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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for gas (opensolaris section 1)

AS(1)				      GNU Development Tools				    AS(1)

NAME
       AS - the portable GNU assembler.

SYNOPSIS
       as [-a[cdhlns][=file]] [-D] [--defsym sym=val]
	[-f] [--gstabs] [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf2] [--help]
	[-I dir] [-J] [-K] [-L]
	[--listing-lhs-width=NUM] [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM]
	[--listing-rhs-width=NUM] [--listing-cont-lines=NUM]
	[--keep-locals] [-o objfile] [-R] [--statistics] [-v]
	[-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn] [--fatal-warnings]
	[-w] [-x] [-Z] [--target-help] [target-options]
	[--|files ...]

       Target Alpha options:
	  [-mcpu]
	  [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
	  [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
	  [-F] [-32addr]

       Target ARC options:
	  [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
	  [-EB|-EL]

       Target ARM options:
	  [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
	  [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
	  [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
	  [-mfloat-abi=abi]
	  [-mthumb]
	  [-EB|-EL]
	  [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
	   -mapcs-reentrant]
	  [-mthumb-interwork] [-moabi] [-k]

       Target CRIS options:
	  [--underscore | --no-underscore]
	  [--pic] [-N]
	  [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]

       Target D10V options:
	  [-O]

       Target D30V options:
	  [-O|-n|-N]

       Target i386 options:
	  [--32|--64] [-n]

       Target i960 options:
	  [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
	   -AKC|-AMC]
	  [-b] [-no-relax]

       Target IP2K options:
	  [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]

       Target M32R options:
	  [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
	  --W[n]p]

       Target M680X0 options:
	  [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]

       Target M68HC11 options:
	  [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
	  [-mshort|-mlong]
	  [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
	  [--force-long-branchs] [--short-branchs]
	  [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
	  [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]

       Target MCORE options:
	  [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
	  [-mcpu=[210|340]]

       Target MIPS options:
	  [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
	  [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
	  [-non_shared] [-xgot] [--membedded-pic]
	  [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
	  [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
	  [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
	  [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
	  [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
	  [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
	  [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
	  [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
	  [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
	  [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
	  [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
	  [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]

       Target MMIX options:
	  [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols]
	  [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
	  [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
	  [--linker-allocated-gregs]

       Target PDP11 options:
	  [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
	  [-mextension|-mno-extension]
	  [-mcpu] [-mmachine]

       Target picoJava options:
	  [-mb|-me]

       Target PowerPC options:
	  [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
	   -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
	   -mbooke32|-mbooke64]
	  [-mcom|-many|-maltivec] [-memb]
	  [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
	  [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
	  [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
	  [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]

       Target SPARC options:
	  [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
	   -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
	  [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
	  [-32|-64]

       Target TIC54X options:
	[-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
	[-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]

       Target Xtensa options:
	[--[no-]density] [--[no-]relax] [--[no-]generics]
	[--[no-]text-section-literals]
	[--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU  as	is really a family of assemblers.  If you use (or have used) the GNU assembler on
       one architecture, you should find a fairly similar environment when you use it on  another
       architecture.  Each version has much in common with the others, including object file for-
       mats, most assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

       as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler "gcc" for use by the
       linker  "ld".   Nevertheless,  we've  tried  to make as assemble correctly everything that
       other assemblers for the same machine  would  assemble.	 Any  exceptions  are  documented
       explicitly.  This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the
       same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible versions of 680x0 assembly
       language syntax.

       Each  time you run as it assembles exactly one source program.  The source program is made
       up of one or more files.  (The standard input is also a file.)

       You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names.  The	input  files  are
       read  (from  left file name to right).  A command line argument (in any position) that has
       no special meaning is taken to be an input file name.

       If you give as no file names it attempts to read one  input  file  from	the  as  standard
       input, which is normally your terminal.	You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no
       more program to assemble.

       Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your command line.

       If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.

       as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file (usually  your  termi-
       nal).   This should not happen when  a compiler runs as automatically.  Warnings report an
       assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed program; errors report  a  grave
       problem that stops the assembly.

