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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for lsof (opendarwin section 8)

LSOF(8) 			     System Manager's Manual				  LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [	-?abChlnNOPRstUvVX  ]  [  -A  A  ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-f
       [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ -m m ] [ +|-M  ]  [  -o
       [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r [t] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision  4.68  lists  information about files opened by processes for the following
       UNIX dialects:

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.[12]
	    Apple Darwin 1.[2-5], 5.x and 6.x for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345678] and 5.[01] for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.[01] for Alpha and Sparc64 based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00 and 11.11
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
	    NetBSD 1.[456] for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123] for x86-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    Caldera OpenUNIX 8
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.[13] for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for information on  how  to  obtain  the
       latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special
       file, an executing text reference, a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket,
       NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be
       selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be parsed by other  pro-
       grams.  See the -F, option description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more
       information.

       In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat  mode.   In  repeat
       mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the output operation until stopped with an
       interrupt or quit signal.  See the +|-r [t] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to	all  active  pro-
       cesses.

       If  any	list  request  option  is  specified,  other  list  requests must be specifically
       requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't
       be  listed unless -N is also specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option,
       UNIX domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed  unless  the
       -U option is also specified.

       Normally  list  options	that  are  specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i
       option without an address and the -ufoo option produces a listing of all network files  OR
       files  belonging  to  processes owned by user ``foo''.  One exception is the `^' (negated)
       login name or user ID (UID) specified with the -u option.  Since it is an exclusion, it is
       applied	without  ORing or ANDing and takes effect before any other selection criteria are
       applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For  example,	specifying  -a,  -U,  and
       -ufoo  produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that belong to processes owned by user
       ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used  to
       cause  ANDing  of  selected  pairs  of  selection options by placing it between them, even
       though its placement there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing  of
       all selection options.

       Items  of  the  same  selection	set - command names, file descriptors, network addresses,
       process identifiers, user identifiers - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the  result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example, specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd,
       -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that belong to either login ``fff''  OR
       ``ggg'' AND have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options	may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a -b
       -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since values are optional following  +|-f,  -F,  -g,
       -i,  +|-L, -o, +|-r, -S, and -T, when you have no values for them be careful that the fol-
       lowing character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and -n options,
       or  it  might  represent  the  n field identifier character following the -F option.  When
       ambiguity is possible, start a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If  the
       next  option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F
       -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that don't
       take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.
       Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as  the
       separate  options.   Be	careful  of prefix grouping when one or more options in the group
       does take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is  not  the
       same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These  two equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays a
		shortened form of this output when it detects an error in the options supplied to
		it, after it has displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?' char-
		acter as your shell requires.)

       -a	This option causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A	This option is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel  code  is
		implemented  via  dynamic  modules.   It  allows the lsof user to specify A as an
		alternate name list file where the kernel addresses of the dynamic modules  might
		be  found.   See  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
		information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof.

       -b	This option causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might  block  -	lstat(2),
		readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See  the  BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for information
		on using this option.

       -c c	This option selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that
		begins	with the characters of c.  Multiple commands may be specified, using mul-
		tiple -c options.  They are joined in a single ORed set before	participating  in
		AND option selection.

		If  c  begins  and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes is
		interpreted as a  regular  expression.	 Shell	meta-characters  in  the  regular
		expression  must  be  quoted  to  prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
		closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended one
			  (default).

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for more  information  on
		basic and extended regular expressions.

		The  simple  command specification is tested first.  If that test fails, the com-
		mand regular expression is applied.  If the simple  command  test  succeeds,  the
		command  regular  expression  test  isn't  made.  This may result in ``no command
		found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w	This option defines the maximum number of initial characters of the name  of  the
		UNIX command associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The
		default is nine.)

		If w is zero ('0'), all command characters will be printed.

		If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be  raised
		to that length.

       -C	This  option disables the reporting of any path name components from the kernel's
		name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.

       +d s	This option causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s  and  the
		files and directories it contains at its top level.  This option does NOT descend
		the directory tree, rooted at s, nor does it follow  symbolic  links  within  it.
		The  +D  D  option  may  be used to request a full-descent directory tree search,
		rooted at directory D.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching  for  files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s	This option specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or include
		in the output listing.	The file descriptors are specified in the comma-separated
		set s - e.g., ``cwd,1,3'', ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin with '^'.  It is an
		inclusion list if no entry begins with '^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

		A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long  as  neither  member  is
		empty,	both members are numbers, and the ending member is larger than the start-
		ing one - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified  for  exclusion  if
		they  have the '^' prefix - e.g., ``^0-7'' excludes all file descritors 0 through
		7.

		Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed set before  partici-
		pating in AND option selection.

		When  there  are exclusion and inclusion members in the set, lsof reports them as
		errors and exits with a non-zero return code.

		See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in the  OUTPUT  section
		for more information on file descriptor names.

       +D D	This  option  causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D and all
		the files and directories it contains to  its  complete  depth.   Symbolic  links
		within directory D are ignored - i.e, not followed.

		Note:  the  authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

		Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and require a large  amount  of
		dynamic  memory  to  do it.  This is because it must descend the entire directory
		tree, rooted at D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building  a  list
		of  all  the  files it finds, and searching that list for a match with every open
		file.  When directory D is large, these steps can take a long time, so	use  this
		option prudently.

       -D D	This  option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this option
		is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that
		follow it for more information on this option.

		-D  must  be followed by a function letter; the function letter may optionally be
		followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:

		     ? - report device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache file
		     i - ignore the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes  restricted.
		When  these  functions are restricted, they will not appear in the description of
		the -D option that accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE
		FILE  section and the sections that follow it for more information on these func-
		tions and when they're restricted.

