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FTP(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				   FTP(1)

NAME
     ftp -- Internet file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
      [-AadefginpRtvV] [-o output] [-P port] [-r retry] [-T dir,max[,inc]] [[user@]host [port]]
      [user@]host:[path][/] [file:///path] [ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/]]
      [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
      -u url file [...]

DESCRIPTION
     ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Protocol.  The program
     allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site.

     The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP protocols, or by direct
     copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING
     FILES below for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command interpreter.

     -A       Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use passive mode ftp and fall
	      back to active mode if passive is not supported by the server.  This option causes
	      ftp to always use an active connection.  It is only useful for connecting to very
	      old servers that do not implement passive mode properly.

     -a       Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an anonymous login instead.

     -d       Enables debugging.

     -e       Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs ange-ftp mode.

     -f       Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP or HTTP proxies.

     -g       Disables file name globbing.

     -i       Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -n       Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial connection.  If auto-
	      login is enabled, ftp will check the .netrc (see below) file in the user's home
	      directory for an entry describing an account on the remote machine.  If no entry
	      exists, ftp will prompt for the remote machine login name (default is the user
	      identity on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an
	      account with which to login.

     -o output
	      When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.  output is parsed according
	      to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS below.  If output is not '-' or doesn't start with
	      '|', then only the first file specified will be retrieved into output; all other
	      files will be retrieved into the basename of their remote name.

     -p       Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection filtering firewalls.  This
	      option has been deprecated as ftp now tries to use passive mode by default, falling
	      back to active mode if the server does not support passive connections.

     -P port  Sets the port number to port.

     -r wait  Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait seconds.

     -R       Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.

     -t       Enables packet tracing.

     -T direction,maximum[,increment]
	      Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum bytes/second, and if speci-
	      fied, the increment to increment bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.

     -u url file [...]
	      Upload files on the command line to url where url is one of the ftp URL types as
	      supported by auto-fetch (with an optional target filename for single file uploads),
	      and file is one or more local files to be uploaded.

     -v       Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output is to a terminal (and
	      in the case of progress, ftp is the foreground process).	Forces ftp to show all
	      responses from the remote server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

     -V       Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of enabled when output is to a
	      terminal.

     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the command line.  If
     this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish a connection to an FTP server on
     that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its command interpreter and await instructions from the
     user.  When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt 'ftp>' is provided to the
     user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
		 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are arguments, the
		 first is taken to be a command to execute directly, with the rest of the argu-
		 ments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
		 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef command.  Argu-
		 ments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
		 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for access to
		 resources once a login has been successfully completed.  If no argument is
		 included, the user will be prompted for an account password in a non-echoing
		 input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
		 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left
		 unspecified, the local file name is used in naming the remote file after being
		 altered by any ntrans or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings
		 for type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii	 Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the default type.

     bell	 Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer command is completed.

     binary	 Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye	 Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.  An end of file
		 will also terminate the session and exit.

     case	 Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget commands.  When case
		 is on (default is off), remote computer file names with all letters in upper
		 case are written in the local directory with the letters mapped to lower case.

     cd remote-directory
		 Change the working directory on the remote machine to remote-directory.

     cdup	 Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the current remote
		 machine working directory.

     chmod mode remote-file
		 Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the remote system to
		 mode.

     close	 Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return to the command
		 interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr 	 Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file retrieval.  Records are
		 denoted by a carriage return/linefeed sequence during ascii type file transfer.
		 When cr is on (the default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
		 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.  Records on non-UNIX
		 remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an ascii type transfer is
		 made, these linefeeds may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr
		 is off.

     debug [debug-value]
		 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is specified it is used to
		 set the debugging level.  When debugging is on, ftp prints each command sent to
		 the remote machine, preceded by the string '-->'

     delete remote-file
		 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
		 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote machine.	The list-
		 ing includes any system-dependent information that the server chooses to
		 include; for example, most UNIX systems will produce output from the command 'ls
		 -l'.  If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working directory is used.
		 If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last
		 argument is indeed the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
		 file is specified, or if local-file is '-', the output is sent to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     edit	 Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command and file completion.
		 This is automatically enabled if input is from a terminal, and disabled other-
		 wise.