       If  you	are  invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa option to pass argu-
       ments through to the assembler.	The assembler arguments must be separated from each other
       (and the -Wa) by commas.  For example:

	       gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c

       This  passes  two  options  to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to standard output with
       high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table).

       Usually you do not need to use  this  -Wa  mechanism,  since  many  compiler  command-line
       options	are automatically passed to the assembler by the compiler.  (You can call the GNU
       compiler driver with the -v option to see precisely what options it passes to each  compi-
       lation pass, including the assembler.)

OPTIONS
       -a[cdhlmns]
	   Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:

	   -ac omit false conditionals

	   -ad omit debugging directives

	   -ah include high-level source

	   -al include assembly

	   -am include macro expansions

	   -an omit forms processing

	   -as include symbols

	   =file
	       set the name of the listing file

	   You	may  combine  these  options;  for example, use -aln for assembly listing without
	   forms processing.  The =file option, if used, must be the last  one.   By  itself,  -a
	   defaults to -ahls.

       -D  Ignored.   This option is accepted for script compatibility with calls to other assem-
	   blers.

       --defsym sym=value
	   Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file.	value must be  an
	   integer  constant.  As in C, a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading
	   0 indicates an octal value.

       -f  ``fast''---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is  compiler  out-
	   put).

       --gstabs
	   Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This may help debugging
	   assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.

       --gstabs+
	   Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with GNU extensions that
	   probably  only  gdb can handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or refuse to
	   read your program.  This may help debugging assembler code.	Currently  the	only  GNU
	   extension is the location of the current working directory at assembling time.

       --gdwarf2
	   Generate  DWARF2  debugging information for each assembler line.  This may help debug-
	   ging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.	Note---this option is  only  sup-
	   ported by some targets, not all of them.

       --help
	   Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

       --target-help
	   Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.

       -I dir
	   Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.

       -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.

       -K  Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long displacements.

       -L
       --keep-locals
	   Keep  (in  the  symbol table) local symbols.  On traditional a.out systems these start
	   with L, but different systems have different local label prefixes.

       --listing-lhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an assembler listing to
	   number.

       --listing-lhs-width2=number
	   Set	the  maximum width, in words, of the output data column for continuation lines in
	   an assembler listing to number.

       --listing-rhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a  listing,  to  number
	   bytes.

       --listing-cont-lines=number
	   Set	the  maximum  number  of lines printed in a listing for a single line of input to
	   number + 1.

       -o objfile
	   Name the object-file output from as objfile.

       -R  Fold the data section into the text section.

       --statistics
	   Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used by assembly.

       --strip-local-absolute
	   Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.

       -v
       -version
	   Print the as version.

       --version
	   Print the as version and exit.

       -W
       --no-warn
	   Suppress warning messages.

       --fatal-warnings
	   Treat warnings as errors.

       --warn
	   Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.

       -w  Ignored.

       -x  Ignored.

       -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.

       -- | files ...
	   Standard input, or source files to assemble.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC processor.

       -marc[5|6|7|8]
	   This option selects the core processor variant.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM processor family.

       -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.

       -march=architecture[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.

       -mfpu=floating-point-format
	   Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.

       -mfloat-abi=abi
	   Select which floating point ABI is in use.

       -mthumb
	   Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.

       -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant | -moabi
	   Select which procedure calling convention is in use.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       -mthumb-interwork
	   Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between Thumb and ARM  code
	   in mind.

       -k  Specify that PIC code has been generated.

       See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       -n  Warn when nops are generated.

       -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel 80960 processor.

       -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
	   Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.

       -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.

       -no-relax
	   Do  not  alter compare-and-branch instructions for long displacements; error if neces-
	   sary.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Ubicom IP2K series.

       -mip2022ext
	   Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.

       -mip2022
	   Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted instructions to just the
	   basic IP2022 ones.

       The  following  options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32R (formerly
       Mitsubishi M32R) series.

       --m32rx
	   Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target.  The default is normally the
	   M32R, but this option changes it to the M32RX.