		The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof can use  for  the
		device	cache file, the names of any environment variables whose values lsof will
		examine when forming the device cache file path, and the format for the  personal
		device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

		When  available,  the  b,  r, and u functions may be followed by the device cache
		file's path.  The standard default is .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the
		real  user  ID that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof was
		configured and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?	options show the  current
		default  prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)  The suffix, hostname, is the first component
		of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

		When available, the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache  file  at
		the default or specified path.

		The  i	function  directs lsof to ignore the default device cache file and obtain
		its information about devices via direct calls to the kernel.

		The r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or	specified
		path,  but  prevents it from creating a new device cache file when none exists or
		the existing one is improperly structured.  The r function, when specified  with-
		out  a	path  name,  prevents  lsof from updating an incorrect or outdated device
		cache file, or creating a new one in its place.  The r function is always  avail-
		able  when  it is specified without a path name argument; it may be restricted by
		the permissions of the lsof process.

		When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at  the
		default or specified path, if possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is
		the default device cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be interpreted.   When  fol-
		lowed  by  c,  f,  g, G, or n in any combination it specifies that the listing of
		kernel file structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally a path name argument is taken to be a file system name if it  matches	a
		mounted-on  directory  name  reported  by  mount(8),  or if it represents a block
		device, named in the mount output and associated with a mounted  directory  name.
		When  +f  is  specified,  all path name arguments will be taken to be file system
		names, and lsof will complain if any are not.  This can be useful,  for  example,
		when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
		for some CD-ROM file systems.

		When -f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to be  simple  files.
		Thus,  for  example,  the ``-f /'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files
		with a `/' path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

		Be careful to make sure +f is properly terminated and isn't followed by a charac-
		ter  (e.g.,  of the file or file system name) that might be taken as a parameter.
		For example, use ``--'' after +f as in this example.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name

		The listing of information from kernel file structures,  requested  with  the  +f
		[cfgGn]  option  form,	is  normally  inhibited,  and  is  not available for some
		dialects - e.g., /proc-based Linux.  When the prefix to f is a plus  sign  (`+'),
		these characters request file structure information:

		     c	  file structure use count
		     f	  file structure address
		     g	  file flag abbreviations
		     G	  file flags in hexadecimal
		     n	  file structure node address

		When  the  prefix  is  minus (`-') the same characters disable the listing of the
		indicated values.

		File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node addresses may  be  used  to
		detect	more  readily  identical files inherited by child processes and identical
		files in use by different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by  output
		columns  holding  the  values  and listed to identify identical file use, or lsof
		field output can be parsed by an AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a  C  pro-
		gram.

       -F f	This  option  specifies a character list, f, that selects the fields to be output
		for processing by another program, and the character that terminates each  output
		field.	 Each  field to be output is specified with a single character in f.  The
		field terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL(000).  See the OUTPUT
		FOR  OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the field identification charac-
		ters and the field output process.

		When the field selection character list is empty, all fields are selected (except
		the  raw  device  field for compatibility reasons) and the NL field terminator is
		used.

		When the field selection character list contains only a zero  (`0'),  all  fields
		are  selected (except the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the NUL
		terminator character is used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator character must
		be  set with explicit entries in f, as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
		section.

		When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list -
		e.g.,  PPID,  selected	with  -R  -  specification of the field character - e.g.,
		``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

		When the field selection character list contains the single character  `?',  lsof
		will display a help list of the field identification characters.  (Escape the `?'
		character as your shell requires.)

       -g [s]	This option selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process
		group  IDentification  (PGID)  numbers	are  in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
		``123'' or ``123,456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
		option selection.

		The  -g  option  also enables the output display of PGID numbers.  When specified
		without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]	This option selects the listing of files any of whose  Internet  address  matches
		the  address specified in i.  If no address is specified, this option selects the
		listing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

		If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated
		IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only
		if the dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's
		-h  or	-?  output.)  Sequentially specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as
		specifying -i, and vice-versa.	Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is  the  same  as
		specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a  limit	of 100) may be specified with multiple -i
		options.  (A port number or service name range is counted as one address.)   They
		are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		An  Internet  address  is  specified  in  the  form (Items in square brackets are
		optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following address.
			  '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP or UDP.
		     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files associated with host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its numeric
			  addresses may be specified.
		     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see  if  the
		dialect  supports IPv6, run lsof and specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the
		displayed description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
		supported.

		IPv4  host  names and addresses may not be specified if network file selection is
		limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names and addresses may not be specified if
		network  file  selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.	When an open IPv4 network
		file's address is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's type will	be  IPv6,
		not IPv4, and its display will be selected by '6', not '4'.

		At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname , hostaddr, or ser-
		vice - must be supplied.  The `@' character, leading the host  specification,  is
		always	required;  as is the `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either
		hostname or hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number list.   If
		a  service  name list is specified, the protocol may also need to be specified if
		the TCP and UDP port numbers for the service name are different.  Use any case	-
		lower or upper - for protocol.

		Service  names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose entries are sepa-
		rated by commas and whose numeric range entries are  separated	by  minus  signs.
		There  may be no embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the speci-
		fied protocol.	Since service names may contain embedded minus signs, the staring
		entry of a range can't be a service name; it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6 only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
		     tcp@bar:smtp-nameserver - TCP, ports smtp through
			  nameserver, host bar
		     :time - either TCP or UDP time service port

       -k k	This  option  specifies  a  kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix, /mach,
		etc.  This option is not available under AIX on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l	This option inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to  login  names.   It  is
		also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This  option  enables  (`+')  or  disables (`-') the listing of file link counts,
		where they are available - e.g., they aren't available for sockets, or most FIFOs
		and pipes.

		When  +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be listed.
		When -L is specified (the default), no link counts will be listed.

		When +L is followed by a number, only files having a link count  less  than  that
		number	will  be listed.  (No number may follow -L.)  A specification of the form
		``+L1'' will select open files that have been unlinked.  A specification  of  the
		form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on the specified file
		system.

