white space character should  only  be  used  to
		  mean standard input.

       An  expanded set of guidelines referred to as CLIP for Command Line Interface Paradigm has
       been developed for Solaris and other Sun products. Its intent is to provide a command line
       syntax  more  closely  aligned  with  the  GNU  command	line syntax popular on Linux sys-
       tems.There is no intent to retrofit existing utilities or even to apply this  to  all  new
       utilities.  It  is  only  intended to be applied to sets of utilities being developed when

       CLIP is a full superset of the guidelines discussed above which are closely  aligned  with
       IEEE  Std.  1003.1-2001	(SUSv3).  It  does not include all the GNU syntax. The GNU syntax
       allows constructs that either conflict with the IEEE rules or are  ambiguous.  These  con-
       structs are not allowed.

       The expanded CLIP command line syntax is:

	 utility_name -a --longopt1 -c option_argument \
	    -f option_argument --longopt2=option_argument \
	    --longopt3 option_argument operand

       The  utility in the example is named utility_name. It is followed by options, option-argu-
       ments, and operands, collectively referred to as arguments. The arguments that consist  of
       a  hyphen  followed a single letter or digit, such as -a, are known as short-options . The
       arguments that consist of two hyphens followed by a series of letters, digits and hyphens,
       such  as  --longopt1,  are  known  as long-options . Collectively, short-options and long-
       options are referred to as options (or historically, flags ). Certain options are followed
       by an option-argument, as shown with -c option_argument . The arguments following the last
       options and option-arguments are named operands. Once the first	operand  is  encountered,
       all subsequent arguments are interpreted to be operands.

       Option-arguments  are sometimes shown separated from their short-options by BLANKSs, some-
       times directly adjacent. This reflects the situation that in some cases an option-argument
       is  included  within  the same argument string as the option; in most cases it is the next
       argument. This specification requires that the option be  a  separate  argument	from  its
       option-argument, but there are some exceptions to ensure continued operation of historical

	   o	  If the SYNOPSIS of a utility shows a SPACE between a short-option  and  option-
		  argument (as with -c option_argument in the example), the application uses sep-
		  arate arguments for that option and its option-argument.

	   o	  If a SPACE is not shown (as with -f option_argument in the example), the appli-
		  cation  expects an option and its option-argument directly adjacent in the same
		  argument string, without intervening BLANKs.

	   o	  Notwithstanding the preceding requirements, an application should accept short-
		  options  and	option-arguments  as  a  single argument or as separate arguments
		  whether or not a SPACE is shown on the synopsis line.

	   o	  Long-options with option-arguments are always documented  as	using  an  equals
		  sign	as  the separator between the option name and the option-argument. If the
		  OPTIONS section of a utility shows an equals sign (=) between a long-option and
		  its  option-argument	(as  with  --longopt2= option_argument in the example), a
		  application shall also permit the use of separate arguments for that option and
		  its option-argument (as with --longopt1 option_argument in the example).

       CLIP expands the guidelines discussed with the following additional guidelines:

       14.    The  form command subcommand [options] [operands] is appropriate for grouping simi-
	      lar operations. Subcommand names should follow  the  same  conventions  as  command
	      names as specified in guidelines 1 and 2.

       15.    Long-options  should be preceded by -- and should include only alphanumeric charac-
	      ters and hyphens from the portable character set. Option names are typically one to
	      three words long, with hyphens to separate words.

       16.    --name=argument should be used to specify an option-argument for a long-option. The
	      form --name argument is also accepted.

       17.    All utilities should support two standard long-options: --version (with the  short-
	      option  synonym  -V  )  and  --help  (with the short-option synonym -? ). The short
	      option synonyms for --version can vary if the preferred synonym is already  in  use
	      (but  a	synonym  shall	be provided). Both of these options stop further argument
	      processing when encountered and after displaying the appropriate output, the  util-
	      ity successfully exits.

       18.    Every  short-option  should  have  exactly  one corresponding long-option and every
	      long-option should have exactly one corresponding short-option. Synonymous  options
	      can  be allowed in the interest of compatibility with historical practice or commu-
	      nity versions of equivalent utilities.

       19.    The short-option name should get its name from the long-option  name  according  to
	      these rules:

		  1.	 Use the first letter of the long-option name for the short-option name.

		  2.	 If  the  first  letter conflicts with other short-option names, choose a
			 prominent consonant.

		  3.	 If the first letter and the  prominent  consonant  conflict  with  other
			 shortoption names, choose a prominent vowel.

		  4.	 If  none  of  the  letters of the long-option name are usable, select an
			 arbitrary character.

       20.    If a long-option name consists of a single character, it must use the same  charac-
	      ter as the short-option name. Single character long-options should be avoided. They
	      are only allowed for the exceptionally rare case that a  single  character  is  the
	      most  descriptive name.

       21.    The  subcommand  in the form described in guideline 1 of the additional CLIP guide-
	      lines is generally required. In the case where it is  omitted,  the  command  shall
	      take  no	operands and only options which are defined to stop further argument pro-
	      cessing when encountered are allowed. Invoking a command of  this  form  without	a
	      subcommand  and  no  arguments is an error. This guideline is provided to allow the
	      common forms command --help, command -?, command --version, and command  -V  to  be
	      accepted in the command-subcommand construct.

       Several	of  these  guidelines  are only of interest to the authors of utilities. They are
       provided here for the use of anyone wanting to author utilities following this syntax.

       See attributes(5) for a discussion of the attributes listed in this section.

       Sun Microsystems, Inc. gratefully acknowledges The Open Group for permission to	reproduce
       portions  of its copyrighted documentation. Original documentation from The Open Group can
       be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/bookstore/.

       The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group,  have	given  us
       permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

       In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system doc-

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in the SunOS  Refer-
       ence  Manual,  from  IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology --
       Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications	Issue  6,
       Copyright  (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and
       The Open Group.	In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and  the  original
       IEEE  and  The  Open  Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the
       referee document.  The original	Standard  can  be  obtained  online  at  http://www.open-

       This notice shall appear on any product containing this material.

       getopts(1), wait(1), exit(2), getopt(3C), wait(3UCB), attributes(5)

       Upon termination, each command returns two bytes of status, one supplied by the system and
       giving the cause for termination, and (in the case of "normal" termination)  one  supplied
       by  the program [see wait(3UCB) and exit(2)]. The former byte is 0 for normal termination.
       The latter byte is customarily 0 for successful execution and non-zero to  indicate  trou-
       bles  such  as  erroneous  parameters, or bad or inaccessible data. It is called variously
       "exit code", "exit status", or "return code", and is described only where special  conven-
       tions are involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files containing null characters.
       These commands often treat text input lines as strings and therefore become confused  upon
       encountering a null character (the string terminator) within a line.

SunOS 5.11				   18 Nov 2008					 Intro(1)

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