
dc(1) User Commands dc(1)
NAME
dc  desk calculator
SYNOPSIS
/usr/bin/dc [filename]
/usr/xpg6/bin/dc [filename]
DESCRIPTION
dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package. Ordinarily it operates on decimal inte
gers, but one may specify an input base, output base, and a number of fractional digits to
be maintained. The overall structure of dc is a stacking (reverse Polish) calculator. If
an argument is given, input is taken from that file until its end, then from the standard
input.
bc is a preprocessor for dc that provides infix notation and a Clike syntax that imple
ments functions. bc also provides reasonable control structures for programs. See bc(1).
USAGE
/usr/bin/dc, /usr/xpg6/bin/dc
The following constructions are recognized under both /usr/bin/dc and /usr/xpg6/bin/dc:
number The value of the number is pushed on the stack. A number is an unbroken
string of the digits 09. It may be preceded by an underscore (_) to input
a negative number. Numbers may contain decimal points.
sx The top of the stack is popped and stored into a register named x, where x
may be any character. If the s is capitalized, x is treated as a stack and
the value is pushed on it.
lx The value in register x is pushed on the stack. The register x is not
altered. All registers start with zero value. If the l is capitalized,
register x is treated as a stack and its top value is popped onto the main
stack.
d The top value on the stack is duplicated.
p The top value on the stack is printed. The top value remains unchanged.
P Interprets the top of the stack as an ASCII string, removes it, and prints
it.
f All values on the stack are printed.
q Exits the program. If executing a string, the recursion level is popped by
two.
Q Exits the program. The top value on the stack is popped and the string
execution level is popped by that value.
x Treats the top element of the stack as a character string and executes it
as a string of dc commands.
X Replaces the number on the top of the stack with its scale factor.
[ ... ] Puts the bracketed ASCII string onto the top of the stack.
<x >x =x The top two elements of the stack are popped and compared. Register x is
evaluated if they obey the stated relation.
v Replaces the top element on the stack by its square root. Any existing
fractional part of the argument is taken into account, but otherwise the
scale factor is ignored.
! Interprets the rest of the line as a shell command.
c All values on the stack are popped.
i The top value on the stack is popped and used as the number radix for fur
ther input.
I Pushes the input base on the top of the stack.
o The top value on the stack is popped and used as the number radix for fur
ther output.
O Pushes the output base on the top of the stack.
k The top of the stack is popped, and that value is used as a nonnegative
scale factor: the appropriate number of places are printed on output, and
maintained during multiplication, division, and exponentiation. The
interaction of scale factor, input base, and output base will be reason
able if all are changed together.
K Pushes the current scale factor on the top of the stack.
z The stack level is pushed onto the stack.
Z Replaces the number on the top of the stack with its length.
? A line of input is taken from the input source (usually the terminal) and
executed.
Y Displays dc debugging information.
; : Used by bc(1) for array operations.
/usr/bin/dc
The following construction is recognized under /usr/bin/dc, using the scale of whatever
the result is.
+  / * % ^ The top two values on the stack are added (+), subtracted (), multi
plied (*), divided (/), remaindered (%), or exponentiated (^). The two
entries are popped off the stack; the result is pushed on the stack in
their place. Any fractional part of an exponent is ignored.
/usr/xpg6/bin/dc
The following construction is recognized under /usr/xpg6/bin/dc. The results of division
are forced to be a scale of 20.
+  / * % ^ The top two values on the stack are added (+), subtracted (), multi
plied (*), divided (/), remaindered (%), or exponentiated (^). The two
entries are popped off the stack. The result is pushed on the stack in
their place. Any fractional part of an exponent is ignored.
Ensures that the scale set prior to division is the scale of the result.
EXAMPLES
Example 1 Printing the first ten values of n!
This example prints the first ten values of n!:
[la1+dsa*pla10>y]sy
0sa1
lyx
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
+++
 ATTRIBUTE TYPE  ATTRIBUTE VALUE 
+++
Availability SUNWesu 
+++
SEE ALSO
bc(1), attributes(5)
DIAGNOSTICS
x is unimplemented x is an octal number.
out of space The free list is exhausted (too many digits).
out of stack space Too many pushes onto the stack (stack overflow).
empty stack Too many pops from the stack (stack underflow).
nesting depth Too many levels of nested execution.
divide by 0 Division by zero.
sqrt of neg number Square root of a negative number is not defined (no imaginary
numbers).
exp not an integer dc only processes integer exponentiation.
exp too big The largest exponent allowed is 999.
input base is too large The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.
input base is too small The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.
output base is too large The output base must be no larger than BC_BASE_MAX.
invalid scale factor Scale factor cannot be less than 1.
scale factor is too large A scale factor cannot be larger than BC_SCALE_MAX.
symbol table overflow Too many variables have been specified.
invalid index Index cannot be less than 1.
index is too large An index cannot be larger than BC_DIM_MAX.
SunOS 5.11 29 Aug 2003 dc(1) 