		For other link count comparisons, use field output  (-F)  and  a  post-processing
		script or program.

       -m m	This  option specifies a kernel memory file, c, in place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem
		- e.g., a crash dump file.

       +|-M	Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper registrations  for  local
		TCP  and  UDP  ports.  The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with
		the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the dialect's machine.h header file; lsof  is  dis-
		tributed  with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deactivated, so portmapper reporting is
		disabled by default and must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's  -h  or  -?
		option	will  report the default mode.	Disabling portmapper registration when it
		is already disabled or enabling it when already  enabled  is  acceptable.   in	a
		warning.

		When  portmapper  registration reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper
		registration (if any) for local TCP or UDP ports in square  brackets  immediately
		following   the  port  numbers	or  service  names  -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''  or
		``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may be a name or number, depend-
		ing on what the registering program supplied to the portmapper when it registered
		the port.

		When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may  run  a  little  more
		slowly	or even become blocked when access to the portmapper becomes congested or
		stopped.  Reverse the reporting mode  to  determine  if  portmapper  registration
		reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For  purposes  of  portmapper  registration reporting lsof considers a TCP or UDP
		port local if: it is found in the local part of its containing kernel  structure;
		or  if	it  is located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure and
		the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it is located in the
		foreign  part of its containing kernel structure and the foreign Internet address
		is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule may	make  lsof  ignore  some  foreign
		ports  on  machines with multiple interfaces when the foreign Internet address is
		on a different interface from the local one.

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for further discussion of
		portmapper registration reporting issues.

       -n	This  option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for network
		files.	Inhibiting conversion may make lsof run faster.  It is also  useful  when
		host name lookup is not working properly.

       -N	This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o	This  option  directs  lsof  to  display file offset at all times.  It causes the
		SIZE/OFF output column title to  be  changed  to  OFFSET.   Note:  on  some  UNIX
		dialects  lsof	can't  obtain accurate or consistent file offset information from
		its kernel data sources, sometimes just for  particular  kinds	of  files  (e.g.,
		socket	files.)   Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information.

		The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
		neither  is  specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appro-
		priate and available for the type of the file.

       -o o	This option defines the number of decimal digits (o)  to  be  printed  after  the
		``0t'' for a file offset before the form is switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of
		zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

		This option does NOT direct lsof to display  offset  at  all  times;  specify  -o
		(without a trailing number) to do that.  This option only specifies the number of
		digits after ``0t'' in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
		for  example,  to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a decimal digit
		count of 10, use:

		     -o -o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally  8,  but	may  have
		been  changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o o option in
		the output of the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O	This option directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by
		some  kernel  operations  -  i.e., doing them in forked child processes.  See the
		BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more  information  on
		kernel operations that may block lsof.

		While  use  of	this  option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it may also cause
		lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to a function.  Use this option cau-
		tiously.

       -p s	This  option  selects the listing of files for the processes whose ID numbers are
		in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,456''.  (There should be no
		spaces in the set.)

		Multiple  process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating
		in AND option selection.

       -P	This option inhibits the conversion of port numbers to	port  names  for  network
		files.	 Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run a little faster.  It is also
		useful when host name lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t] This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as selected by
		other  options,  delays  t  seconds  (default fifteen), then repeats the listing,
		delaying and listing repetitively until stopped by a  condition  defined  by  the
		prefix to the option.

		If  the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with an
		interrupt or quit signal.

		If the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first  cycle  no  open  files  are
		listed	-  and	of  course when lsof is stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.
		When repeat mode ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will  be
		zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none were ever listed.

		Lsof  marks  the  end  of  each  listing: if field output is in progress (the -F,
		option	has  been  specified),	the  marker  is  `m';  otherwise  the  marker  is
		``========''.  The marker is followed by a NL character.

		Repeat	mode  reduces  lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient to use this
		mode than to call lsof repetitively from a shell script, for example.

		To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with specification	of  other
		lsof  selection  options, so the amount of kernel memory access lsof does will be
		kept to a minimum.  Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g,  -p,
		-u - are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the -F, option descrip-
		tion) and a supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       -R	This option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in  the
		PPID column.

       -s	This  option  directs  lsof  to  display  file	size at all times.  It causes the
		SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.  If the file does not have	a
		size, nothing is displayed.

		The  -o  (without  a  following  decimal digit count) and -s options are mutually
		exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is  specified,  lsof  dis-
		plays whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for the type
		of file.

		Since some types of files don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes,  etc.	-
		lsof displays for their sizes the content amounts in their associated kernel buf-
		fers, if possible.

       -S [t]	This option specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel  functions	-
		lstat(2),  readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might otherwise deadlock.  The minimum
		for t is two; the default, fifteen; when no value is specified,  the  default  is
		used.

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]	This  option controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported by
		netstat(1), following the network addresses.  In normal  output  the  information
		appears  in parentheses, each item except state identified by a keyword, followed
		by `=', separated from others by a single space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     WR=<window read length>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write length> (not all dialects)

		When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR  OTHER	PROGRAMS.)   each
		item  appears  as  a field with a `T' leading character, and the TCP or TPI state
		name has the prefix ``ST=''.

		-T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

		-T with following characters selects the reporting of specific	TCP/TPI  informa-
		tion:

		     q	  selects queue length reporting.
		     s	  selects state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting (not
			  all dialects).

		State  is  reported by default.  The -h or -?  help output for the -T option will
		show whether window size reporting can be requested.

		When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed	by  one  or  more
		selection  characters  -  the  displaying of state is disabled by default, and it
		must be explicitly selected again in the characters following  -T.   (In  effect,
		then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths and state
		are desired, use -Tqs.

       -t	This option specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process  identi-
		fiers  only  and  no  header  - e.g., so that the output may be piped to kill(1).
		This option selects the -w option.

       -u s	This option selects the listing of files for the user whose login names  or  user
		ID  numbers  are  in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.
		(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single	ORed  set  before
		participating in AND option selection.