     epsv4	 Toggle the use of the extended EPSV and EPRT commands on IPv4 connections; first
		 try EPSV / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.  This is enabled by default.  If an
		 extended command fails then this option will be temporarily disabled for the
		 duration of the current connection, or until epsv4 is executed again.

     exit	 A synonym for bye.

     features	 Display what features the remote server supports (using the FEAT command).

     fget localfile
		 Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line per filename.

     form format
		 Set the file transfer form to format.	The default format is ``file''.

     ftp host [port]
		 A synonym for open.

     gate [host [port]]
		 Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS FWTK and Gauntlet
		 ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if the gate-ftp server hasn't been set
		 (either explicitly by the user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If
		 host is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-ftp server will
		 be set to host.  If port is also given, that will be used as the port to connect
		 to on the gate-ftp server.

     get remote-file [local-file]
		 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.  If the local file
		 name is not specified, it is given the same name it has on the remote machine,
		 subject to alteration by the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.	The cur-
		 rent settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while transferring
		 the file.

     glob	 Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput.	If globbing is turned off
		 with glob, the file name arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Glob-
		 bing for mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name
		 is expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are not merged.
		 Expansion of a directory name is likely to be different from expansion of the
		 name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the foreign operating sys-
		 tem and ftp server, and can be previewed by doing 'mls remote-files -' Note:
		 mget and mput are not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.
		 That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree (in binary
		 mode).

     hash [size]
		 Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block transferred.  The size of
		 a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.  This can be changed by specifying size in
		 bytes.  Enabling hash disables progress.

     help [command]
		 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.  If no argument is
		 given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.

     idle [seconds]
		 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds.  If seconds is
		 omitted, the current inactivity timer is printed.

     image	 A synonym for binary.

     lcd [directory]
		 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no directory is speci-
		 fied, the user's home directory is used.

     less file	 A synonym for page.

     lpage local-file
		 Display local-file with the program specified by the set pager option.

     lpwd	 Print the working directory on the local machine.

     ls [remote-path [local-file]]
		 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
		 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-name; a null
		 line (consecutive newline characters in a file or carriage returns from the ter-
		 minal) terminates macro input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096
		 total characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined until a close
		 command is executed.  The macro processor interprets `$' and `\' as special
		 characters.  A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corre-
		 sponding argument on the macro invocation command line.  A `$' followed by an
		 `i' signals that macro processor that the executing macro is to be looped.  On
		 the first pass `$i' is replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation
		 command line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument, and so
		 on.  A `\' followed by any character is replaced by that character.  Use the `\'
		 to prevent special treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
		 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
		 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If interactive prompt-
		 ing is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
		 the target local file for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
		 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for each file name
		 thus produced.  See glob for details on the filename expansion.  Resulting file
		 names will then be processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
		 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which can be changed
		 with 'lcd directory'; new local directories can be created with '! mkdir
		 directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
		 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
		 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and the local-file must
		 be specified.	If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver-
		 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file for receiving mls
		 output.

     mlsd [remote-path]
		 Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to the current direc-
		 tory if not given) in a machine-parsable form, using MLSD.  The format of dis-
		 play can be changed with 'remopts mlst ...'.

     mlst [remote-path]
		 Display the details about remote-path (which should default to the current
		 directory if not given) in a machine-parsable form, using MLST.  The format of
		 display can be changed with 'remopts mlst ...'.

     mode mode-name
		 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is ``stream'' mode.

     modtime remote-file
		 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote machine.

     more file	 A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
		 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as arguments and do a put for
		 each file in the resulting list.  See glob for details of filename expansion.
		 Resulting file names will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap set-
		 tings.

     msend local-files
		 A synonym for mput.

     newer remote-file [local-file]
		 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is more recent
		 that the file on the current system.  If the file does not exist on the current
		 system, the remote file is considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identi-
		 cal to get.

     nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
		 A synonym for ls.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
		 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments are specified, the
		 filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, remote file-
		 names are mapped during mput commands and put commands issued without a speci-
		 fied remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local filenames are
		 mapped during mget commands and get commands issued without a specified local
		 target filename.  This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
		 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.	The mapping fol-
		 lows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.  [Inpattern] is a template for
		 incoming filenames (which may have already been processed according to the
		 ntrans and case settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including the
		 sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern.	Use `\' to prevent this special
		 treatment of the `$' character.  All other characters are treated literally, and
		 are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example, given
		 inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data", $1 would have the value
		 "mydata", and $2 would have the value "data".	The outpattern determines the
		 resulting mapped filename.  The sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9' are replaced by
		 any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The sequence `$0' is replace
		 by the original filename.  Additionally, the sequence '[seq1, seq2]' is replaced
		 by [seq1] if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.  For
		 example, the command

		       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

		 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input filenames "myfile.data"
		 and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the input filename "myfile", and
		 "myfile.myfile" for the input filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
		 outpattern, as in the example: `nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//" > $1' .  Use the `\'
		 character to prevent special treatment of the `$','[',']', and `,' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
		 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If no arguments are
		 specified, the filename character translation mechanism is unset.  If arguments
		 are specified, characters in remote filenames are translated during mput com-
		 mands and put commands issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
		 arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are translated during
		 mget commands and get commands issued without a specified local target filename.
		 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with dif-
		 ferent file naming conventions or practices.  Characters in a filename matching
		 a character in inchars are replaced with the corresponding character in
		 outchars.  If the character's position in inchars is longer than the length of
		 outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
		 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An optional port num-
		 ber may be supplied, in which case, ftp will attempt to contact an FTP server at
		 that port.  If the auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
		 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file	 Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the set pager option.

     passive [auto]
		 Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is given, act as if
		 FTPMODE is set to 'auto'.  If passive mode is turned on (default), ftp will send
		 a PASV command for all data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV
		 command requests that the remote server open a port for the data connection and
		 return the address of that port.  The remote server listens on that port and the
		 client connects to it.  When using the more traditional PORT command, the client
		 listens on a port and sends that address to the remote server, who connects back
		 to it.  Passive mode is useful when using ftp through a gateway router or host
		 that controls the directionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are
		 required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do not.)

     pdir [remote-path]
		 Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
		 the set pager option.

     pls [remote-path]
		 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
		 the set pager option.

     pmlsd [remote-path]
		 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the program specified by
		 the set pager option.

     preserve	 Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.

     progress	 Toggle display of transfer progress bar.  The progress bar will be disabled for
		 a transfer that has local-file as '-' or a command that starts with '|'.  Refer
		 to FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables
		 hash.

     prompt	 Toggle interactive prompting.	Interactive prompting occurs during multiple file
		 transfers to allow the user to selectively retrieve or store files.  If prompt-
		 ing is turned off (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files, and
		 any mdelete will delete all files.

		 When prompting is on, the following commands are available at a prompt:

		       a   Answer 'yes' to the current file, and automatically answer 'yes' to
			   any remaining files for the current command.

		       n   Answer 'no', and do not transfer the file.

		       p   Answer 'yes' to the current file, and turn off prompt mode (as is
			   ``prompt off'' had been given).

		       q   Terminate the current operation.

		       y   Answer 'yes', and transfer the file.

		       ?   Display a help message.

		 Any other reponse will answer 'yes' to the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
		 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.  This command allows
		 simultaneous connection to two remote FTP servers for transferring files between
		 the two servers.  The first proxy command should be an open, to establish the
		 secondary control connection.	Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other FTP com-
		 mands executable on the secondary connection.	The following commands behave
		 differently when prefaced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
		 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro definitions, get and
		 mget transfer files from the host on the primary control connection to the host
		 on the secondary control connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
		 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host on the primary
		 control connection.  Third party file transfers depend upon support of the FTP
		 protocol PASV command by the server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
		 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is left unspecified,
		 the local file name is used after processing according to any ntrans or nmap
		 settings in naming the remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
		 type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd	 Print the name of the current working directory on the remote machine.

     quit	 A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1 arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server.

     rate direction [maximum [increment]]
		 Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.  If maximum is 0,
		 disable the throttle.

		 direction may be one of:
		       all  Both directions.
		       get  Incoming transfers.
		       put  Outgoing transfers.

		 maximum can by modified on the fly by increment bytes (default: 1024) each time
		 a given signal is received:

		       SIGUSR1	Increment maximum by increment bytes.