       --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
	   Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.

       --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
	   Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68000 series.

       -l  Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of two.

       -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
       | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
       | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
	   Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target.  The default is normally the
	   68020, but this can be changed at configuration time.

       -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
	   The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point coprocessor.  The  default
	   is  to  assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32.  Although the basic 68000 is
	   not compatible with the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified,  since  it's
	   possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main processor.

       -m68851 | -mno-68851
	   The	target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit coprocessor.  The
	   default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.

       For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see @ref{PDP-11-Options}.

       -mpic | -mno-pic
	   Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code.	The default is -mpic.

       -mall
       -mall-extensions
	   Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.

       -mno-extensions
	   Disable all instruction set extensions.

       -mextension | -mno-extension
	   Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.

       -mcpu
	   Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular CPU, and  disable  all
	   other extensions.

       -mmachine
	   Enable  the	instruction  set  extensions supported by a particular machine model, and
	   disable all other extensions.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a picoJava processor.

       -mb Generate ``big endian'' format output.

       -ml Generate ``little endian'' format output.

       The following options are available when as is  configured  for	the  Motorola  68HC11  or
       68HC12 series.

       -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
	   Specify  what  processor  is  the target.  The default is defined by the configuration
	   option when building the assembler.

       -mshort
	   Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.

       -mlong
	   Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.

       -mshort-double
	   Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.

       -mlong-double
	   Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.

       --force-long-branchs
	   Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns  conditional	branches,
	   unconditional branches and branches to a sub routine.

       -S | --short-branchs
	   Do not turn relative branchs into absolute ones when the offset is out of range.

       --strict-direct-mode
	   Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing mode when the instruc-
	   tion does not support direct addressing mode.

       --print-insn-syntax
	   Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.

       --print-opcodes
	   print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.

       --generate-example
	   print an example of instruction for each possible instruction  and  then  exit.   This
	   option is only useful for testing as.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC architecture:

       -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
       -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
	   Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.

	   -Av8plus  and  -Av8plusa  select a 32 bit environment.  -Av9 and -Av9a select a 64 bit
	   environment.

	   -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with UltraSPARC extensions.

       -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
	   For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.   These  options  are  equivalent  to
	   -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.

       -bump
	   Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x architecture.

       -mfar-mode
	   Enable  extended  addressing mode.  All addresses and relocations will assume extended
	   addressing (usually 23 bits).

       -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
	   Sets the CPU version being compiled for.

       -merrors-to-file FILENAME
	   Redirect error output to a file, for broken systems which don't support such behaviour
	   in the shell.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a MIPS processor.

       -G num
	   This  option sets the largest size of an object that can be referenced implicitly with
	   the "gp" register.  It is only accepted for targets that use ECOFF format, such  as	a
	   DECstation running Ultrix.  The default value is 8.

       -EB Generate ``big endian'' format output.

       -EL Generate ``little endian'' format output.

       -mips1
       -mips2
       -mips3
       -mips4
       -mips5
       -mips32
       -mips32r2
       -mips64
       -mips64r2
	   Generate  code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture level.  -mips1 is an
	   alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for -march=r6000, -mips3 is  an  alias  for
	   -march=r4000  and  -mips4  is  an alias for -march=r8000.  -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2,
	   -mips64, and -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2, MIPS64,
	   and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.

       -march=CPU
	   Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mtune=cpu
	   Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mfix7000
       -mno-fix7000
	   Cause  nops	to be inserted if the read of the destination register of an mfhi or mflo
	   instruction occurs in the following two instructions.

       -mdebug
       -no-mdebug
	   Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style .mdebug  section  instead
	   of the standard ELF .stabs sections.

       -mpdr
       -mno-pdr
	   Control generation of ".pdr" sections.

       -mgp32
       -mfp32
	   The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but these flags force a
	   certain group of registers to be treated as 32 bits wide at all  times.   -mgp32  con-
	   trols  the size of general-purpose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of floating-
	   point registers.