		If  a  login  name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a negation - i.e.,
		files of processes owned by the login name or user ID will never  be  listed.	A
		negated  login	name  or  user	ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other
		selections; it is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes the
		listing  of the files of the process.  For example, to direct lsof to exclude the
		listing of files belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	This option selects the listing of lsof version information, including:  revision
		number;  when  the  lsof  binary  was constructed; who constructed the binary and
		where; the name of the compiler used to construct the lsof  binary;  the  version
		number of the compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags used
		to construct the lsof binary; and system information,  typically  the  output  of
		uname's -a option.

       -V	This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and failed to
		find - command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login  names,  NFS
		files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

		When  other options are ANDed to search options, or compile-time options restrict
		the listing of some files, lsof may not report that it failed to  find	a  search
		item when an ANDed option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
		file containing the located search item.

		For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999''  may  not  report  a  failure  to
		locate	open  files  at  ``TCP@foobar'' and may not list any, if none have a file
		descriptor number of 999.  A similar situtation arises when HASSECURITY and  HAS-
		NOSOCKSECURITY	are  defined at compile time and they prevent the listing of open
		files.

       +|-w	Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

		The lsof builder may choose to have  warning  messages	disabled  or  enabled  by
		default.   The default warning message state is indicated in the output of the -h
		or -?  option.	Disabling warning messages when  they  are  already  disabled  or
		enabling them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -X	This is a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		WARNING:  use  of  this  option  on  a busy AIX system might cause an application
		process to hang so completely that it can neither be killed nor stopped.  I  have
		never seen this happen or had a report of it, but I think the possibility exists.

		This  IBM  AIX	RISC/System 6000 -X option directs lsof to use the kernel readx()
		function.  (By default use of readx() is disabled.)  On AIX 5L and above lsof may
		need setuid-root permission to perform the actions this option requests.

		The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes whose
		real UID is root.  If that has been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h
		or  -?	help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default it will  appear  in
		the help output.

		When  AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information for
		all text and loader file references, but it may also avoid  exacerbating  an  AIX
		kernel directory search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		When readx() is enabled, lsof will attempt to report information on the text file
		being executed by each process and the shared libraries it uses.

		The readx() function, used by lsof or any other program, to access some  sections
		of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the
		kernel's dir_search() function erroneously to believe that part of  an	in-memory
		copy  of  a  file system directory has been zeroed.  Another application process,
		distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search the directory -  e.g.,	by  using
		open(2)  -  can  cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the application
		process.

		Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the 00README file
		of  the lsof distribution for a more complete description of the Stale Segment ID
		bug, its APAR, and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

       --	The double minus sign option is a marker  that	signals  the  end  of  the  keyed
		options.   It  may  be	used, for example, when the first file name begins with a
		minus sign.  It may also be used when the absence of a value for the  last  keyed
		option	must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following option
		and before the start of the file names.

       names	These are path names of specific files to  list.   Symbolic  links  are  resolved
		before	use.  The first name may be separated from the preceding options with the
		``--'' option.

		If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device of the  file
		system, lsof will list all the files open on the file system.  To be considered a
		file system, the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8)  output,
		or  match the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on directory name.
		The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to consider a name a file system  iden-
		tifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

		If  name  is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name of a
		file system, it is treated just as a regular file is treated - i.e., its  listing
		is  restricted	to processes that have it open as a file or as a process-specific
		directory, such as the root or current working directory.  To request  that  lsof
		look for open files inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

		If  a  name  is  the  base  name  of  a family of multiplexed files - e. g, AIX's
		/dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated multipled  files  on  the  device
		that are open - e.g., /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will search for it by the characters
		of the name alone - exactly as it is specified and  is	recorded  in  the  kernel
		socket	structure.   Specifying  a relative path - e.g., ./file - in place of the
		file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't work because lsof must  match  the
		characters you specify with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket struc-
		tures.

		If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files  whose  device  and
		inode match that of the specified path name.

		If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you may safely specify
		are file systems for which your mount table supplies  alternate  device  numbers.
		See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
		information.

		Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before participating  in  AND
		option selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

	    AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may	recognize  AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has not been tested
       there.  Depending on how AFS is	implemented,  lsof  may  recognize  AFS  files	in  other
       dialects, or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof  may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS
       kernel support is implemented via dynamic modules whose addresses do  not  appear  in  the
       kernel's  variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is  needed
       for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it
       reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof  for  specifying  the
       name  list  file  where dynamic module kernel addresses may be found.  When this option is
       available, it will be listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the  -h  or
       -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic
       modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache  operations,
       lsof can't identify path name components for AFS files.

SECURITY
       Lsof  has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation
       mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.   Second,  by  default  it  creates	a
       user-readable  and  user-writable device cache file in the home directory of the real user
       ID that executes lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled
       when  lsof  is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alternate kernel name list or
       memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by  the	compile-time  HASSECURITY
       and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root
       user to list all open files.  The non-root user may list only open files of processes with
       the  same  user	IDentification number as the real user ID number of the lsof process (the
       one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are  both	defined,  anyone  may  list  open
       socket files, provided they are selected with the -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the status of the HASSE-
       CURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 0README file of the lsof distribution for  information  on
       building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation  and  use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is controlled by
       the compile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE  section  and  the  sections
       that  follow  it for details on how its path is formed.	For security considerations it is
       important to note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID  under  which
       lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will be written in root's home directory -
       e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
       device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h, -D?, or
       -?  options, will provide device cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, the -h or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the per-
       formance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of examining all the nodes in	/dev  (or
       /devices)  -  read  the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH  THE  -Di
       OPTION.

       When  lsof  user  declares  alternate  kernel name list or memory files with the -k and -m
       options, lsof checks the user's authority to read them with access(2).  This  is  intended
       to  prevent  whatever  special  power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read
       files not normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See the OUTPUT  FOR
       OTHER  PROGRAMS	section  for  additional  information  on output that can be processed by
       another program.