		       SIGUSR2	Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The result must be a posi-
				tive number.

		 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are displayed.

		 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.

     rcvbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
		 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
		 reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is smaller than
		 remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a partially transferred copy of
		 remote-file and the transfer is continued from the apparent point of failure.
		 This command is useful when transferring very large files over networks that are
		 prone to dropping connections.

     remopts command [command-options]
		 Set options on the remote FTP server for command to command-options (whose
		 absence is handled on a command-specific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to
		 support options include: 'MLST' (used for MLSD and MLST).

     rename [from [to]]
		 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset	 Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply sequencing with
		 the remote FTP server.  Resynchronization may be necessary following a violation
		 of the FTP protocol by the remote server.

     restart marker
		 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated marker.	On UNIX
		 systems, marker is usually a byte offset into the file.

     rhelp [command-name]
		 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is specified it is
		 supplied to the server as well.

     rmdir directory-name
		 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

     rstatus [remote-file]
		 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If remote-file is specified,
		 show status of remote-file on remote machine.

     runique	 Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique filenames.  If a file
		 already exists with a name equal to the target local filename for a get or mget
		 command, a ".1" is appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
		 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If this process contin-
		 ues up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the transfer does not take
		 place.  The generated unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will
		 not affect local files generated from a shell command (see below).  The default
		 value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
		 A synonym for put.

     sendport	 Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will attempt to use a PORT
		 command when establishing a connection for each data transfer.  The use of PORT
		 commands can prevent delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the
		 PORT command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the use of PORT
		 commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands for each data
		 transfer.  This is useful for certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT
		 commands but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     set [option value]
		 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, display all of the
		 options and their values.  The currently supported options are:

		       anonpass    Defaults to $FTPANONPASS

		       ftp_proxy   Defaults to $ftp_proxy.

		       http_proxy  Defaults to $http_proxy.

		       no_proxy    Defaults to $no_proxy.

		       pager	   Defaults to $PAGER.

		       prompt	   Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.

		       rprompt	   Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.

     size remote-file
		 Return size of remote-file on remote machine.

     sndbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP server as a SITE
		 command.

     status	 Show the current status of ftp.

     struct struct-name
		 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default ``stream'' structure
		 is used.

     sunique	 Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file names.  The remote
		 FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU command for successful completion.
		 The remote server will report unique name.  Default value is off.

     system	 Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

     tenex	 Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX machines.

     throttle	 A synonym for rate.

     trace	 Toggle packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
		 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is specified, the current
		 type is printed.  The default type is network ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
		 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If newmask is omitted,
		 the current umask is printed.

     unset option
		 Unset option.	Refer to set for more information.

     usage command
		 Print the usage message for command.

     user user-name [password [account]]
		 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is not specified
		 and the server requires it, ftp will prompt the user for it (after disabling
		 local echo).  If an account field is not specified, and the FTP server requires
		 it, the user will be prompted for it.	If an account field is specified, an
		 account command will be relayed to the remote server after the login sequence is
		 completed if the remote server did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is
		 invoked with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automatically on ini-
		 tial connection to the FTP server.

     verbose	 Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the FTP server are
		 displayed to the user.  In addition, if verbose is on, when a file transfer com-
		 pletes, statistics regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By
		 default, verbose is on.

     xferbuf size
		 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.

     ? [command]
		 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"' marks.

     Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to force the setting
     appropriately.

     Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and xferbuf) support an
     optional suffix on the argument which changes the interpretation of the argument.	Supported
     suffixes are:
	   b	Causes no modification. (Optional)
	   k	Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
	   m	Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
	   g	Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824

     If ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the ``status'' argument of stty(1)) or SIGQUIT signal whilst
     a transfer is in progress, the current transfer rate statistics will be written to the stan-
     dard error output, in the same format as the standard completion message.

