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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for gs (opensolaris section 1)

GS(1)					   Ghostscript					    GS(1)

NAME
       gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)

SYNOPSIS
       gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

DESCRIPTION
       The  gs	(gswin32c,  gswin32,  gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe
       Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document Format (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in
       sequence  and  executes	them  as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further
       input from the standard input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting each line sepa-
       rately.	The interpreter exits gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command (either in
       a file or from the keyboard), at end-of-file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C
       at the keyboard).

       The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are described below. Please
       see the usage documenation for complete information. Switches may appear anywhere  in  the
       command	line  and  apply to all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -?
       switch produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the  devices	known  to
       that  executable,  and  the  search  path for fonts; on Unix it also shows the location of
       detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript may be built to use many different output devices.  To see which devices  your
       executable  includes,  run  "gs	-h".  Unless you specify a particular device, Ghostscript
       normally opens the first one of those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the
       list is the one you want to use, just issue the command

	    gs myfile.ps

       You  can  also  check  the set of available devices from within Ghostscript: invoke Ghost-
       script and type

	    devicenames ==

       but the first device on the resulting list may not be the  default  device  you	determine
       with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch

	    -sDEVICE=AbcXyz

       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson myfile.ps

       The  "-sDEVICE="  switch  must  precede the first mention of a file to print, and only the
       switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally, you can specify a default device in  the  environment  variable  GS_DEVICE.   The
       order  of  precedence  for these alternatives from highest to lowest (Ghostscript uses the
       device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some devices can support different resolutions (densities).  To specify the resolution  on
       such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

	    gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For  example,  on  a  9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get the lowest-density (fastest)
       mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose  where
       Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary file.  To send the
       output to a file "foo.xyz", use the switch

	    -sOutputFile=foo.xyz

       You might want to print each page separately.  To do this, send the output to a series  of
       files  "foo1.xyz,  foo2.xyz, ..." using the "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename
       template:

	    -sOutputFile=foo%d.xyz

       Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered  in	sequence.
       "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".

       On  Unix  and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe.  For example, to pipe
       output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs it to	a  printer),  use
       the option

	    -sOutputFile=%pipe%lpr

       Note  that  the	'%'  characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid mangling by the
       command interpreter.

       You can also send output to standard output:

	    -sOutputFile=-
       or
	    -sOutputFile=%stdout%

       In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages
       to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch

	    -sPAPERSIZE=<paper_size>

       for instance

	    -sPAPERSIZE=a4
       or
	    -sPAPERSIZE=legal

       Most  ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documenatation for a full list,
       or the definitions in the initialization file "gs_statd.ps".

       Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript  and	PDF  files.   For
       example,  if  you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript
       provides a special "device" that just prints out this information.

       For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

	    gs -sDEVICE=bbox golfer.ps

       prints out

	    %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
	    %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445

OPTIONS
       -- filename arg1 ...
	      Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining	arguments
	      (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"
	      in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before  running  the
	      file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.

       -Dname=token
       -dname=token
	      Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition.	The token must be exactly
	      one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -Dname
       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

       -Sname=string
       -sname=string
	      Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.  This is different from
	      -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
		   /name 35 def
	      whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
		   /name (35) def

       -q     Quiet  startup:  suppress  normal  startup  messages, and also do the equivalent of
	      -dQUIET.

       -gnumber1xnumber2
	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.  This  is  for  the
	      benefit  of  devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow) width and height
	      to be specified.

       -rnumber
       -rnumber1xnumber2
	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is
	      for  the	benefit of devices such as printers that support multiple X and Y resolu-
	      tions.  If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

       -Idirectories
	      Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for  library
	      files.

       -      This  is	not  really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that standard input is
	      coming from a file or a pipe and not interactively from the command  line.   Ghost-
	      script  reads  from  standard input until it reaches end-of-file, executing it like
	      any other file, and then continues with processing the command line.  When the com-
	      mand line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going into its
	      interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file "gs_init.ps" makes "systemdict" read-only, so the
       values  of  names  defined  with -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be changed (although, of course,
       they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)

SPECIAL NAMES
       -dDISKFONTS
	      Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the first time they
	      are  encountered.   (Normally  Ghostscript loads all the character outlines when it
	      loads a font.)  This may allow loading more fonts  into  RAM,  at  the  expense  of
	      slower rendering.

       -dNOCACHE
	      Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

       -dNOBIND
	      Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

       -dNODISPLAY
	      Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This may be useful when
	      debugging.

       -dNOPAUSE
	      Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may be  desirable  for
	      applications where another program is driving Ghostscript.

       -dNOPLATFONTS
	      Disables	the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform (for instance X Win-
	      dows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different from the
	      scalable fonts.

       -dSAFER
	      Disables	the "deletefile" and "renamefile" operators and the ability to open files
	      in any mode other than read-only.  This strongly recommended for spoolers,  conver-
	      sion  scripts  or  other	sensitive environments where a badly written or malicious
	      PostScript program code must be prevented from changing important files.

       -dWRITESYSTEMDICT
	      Leaves "systemdict" writable.  This is necessary when running special utility  pro-
	      grams  such as font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal PostScript access pro-
	      tection.

       -sDEVICE=device
	      Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

       -sOutputFile=filename
	      Selects an alternate output file (or  pipe)  for	the  initial  output  device,  as
	      described above.

FILES
       The  locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the executable when it
       is built.  On Unix these are typically based in /usr/local, but this may be  different  on
       your  system.   Under  DOS  they are typically based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, espe-
       cially if you install Ghostscript with GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find the location of Ghost-
       script documentation on your system, from which you can get more details.

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/*
	      Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/*
	      More font definitions

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/examples/*
	      Ghostscript demonstration files

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/doc/*
	      Diverse document files

INITIALIZATION FILES
       When  looking  for  the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related to fonts, or the
       file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries to open the file  with  the  name  as
       given,  using  the current working directory if no directory is specified.  If this fails,
       and the file name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive  (for  instance,  doesn't
       contain	"/"  on Unix systems or "\" on MS Windows systems), Ghostscript tries directories
       in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line (see below), if any;

       2.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if any;

       3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the Ghostscript makefile when
	   the	executable  was  built.   When	gs  is	built  on Unix, GS_LIB_DEFAULT is usually
	   "/usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts"  where   "#.##"
	   represents the Ghostscript version number.

       Each  of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either a single directory
       or a list of directories separated by ":".

ENVIRONMENT
       GS_OPTIONS
	      String of options to be processed before the command line options

       GS_DEVICE
	      Used to specify an output device

       GS_FONTPATH
	      Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made

X RESOURCES
       Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display device, looks for	the  following	resources
       under the program name "Ghostscript":

       borderWidth
	      The border width in pixels (default = 1).

       borderColor
	      The name of the border color (default = black).

       geometry
	      The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

       xResolution
	      The number of x pixels per inch (default is computed from WidthOfScreen and WidthM-
	      MOfScreen).

       yResolution
	      The number of y pixels per  inch	(default  is  computed	from  HeightOfScreen  and
	      HeightMMOfScreen).

       useBackingPixmap
	      Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display window (default =
	      true).

       See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.  To set these  resources  on
       Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:

	    Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
	    Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
	    Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

	    % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources

SEE ALSO
       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.

BUGS
       See http://bugs.ghostscript.com/ and the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.

VERSION
       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 8.63.

AUTHOR
       Artifex	Software,  Inc.  are  the  primary  maintainers of Ghostscript.  Russell J. Lang,
       gsview at ghostgum.com.au, is the author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.

8.63					  1 August 2008 				    GS(1)


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