       Lsof only outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) ASCII  characters.   Non-printable
       characters are printed in one of three forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control charac-
       ter `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g.,  ``\xab'').   Space
       is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column
       is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each column is separated from its  predecessor
       by at least one space.

       COMMAND	  contains  the  first nine characters of the name of the UNIX command associated
		  with the process.  If a non-zero w value is specified to the +c w  option,  the
		  column  contains the first w characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
		  ated with the process.

		  If w is less than the length of the  column  title,  ``COMMAND'',  it  will  be
		  raised to that length.

		  If  a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains all the
		  characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process.

		  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in its structures are dis-
		  played  in  field  output  when the command name descriptor (`c') is specified.
		  See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information  on  selecting  field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       PPID	  is  the  Parent  Process IDentification number of the process.  It is only dis-
		  played when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is the process group IDentification number associated with the process.  It  is
		  only displayed when the -g option has been specified.

       USER	  is  the  user  ID number or login name of the user to whom the process belongs,
		  usually the same as reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the  user  ID
		  number  or  login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof finds information
		  about the process.  Usually that is the same value reported by ps(1),  but  may
		  differ  when the process has changed its effective user ID.  (See the -l option
		  description for information on when a user ID number	or  login  name  is  dis-
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
		       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD  is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which the
		  file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing  the
		  type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire file;
		       u for a read and write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
		       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire file;
		       space if there is no lock.

		  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

		  The  FD column contents constitutes a single field for parsing in post-process-
		  ing scripts.

       TYPE	  is the type of the node associated with the file  -  e.g.,  GDIR,  GREG,  VDIR,
		  VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped
		  in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

		  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains the file reference count from the kernel file  structure  when  c  has
		  been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when	g  or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents of the
		  f_flag[s] member of the kernel file structure and the kernel's per-process open
		  file flags (if available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g',
		  as short-hand names; two lists may be displayed with entries separated by  com-
		  mas,	the  lists  separated  by  a  semicolon (`;'); the first list may contain
		  short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block, test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream message block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RAIO	 Reliant UNIX RAIO request
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       SL	 shared lock
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this list of names was derived  from	F*  #define's  in  dialect  header  files
		  <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, sys/fcntl.c>, <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see
		  the lsof.h header file for a list showing the correspondence between the  above
		  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the  second  list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names for kernel
		  per-process open file flags from this table:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique  identifier  for	the  file
		  node	(usually  the kernel vnode or inode address, but also occasionally a con-
		  catenation of device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains the device numbers, separated by  commas,  for  a  character  special,
		  block special, regular, directory or NFS file;

		  or  ``memory''  for a memory file system node under DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or
		  Tru64 UNIX;

		  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

		  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The	kernel	reference
		  address may be used for FIFO's, for example.);

		  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

		  Usually  only  the  lower  thirty two bits of DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or Tru64
		  UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.	A value is  displayed  in
		  this	column	only  if it is available.  Lsof displays whatever value - size or
		  offset - is appropriate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain  accurate  or  consistent  file  offset
		  information  from  its kernel data sources, sometimes just for particular kinds
		  of files (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't have true  sizes	-
		  e.g.,  sockets,  FIFOs,  pipes  -  so lsof displays for their sizes the content
		  amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descriptors (e.g., socket  buffer  size
		  counts  or  TCP/IP  window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
		  its location.)  for more information.

		  The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is normally displayed in dec-
		  imal with a leading ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with
		  a leading ``0x'' if it is longer than 8  digits.   (Consult  the  -o	o  option
		  description for information on when 8 might default to some other value.)

		  Thus	the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when the column may con-
		  tain both a size and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing
		  if  no  offset  is  available) and labels the column OFFSET.	The offset always
		  begins with ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

		  The lsof user can control the switch from  ``0t''  to  ``0x''  with  the  -o	o
		  option.  Consult its description for more information.

		  If  the  -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size (or nothing
		  if no size is available) and labels the column SIZE.	The -o and -s options are
		  mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.

		  For  files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device -
		  lsof will display appropriate information about the current size or position of
		  the file if it is available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NODE	  is the node number of a local file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

		  or  the  name of a file specified in the names option (after any symbolic links
		  have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or block special device;

		  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network file;  the  local  host
		  name	or  IP	number	is  followed  by a colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the
		  two-part remote address; IP addresses may be	reported  as  numbers  or  names,
		  depending  on  the  +|-M,  -n, and -P options; colon-separated IPv6 numbers are
		  enclosed in square brackets; IPv4 INADDR_ANY and  IPv6  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED
		  addresses,  and  zero  port numbers are represented by an asterisk ('*'); a UDP
		  destination address may be followed by the amount of	time  elapsed  since  the
		  last	packet	was  sent to the destination; TCP and UDP remote addresses may be
		  followed by  TCP/TPI	information  in  parentheses  -  state	(e.g.,	``(ESTAB-
		  LISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window sizes (not all dialects) -
		  in a fashion similar to what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option  description
		  or  the  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more
		  information on state, queue size, and window size;

		  or the address or name of a UNIX domain socket,  possibly  including	a  stream
		  clone  device  name, a file system object's path name, local and foreign kernel
		  addresses, socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name;

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and module names, sep-
		  arated by ``->'';

		  or  system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name as
		  lsof can find in the kernel's name cache for selected dialects (See the  KERNEL
		  NAME CACHE section for more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

		  or  ``COMMON:'',  followed  by  the vnode device information structure's device
		  name, for a Solaris common vnode;

		  or the address  family,  followed  by  a  slash  (`/'),  followed  by  fourteen
		  comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw socket address;

		  or  the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number (if
		  any), followed by the remote address (if any);

		  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX files	-
		  typically  terminal  files  that have been flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and
		  closed by daemons;

