INSTALL(1) BSD General Commands Manual INSTALL(1)
install -- install binaries
install [-bCcMpSsv] [-B suffix] [-f flags] [-g group] [-m mode] [-o owner] file1 file2
install [-bCcMpSsv] [-B suffix] [-f flags] [-g group] [-m mode] [-o owner] file1 ... fileN
install -d [-v] [-g group] [-m mode] [-o owner] directory ...
The file(s) are copied to the target file or directory. If the destination is a directory,
then the file is copied into directory with its original filename. If the target file
already exists, it is either renamed to file.old if the -b option is given or overwritten if
permissions allow. An alternate backup suffix may be specified via the -B option's argu-
The options are as follows:
-b Back up any existing files before overwriting them by renaming them to file.old.
See -B for specifying a different backup suffix.
Use suffix as the backup suffix if -b is given.
-C Copy the file. If the target file already exists and the files are the same, then
don't change the modification time of the target. If the target's file flags and
mode need not to be changed, the target's inode change time is also unchanged.
-c Copy the file. This is actually the default. The -c option is only included for
-d Create directories. Missing parent directories are created as required.
-f Specify the target's file flags; see chflags(1) for a list of possible flags and
-g Specify a group. A numeric GID is allowed.
-M Disable all use of mmap(2).
-m Specify an alternate mode. The default mode is set to rwxr-xr-x (0755). The speci-
fied mode may be either an octal or symbolic value; see chmod(1) for a description
of possible mode values.
-o Specify an owner. A numeric UID is allowed.
-p Preserve the access and modification times. Copy the file, as if the -C (compare
and copy) option is specified, except if the target file doesn't already exist or is
different, then preserve the access and modification times of the source file.
-S Safe copy. Normally, install unlinks an existing target before installing the new
file. With the -S flag a temporary file is used and then renamed to be the target.
The reason this is safer is that if the copy or rename fails, the existing target is
-s install exec's the command strip(1) to strip binaries so that install can be porta-
ble over a large number of systems and binary types.
-v Cause install to be verbose, showing files as they are installed or backed up.
By default, install preserves all file flags, with the exception of the ``nodump'' flag.
The install utility attempts to prevent moving a file onto itself.
Installing /dev/null creates an empty file.
The install utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
INS@XXXX If either -S option is specified, or the -C or -p option is used in conjuction
with the -s option, temporary files named INS@XXXX, where XXXX is decided by
mkstemp(3), are created in the target directory.
Historically install moved files by default. The default was changed to copy in
chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cp(1), mv(1), strip(1), mmap(2), chown(8)
The install utility appeared in 4.2BSD.
Temporary files may be left in the target directory if install exits abnormally.
File flags cannot be set by fchflags(2) over a NFS file system. Other file systems do not
have a concept of flags. The install utility will only warn when flags could not be set on
a file system that does not support them.
The install utility with -v falsely says a file is copied when -C snaps hard links.
BSD May 7, 2001 BSD