       -mips16
       -no-mips16
	   Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor.  This is equivalent to putting ".set  mips16"
	   at the start of the assembly file.  -no-mips16 turns off this option.

       -mips3d
       -no-mips3d
	   Generate  code  for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension.  This tells the assem-
	   bler to accept MIPS-3D instructions.  -no-mips3d turns off this option.

       -mdmx
       -no-mdmx
	   Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This tells  the	assembler
	   to accept MDMX instructions.  -no-mdmx turns off this option.

       --construct-floats
       --no-construct-floats
	   The	--no-construct-floats  option  disables the construction of double width floating
	   point constants by loading the two halves of the  value  into  the  two  single  width
	   floating  point  registers  that make up the double width register.	By default --con-
	   struct-floats is selected, allowing construction of these floating point constants.

       --emulation=name
	   This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other target, in all respects,
	   including  output  format  (choosing  between ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-
	   opcodes which may generate debugging information or store  symbol  table  information,
	   and	default  endianness.   The available configuration names are: mipsecoff, mipself,
	   mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf.	The first two do not  alter  the  default
	   endianness from that of the primary target for which the assembler was configured; the
	   others change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b or l  in  the
	   name.  Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness selection in any case.

	   This  option  is currently supported only when the primary target as is configured for
	   is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.  Furthermore, the primary target  or	others	specified
	   with  --enable-targets=...  at  configuration  time must include support for the other
	   format, if both are to be available.  For example, the Irix 5  configuration  includes
	   support for both.

	   Eventually,	this option will support more configurations, with more fine-grained con-
	   trol over the assembler's behavior, and will be supported for more processors.

       -nocpp
	   as ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibility with the native tools.

       --trap
       --no-trap
       --break
       --no-break
	   Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and  division  by  zero.   --trap  or
	   --no-break  (which  are synonyms) take a trap exception (and only work for Instruction
	   Set Architecture level 2 and higher); --break or --no-trap  (also  synonyms,  and  the
	   default) take a break exception.

       -n  When  this  option  is  used,  as  will  issue a warning every time it generates a nop
	   instruction from a macro.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an MCore processor.

       -jsri2bsr
       -nojsri2bsr
	   Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default this  is  enabled.   The
	   command line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to disable it.

       -sifilter
       -nosifilter
	   Enable  or  disable	the  silicon filter behaviour.	By default this is disabled.  The
	   default can be overridden by the -sifilter command line option.

       -relax
	   Alter jump instructions for long displacements.

       -mcpu=[210|340]
	   Select the cpu type on the target hardware.	This controls which instructions  can  be
	   assembled.

       -EB Assemble for a big endian target.

       -EL Assemble for a little endian target.

       See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa processor.

       --density | --no-density
	   Enable  or  disable	use of instructions from the Xtensa code density option.  This is
	   enabled by default when the Xtensa processor supports the code density option.

       --relax | --no-relax
	   Enable or disable instruction relaxation.  This is enabled by default.  Note:  In  the
	   current implementation, these options also control whether assembler optimizations are
	   performed, making these options equivalent to --generics and --no-generics.

       --generics | --no-generics
	   Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instructions.   The  default
	   is  --generics;  --no-generics should be used only in the rare cases when the instruc-
	   tions must be exactly as specified in the assembly source.

       --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
	   With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the text section.  The
	   default  is --no-text-section-literals, which places literals in a separate section in
	   the output file.

       --target-align | --no-target-align
	   Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties  at  the  expense  of
	   some code density.  The default is --target-align.

       --longcalls | --no-longcalls
	   Enable  or disable transformation of call instructions to allow calls across a greater
	   range of addresses.	The default is --no-longcalls.

SEE ALSO
       gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Founda-
       tion, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
       the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free
       Software  Foundation;  with  no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
       Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section  entitled  ``GNU  Free
       Documentation License''.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |  ATTRIBUTE TYPE    | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Availability	    | SUNWbinutils    |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Interface Stability | External	      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
NOTES
       Source for GNU binutils is available on http://opensolaris.org.

binutils-2.15				    2004-10-28					    AS(1)


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