		  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of  the  read  and  write
		  offsets of a FIFO;

		  or  ``clone  n:/dev/event''  for  SCO  OpenServer file clones of the /dev/event
		  device, where n is the minor device number of the file;

		  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, or 9 UNIX domain  socket,  cre-
		  ated by the socketpair(3N) network function;

		  or  ``no  PCB''  for	socket files that do not have a protocol block associated
		  with them, optionally followed by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on  the  socket
		  has  been  disabled,	or  ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or the local and remote addresses of a  Linux  IPX  socket  file  in	the  form
		  <net>:[<node>:]<port>,  followed  in	parentheses  by  the transmit and receive
		  queue sizes, and the connection state;

		  or ``dgram'' or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel UNIX
		  domain  sockets,  followed by a colon (':') and the local path name when avail-
		  able, followed by ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket  address  in
		  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that  support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to be attached to
       another with fattach(3C), lsof will add	``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''  to  the
       NAME column.  <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction> will
       be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and
       ``->''  if <address1>, the vnode address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.
       <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single char-
       acter.	What  it reports in a single character is a compromise between the information it
       finds in the kernel and the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only  reports  the
       status of the first lock it encounters.	If it is a byte level lock, then the lock charac-
       ter will be reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the  upper  case
       equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally  lsof	can  only report on locks held by local processes on local files.  When a
       local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host
       usually	records  the lock state.  One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3,
       and in all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote	locks  in
       local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS section of this
       manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for  processing  by
       another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       Each  unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading character
       and terminated by a NL(012) (or a NUL(000) if the 0 (zero) field identifier character is
       specified.)   The  data	of  the  field follows immediately after the field identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A  process  set  begins
       with  a	field  whose identifier is `p' (for process IDentifier (PID)).	It extends to the
       beginning of the next PID field or the beginning of the first file  set	of  the  process,
       whichever  comes first.	Included in the process set are fields that identify the command,
       the process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the user  ID  (UID)	number	or  login
       name.

       A  file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file descriptor).  It is fol-
       lowed by lines that describe the file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size,  off-
       set,  inode,  protocol,	name and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the
       next file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL(000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)	field  identifier
       character, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL(012) character.

       Lsof  always  produces  one  field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields may be declared
       optionally in the field identifier character list that follows  the  -F	option.   When	a
       field  selection  character  identifies	an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID,
       selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It  is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g., if
       the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file sets.  To
       help  you avoid this difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all
       fields with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields with  NUL
       terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These  are  the	fields	that lsof will produce.  The single character listed first is the
       field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure share count
	    d	 file's device character code
	    D	 file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor
	    F	 file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    i	 file's inode number
	    l	 file's lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker between repeated output
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    g	 process group ID
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent process ID
	    s	 file's size (decimal)
	    S	 file's stream identification
	    t	 file's type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is part of the prefix):
		     ST=<state>
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<write queue size>
		     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TPI state information and window sizes aren't
		   reported for all supported UNIX dialects. The
		   -h or -? help output for the -T option will
		   show whether window size reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
	    1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
		 of -F? identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information on these characters and their descriptions by  speci-
       fying  the  -F?	 option  pair.	(Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)  Addi-
       tional information on field content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process ID  (`p'),  command  name  (`c'),  file
       descriptor  (`f')  and  file name (`n') fields with an NL field terminator character; ``-F
       pcfn0'' selects the same output with a NUL(000) field terminator character.

       Lsof doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only those that are  avail-
       able.   Some  fields  are  mutually exclusive: file device characters and file major/minor
       device numbers; file inode number and protocol name; file name and stream  identification;
       file  size  and	offset.   One  or  the other member of these mutually exclusive sets will
       appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL(012) character.  The 0	(zero)	field  identifier
       character may be specified to change the field terminator character to a NUL(000).  A NUL
       terminator may be easier to process with xargs(1), for example, or  with  programs  whose
       quoting	mechanisms  may not easily cope with the range of characters in the field output.
       When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each process and file  set  with  a  NL(012).

       Three  aids  to	producing programs that can process lsof field output are included in the
       lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for
       the  field identification characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and explanation
       strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk,  Perl
       4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in
       C and uses field output to validate the correct operation of lsof.   The  library  can  be
       found in the tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the first aid,
       the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -  lstat(2),	readlink(2),  and
       stat(2).   These  functions  are  stalled in the kernel, for example, when the hosts where
       mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof attempts to break these blocks with timers and child processes,  but  the  techniques
       are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the break
       with an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h  or  -?	option,  and  it  may  be
       changed	with  the  -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two seconds, but you should avoid
       small values, since slow system responsiveness can cause short timeouts	to  expire  unex-
       pectedly and perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When  lsof  has	to break a block during its access of mounted file system information, it
       normally continues, although with less information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using
       the  kernel functions that might block by specifying the -O option.  While this will allow
       lsof to start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the  kernel  situations
       that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You  can  use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that would block.
       Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers
       in  place  of  the  device  numbers  that lsof would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and
       stat(2) kernel functions.  See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for	more  information
       on alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This
       is because lsof needs to know the device and inode numbers of files listed with	names  in
       the  lsof  options,  and the -b option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since
       lsof only has device numbers for the file systems that have  alternates,  its  ability  to
       locate  files  on  file systems depends completely on the availability and accuracy of the
       alternates.  If no alternates are available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't  be  able
       to locate files on the named file systems.

       Third,  if  the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from your system's
       mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able to resolve the links.  This is  because
       the -b option causes lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve sym-
       bolic links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it  needs  to  use
       the  kernel functions that the -b option directs it to avoid.  You can suppress these mes-
       sages by specifying the -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device  num-
       bers reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about a
       mounted file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions, or because  you  speci-
       fied  the  -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information it needs - the device number
       and possibly the file system type - from the system mount table.  When that  is	possible,
       lsof  will report the device number it obtained.  (You can suppress the report by specify-
       ing the -w option.)