AUTO-FETCHING FILES
     In addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-fetch feature.  To
     enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of hostnames/files on the command line.

     The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:

     [user@]host:[path][/]
	   ``Classic'' FTP format.

	   If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see glob), then the equiv-
	   alent of 'mget path' is performed.

	   If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters, it is stored
	   locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of path, in the current directory.
	   Otherwise, the full remote name is used as the local name, relative to the local root
	   directory.

     ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]
	   An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn't defined.  Other-
	   wise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set
	   ftp_proxy isn't defined and user is given, login as user.  In this case, use password
	   if supplied, otherwise prompt the user for one.

	   In order to be compliant with RFC 1738, ftp strips the leading '/' from path, result-
	   ing in a transfer relative from the default login directory of the user.  If the /
	   directory is required, use a leading path of ``%2F''.  If a user's home directory is
	   required (and the remote server supports the syntax), use a leading path of
	   ``%7Euser/''.  For example, to retrieve /etc/motd from 'localhost' as the user
	   'myname' with the password 'mypass', use ``ftp://myname:mypass@localhost/%2fetc/motd''

	   If a suffix of ';type=A' or ';type=I' is supplied, then the transfer type will take
	   place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The default transfer type is binary.

     http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
	   An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy is defined, it is
	   used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP authorisation is required to retrieve
	   path, and 'user' (and optionally 'password') is in the URL, use them for the first
	   attempt to authenticate.

     file:///path
	   A local URL, copied from /path.

     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is stored in the current
     directory as the basename(1) of path.

     If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing '/' or an empty path component, then
     ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory given as the path, and leave the user
     in interactive mode ready for further input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being
     used.

     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.0.

     If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the FTP or HTTP proxies will be
     restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget instead of get.  For HTTP, this is
     implemented by using the 'Range: bytes=' HTTP/1.1 directive.

     If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted to enter a username and
     password to authenticate with.

     When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the address in square
     brackets.	E.g.: ``ftp://[::1]:21/''.  This is because colons are used in IPv6 numeric
     address as well as being the separator for the port number.

ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-C).  Sending trans-
     fers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers will be halted by sending an FTP pro-
     tocol ABOR command to the remote server, and discarding any further data received.  The
     speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR pro-
     cessing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the prompt will not appear
     until the remote server has completed sending the requested file.

     If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a reply from the
     remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection will be closed.  This is differ-
     ent from the traditional behaviour (which ignores the terminal interrupt during this phase),
     but is considered more useful.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to the following rules.

     1.   If the file name '-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout (for writing) is
	  used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is '|', the remainder of the argument is inter-
	  preted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell, using popen(3) with the argument
	  supplied, and reads (writes) from the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes
	  spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g.  ``"| ls -lt"''.  A particularly useful exam-
	  ple of this mechanism is: ``dir "" |more''.

     3.   Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file names are expanded
	  according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f. the glob command.  If the ftp command
	  expects a single local file (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the
	  "globbing" operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file names, the local file-
	  name is the remote filename, which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.
	  The resulting filename may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file names, the remote file-
	  name is the local filename, which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The
	  resulting filename may then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file transfer.	The type
     may be one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary), ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (for
     PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).  ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer,
     plus local byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer parameters: mode, form,
     and struct.

THE .netrc FILE
     The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the auto-login
     process.  It resides in the user's home directory.  The following tokens are recognized;
     they may be separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:

     machine name
	       Identify a remote machine name.	The auto-login process searches the .netrc file
	       for a machine token that matches the remote machine specified on the ftp command
	       line or as an open command argument.  Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
	       tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached or another machine
	       or a default token is encountered.

     default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches any name.  There can
	       be only one default token, and it must be after all machine tokens.  This is nor-
	       mally used as:

		     default login anonymous password user@site

	       thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to machines not specified
	       in .netrc.  This can be overridden by using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
	       Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is present, the auto-login
	       process will initiate a login using the specified name.