       You can assist this process if  your  mount  table  is  supported  with	an  /etc/mtab  or
       /etc/mnttab  file  that contains an options field by adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount
       points that do not have one in their options strings.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of  the  file  system's  device
       number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for
       the appropriate values for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun  Solaris  2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

	    nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's	an  advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table file, especially
       for file systems that are mounted from remote NFS servers.  When a remote  server  crashes
       and  you  want  to identify its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably
       won't be able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the  file  system.
       If  it can obtain the file system's device number from the mount table, it will be able to
       display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the  mount  table
       may  still  provide  an	alternative  device  number in their internal mount tables.  This
       includes AIX, Apple Darwin, DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD,  and  Tru64
       UNIX.   Lsof knows how to obtain the alternative device number for these dialects and uses
       it when its attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for  file  systems  from
       its  mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if it reports any alternate device num-
       bers:

	      lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g.,  the
       ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path()  function under Digital UNIX or Tru64 UNIX) on some dialects for
       most file system types, excluding AFS, and extract recently used path name components from
       it.  (AFS file system path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache.)

       Lsof  reports  the  complete  paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof can't report all
       components in a path, it reports in the NAME column the file system name,  followed  by	a
       space,  two  `-'  characters, another space, and the name components it has located, sepa-
       rated by the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which
       it can report path name components for the same file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's
       because other running processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use  of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it to report
       incorrect components under some circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel name cache
       uses  device  and  node	number	as  a key (e.g., Linux and SCO OpenServer) and a key on a
       rapidly changing file system is reused.	If the UNIX dialect's kernel  doesn't  purge  the
       name  cache  entry  for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to the wrong
       entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	has more informa-
       tion on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

	    BSDI BSD/OS
	    DC/OSx
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX
	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    Reliant UNIX
	    Caldera OpenUNIX
	    SCO OpenServer
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare
	    Solaris

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

	    AIX

       If  you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some dialects, see the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)  functions  can  be
       time  consuming.  What's more, the information that lsof needs - device number, inode num-
       ber, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file  of  cached  /dev  (or	/devices)
       information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where it's not needed.)  The local sys-
       tem administrator who builds lsof can control the  way  the  device  cache  file  path  is
       formed, selecting from these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult	the  output  of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current state of device
       cache support.  The help output lists the default read-mode device cache file path that is
       in  effect for the current invocation of lsof.  The -D?	option output lists the read-only
       and write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment variables,  and
       the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof  can  detect  that the current device cache file has been accidentally or maliciously
       modified by integrity checks, including the computation and verification of a sixteen  bit
       Cyclic  Redundancy  Check  (CRC)  sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file and
       create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legitimately write.

       The  path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be the
       same as the path to which it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof senses that it  needs
       to  update  the	device cache file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device cache  file.   (It's
       always available when specified without a path name argument.)

       When  a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be recreated.
       Since lsof compares the mtime of the device cache file with the mtime  and  ctime  of  the
       /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the  real  UID  of  the
       executing  process,  and  its  permission  modes to 0600, this restricting its reading and
       writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access  device  cache  files.
       The permissions are set by the local system administrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and	rarer  permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect when lsof is exe-
       cuted; its effective UID is then root, while its real (i.e., that of the  logged-on  user)
       UID  is	not.   The  lsof  distribution	recommends  that  versions for these dialects run
       setuid-root.

	    DC/OSx 1.1 for Pyramid systems
	    Reliant UNIX 5.4[34] for Pyramid systems

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the	effective
       group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof process is set to one that can access kernel
       memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after it  has
       accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does that, lsof can allow more liberal device
       cache path formations.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these  dialects
       run setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.[12]
	    Apple Darwin 1.[2-5], 5.x and 6.x for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.3.1 for x86-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345678] and 5.[01] for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.[01] for Alpha and Sparc64 based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.[456] for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0123] for x86-based systems
	    OpenStep 4.x
	    Caldera OpenUNIX 8
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.[13] for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof  for  these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given to the
       executable don't apply to the device cache file.

	    Linux 2.1.72 and above (/proc-based lsof)

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The -D option provides limited means for specifying the device cache  file  path.   Its	?
       function will report the read-only and write device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b,  r,  and u functions are available, you can use them to request that the
       cache file be built in a specific location (b[path]); read but not rebuilt  (r[path]);  or
       read  and  rebuilt  (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted under some condi-
       tions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified with
       the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The  b,	r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid and lsof
       doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the LSOF	PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT  DEVICE
       CACHE  FILE  ACCESS  section  for  a list of implementations that normally don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel  with
       the stat(2) function and build a device cache file at the indicated path.

       When  available,  the  r function tells lsof to read the device cache file, but not update
       it.  When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it names the device cache  file  path.   The	r
       function  is  always available when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof
       is not running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name argument  may
       accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u  function  tells lsof to attempt to read and use the device cache
       file.  If it can't read the file, or if it finds the contents of  the  file  incorrect  or
       outdated,  it  will read information from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated ver-
       sion of the device cache file, but only to a path it considers  legitimate  for	the  lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's  second  choice for the device cache file is the contents of the LSOFDEVCACHE envi-
       ronment variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof process is setuid-root, or	the  real
       UID of the process is root.

       A  further  restriction	applies  to  a device cache file path taken from the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable: lsof will not write a device cache file to  the  path  if	the  lsof
       process	doesn't  surrender  its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT
       DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that  don't	surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local  system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment vari-
       able or change its name when building lsof.  Consult the output of -D?  for  the  environ-
       ment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The  local  system  administrator  may choose to have a system-wide device cache file when
       building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed by a special system administration
       procedure when the system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If
       defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation
       by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof  will  never  write to the system-wide device cache file path by default.  It must be
       explicitly named with a -D function in a root-owned procedure.  Once  the  file	has  been
       written,  the  procedure  must  change  its  permission	modes  to  0644  (owner-read  and
       owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The default device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded  in	the  home
       directory  of  the  real  UID that executes lsof.  Added to the home directory is a second
       path component of the form .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually  the  default.   If	a
       system-wide  device  cache  file  path was defined when lsof was built, this fourth choice
       will be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device cache file.	This is the  only
       time lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The  hostname  part  of	the  second  component is the base name of the executing host, as
       returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined to be the characters  preceding  the
       first  `.'   in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains
       no `.'.

       The device cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and writable by the  user  ID
       alone  -  i.e.,	its modes are 0600.  Each distinct real user ID on a given host that exe-
       cutes lsof has a distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path  distinguishes
       device  cache  files  in  an  NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache files are
       written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a device  cache  file
       that  lsof  will  attempt to read, and will attempt to write should it not exist or should
       its contents be incorrect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache
       file.

       The  -D?   option  will list the format specification for constructing the personal device
       cache file.  The conversions used  in  the  format  specification  are  described  in  the
       00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If  this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof is built, the LSOF-
       PERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used to add a component	of  the  personal
       device cache file path.

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  variable contents are inserted in the path at the place marked by the
       local system administrator with the ``%p'' conversion in the HASPERSDC  format  specifica-
       tion  of the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home directory
       in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus,  for  example,  if  LSOFPERSDCPATH  contains  ``LSOF'',  the   home   directory   is
       ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the
       default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or
       when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof  will  not	write  to  a modified personal device cache file path if the lsof process
       doesn't surrender setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT  DEVICE  CACHE
       FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their set-
       gid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device cache file paths by
       using  the  LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its
       setgid permission, you will have to allow lsof to create device cache files at  the  stan-
       dard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The  local  system  administrator  may: disable this option when lsof is built; change the
       name of the environment	variable  from	LSOFPERSDCPATH	to  something  else;  change  the
       HASPERSDC  format  to include the personal path component in another place; or exclude the
       personal path component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option for the  environ-
       ment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof  returns a one(1) if any error was detected, including the failure to locate command
       names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files,	PIDs,  PGIDs,  or
       UIDs  it  was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search
       items it failed to list.

       It returns a zero(0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to list some  informa-
       tion about all the specified search arguments.

       When  lsof  cannot  open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdirectories, or get
       information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues a	warning  message  and  continues.
       That  lsof  will  issue warning messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is
       indicated in its help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -   with	the  mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning  message  may  be  suppressed with the -w option.  It may also have been sup-
       pressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled by the setting of  the  WARNDE-
       VACCESS	definition.  In this case, the output from the help options will include the mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has  created  a  working
       device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For  a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the 00QUICKSTART file of
       the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host  wonderland.cc.pur-
       due.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list  all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu (cc.purdue.edu is
       the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process
       123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name /dev/log,
       use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To find processes with open files on the NFS  file  system  named  /nfs/mount/point  whose
       server  is  inaccessible,  and  presuming  your mount table supplies the device number for
       /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device
       number, and file inode number for each file of each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To  list  the  files  at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running the lsof command for
       login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly  four
       characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression form
       of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by  its  associ-
       ated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated
       numeric colon-form address that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address	-
       use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

BUGS
       Since  lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel mem-
       ory may produce unpredictable results.

       When a file has multiple record locks, the  lock  status  character  (following	the  file
       descriptor)  is	derived from a test of the first lock structure, not from any combination
       of the individual record locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access  permissions  by  name  unless  it  is
       installed with root set-UID permission.	Otherwise it is limited to searching for files to
       which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for  ping)  depends  on  the
       UNIX  operating	system.   Some dialects store the destination address in the raw socket's
       protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1)  does.   For
       example, the major and minor device numbers that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report
       for the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as
       the  ones  that	it  reports  for  the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD, DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, and
       Tru64  UNIX  dialects,  Linux,  and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD,
       OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and file size -  are  unavailable  in
       some  dialects.	Searching for files in a /proc file system may require that the full path
       name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries  for  files
       other  than the current working directory, the root directory, and numerical file descrip-
       tors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, and Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because
       their  kernel  implementation  of  lstat(2)  returns an improper device number for a named
       pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20,  and	11.00  locks  because  of
       insufficient  access  to  kernel data or errors in the kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

       The AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.	It's made up for file structures whose type(15)
       isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
       structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because  it  doesn't
       read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM
			 AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines the middle component of a modified personal  device  cache  file
			 path.	 See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL  DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more
			 information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in the 00FAQ  file  of
       the lsof distribution.

       That   file   is   also	 available   via   anonymous  ftp  from  lsof.itap.purdue.edu  at
       pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.	The URL is:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem 	 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's device cache file (The suffix, hostname, is the  first	component
			 of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was  written  by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue University.  Many others
       have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The  latest  distribution  of  lsof  is	available  via	anonymous  ftp	from   the   host
       lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof distribution in the pub/tools/unix/lsof direc-
       tory.

       You can also use this URL:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu and change  to  its
       pub/tools/unix/lsof  directory,	you'll	be  given  a  list  of	some  mirror  sites.  The
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use
       mirrors with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some pre-compiled Lsof executables are available on lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is
       discouraged - it's better that you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you  must
       use a pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its README.lsof_<version>  file.
       If you intend to get the lsof distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version>
       and the other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Lsof versions 2 and 3 have been tested under older UNIX dialects.  They are available  via
       anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu in the pub/tools/unix/lsof/OLD directory.

       access(2),  awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),	fuser(1), gethostname(2),
       isprint(3), kill(1), lstat(2),  modload(8),  mount(8),  netstat(1),  ofiles(8L),  perl(1),
       ps(1), readlink(2), stat(2), uname(1).

					  Revision-4.68 				  LSOF(8)


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