     password string
	       Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login process will supply
	       the specified string if the remote server requires a password as part of the login
	       process.  Note that if this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
	       than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the .netrc is readable by
	       anyone besides the user.

     account string
	       Supply an additional account password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
	       process will supply the specified string if the remote server requires an addi-
	       tional account password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command
	       if it does not.

     macdef name
	       Define a macro.	This token functions like the ftp macdef command functions.  A
	       macro is defined with the specified name; its contents begin with the next .netrc
	       line and continue until a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encoun-
	       tered.  If a macro named init is defined, it is automatically executed as the last
	       step in the auto-login process.

COMMAND LINE EDITING
     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3) library.  It is enabled
     with the edit command, and is enabled by default if input is from a tty.  Previous lines can
     be recalled and edited with the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be
     used as well.

     The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to editrc(5) for more
     information.

     An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive command and filename
     completion (including remote file completion).  To use this, bind a key to the editline(3)
     command ftp-complete.  By default, this is bound to the TAB key.

COMMAND LINE PROMPT
     By default, ftp displays a command line prompt of ``ftp> '' to the user.  This can be
     changed with the set prompt command.

     A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the command input) with the
     set rprompt command.

     The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given information:

	   %/	The current remote working directory.

	   %c[[0]n], %.[[0]n]
		The trailing component of the current remote working directory, or n trailing
		components if a digit n is given.  If n begins with '0', the number of skipped
		components precede the trailing component(s) in the format ``/<skipped>trailing''
		(for '%c') or ``...trailing'' (for '%.').

	   %M	The remote host name.

	   %m	The remote host name, up to the first '.'.

	   %n	The remote user name.

	   %%	A single '%'.

ENVIRONMENT
     ftp uses the following environment variables.

     FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults to ```whoami`@''.

     FTPMODE	    Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:

		    active   active mode FTP only

		    auto     automatic determination of passive or active (this is the default)

		    gate     gate-ftp mode

		    passive  passive mode FTP only

     FTPPROMPT	    Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to ``ftp> ''.  Refer to COMMAND LINE
		    PROMPT for more information.

     FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to ``''.  Refer to COMMAND
		    LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPSERVER	    Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.  Default
		    is port returned by a getservbyname() lookup of ``ftpgate/tcp''.

     HOME	    For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     PAGER	    Used by various commands to display files.	Defaults to more(1) if empty or
		    not set.

     SHELL	    For default shell.

     ftp_proxy	    URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if not defined, use the
		    standard FTP protocol).

     http_proxy     URL of HTTP proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.  If proxy authentica-
		    tion is required and there is a username and password in this URL, they will
		    automatically be used in the first attempt to authenticate to the proxy.

		    Note that the use of a username and password in ftp_proxy and http_proxy may
		    be incompatible with other programs that use it (such as lynx(1) ).

     no_proxy	    A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for which proxying is
		    not to be used.  Each entry may have an optional trailing ":port", which
		    restricts the matching to connections to that port.

SEE ALSO
     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)

STANDARDS
     ftp attempts to be compliant with RFC 959, RFC 1123, RFC 1738, RFC 2068, RFC 2389, RFC 2428,
     RFC 2732, and draft-ietf-ftpext-mlst-11.

HISTORY
     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command and file comple-
     tion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files and URLs, modification time preser-
     vation, transfer rate throttling, configurable command line prompt, and other enhancements
     over the standard BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by Luke Mewburn
     <lukem@netbsd.org>.

     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present in all non-NetBSD
     versions of this program, depending if the operating system supports IPv6 in a similar man-
     ner to KAME).

BUGS
     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode transfer code has
     been corrected.  This correction may result in incorrect transfers of binary files to and
     from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii type.	Avoid this problem by using the binary image
     type.

     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form like ::ffff:10.1.1.1)
     indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain
     IPv6 network configurations, this assumption is not true.	In such an environment, IPv4
     mapped addresses must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
     uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to support your configu-
     ration.

BSD					September 28, 2000				      BSD
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