Home Man
Search
Today's Posts
Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for co (opendarwin section 1)

CO(1)				     General Commands Manual				    CO(1)

NAME
       co - check out RCS revisions

SYNOPSIS
       co [options] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       co  retrieves  a  revision from each RCS file and stores it into the corresponding working
       file.

       Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote working files.  Names
       are paired as explained in ci(1).

       Revisions  of  an RCS file can be checked out locked or unlocked.  Locking a revision pre-
       vents overlapping updates.  A revision checked out for reading or processing  (e.g.,  com-
       piling)	need  not  be  locked.	A revision checked out for editing and later checkin must
       normally be locked.  Checkout with locking fails if the revision to be checked out is cur-
       rently locked by another user.  (A lock can be broken with rcs(1).)  Checkout with locking
       also requires the caller to be on the access list of the RCS file, unless he is the  owner
       of  the	file  or the superuser, or the access list is empty.  Checkout without locking is
       not subject to accesslist restrictions, and is not affected by the presence of locks.

       A revision is selected by options  for  revision  or  branch  number,  checkin  date/time,
       author, or state.  When the selection options are applied in combination, co retrieves the
       latest revision that satisfies all of them.  If none of the selection  options  is  speci-
       fied,  co retrieves the latest revision on the default branch (normally the trunk, see the
       -b option of rcs(1)).  A revision or branch number can be attached to any of  the  options
       -f,  -I,  -l,  -M,  -p, -q, -r, or -u.  The options -d (date), -s (state), and -w (author)
       retrieve from a single branch, the selected branch, which is either specified  by  one  of
       -f, ..., -u, or the default branch.

       A  co command applied to an RCS file with no revisions creates a zero-length working file.
       co always performs keyword substitution (see below).

OPTIONS
       -r[rev]
	      retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal to  rev.   If  rev
	      indicates  a  branch  rather than a revision, the latest revision on that branch is
	      retrieved.  If rev is omitted, the latest revision on the default branch	(see  the
	      -b  option of rcs(1)) is retrieved.  If rev is $, co determines the revision number
	      from keyword values in the working file.	Otherwise, a revision is composed of  one
	      or  more	numeric  or  symbolic  fields separated by periods.  If rev begins with a
	      period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended to it.	If rev is
	      a  branch  number  followed by a period, then the latest revision on that branch is
	      used.  The numeric equivalent of a symbolic field is specified with the  -n  option
	      of the commands ci(1) and rcs(1).

       -l[rev]
	      same as -r, except that it also locks the retrieved revision for the caller.

       -u[rev]
	      same  as	-r, except that it unlocks the retrieved revision if it was locked by the
	      caller.  If rev is omitted, -u retrieves the revision  locked  by  the  caller,  if
	      there is one; otherwise, it retrieves the latest revision on the default branch.

       -f[rev]
	      forces the overwriting of the working file; useful in connection with -q.  See also
	      FILE MODES below.

       -kkv   Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision: 1.1.1.1 $ for  the
	      Revision	keyword.  A locker's name is inserted in the value of the Header, Id, and
	      Locker keyword strings only as a file is being locked, i.e.  by  ci -l  and  co -l.
	      This is the default.

       -kkvl  Like  -kkv, except that a locker's name is always inserted if the given revision is
	      currently locked.

       -kk    Generate only keyword names in keyword strings; omit  their  values.   See  KEYWORD
	      SUBSTITUTION  below.   For  example,  for the Revision keyword, generate the string
	      $Revision$ instead of $Revision: 1.1.1.1 $.  This option is useful to  ignore  dif-
	      ferences	due to keyword substitution when comparing different revisions of a file.
	      Log messages are inserted after $Log$ keywords even if -kk is specified, since this
	      tends to be more useful when merging changes.

       -ko    Generate	the  old  keyword  string, present in the working file just before it was
	      checked in.  For example, for the Revision keyword, generate the string  $Revision:
	      1.1  $  instead of $Revision: 1.1.1.1 $ if that is how the string appeared when the
	      file was checked in.  This can be useful for file formats that cannot tolerate  any
	      changes to substrings that happen to take the form of keyword strings.

       -kb    Generate	a  binary image of the old keyword string.  This acts like -ko, except it
	      performs all working file input and output in binary mode.  This makes little  dif-
	      ference on Posix and Unix hosts, but on DOS-like hosts one should use rcs -i -kb to
	      initialize an RCS file intended to be used for binary files.  Also, on  all  hosts,
	      rcsmerge(1) normally refuses to merge files when -kb is in effect.

       -kv    Generate	only  keyword  values for keyword strings.  For example, for the Revision
	      keyword, generate the string 1.1.1.1 instead of $Revision:  1.1.1.1  $.	This  can
	      help  generate  files  in  programming  languages where it is hard to strip keyword
	      delimiters like $Revision: $ from a string.  However, further keyword  substitution
	      cannot  be  performed  once the keyword names are removed, so this option should be
	      used with care.  Because of this danger of losing keywords, this option  cannot  be
	      combined with -l, and the owner write permission of the working file is turned off;
	      to edit the file later, check it out again without -kv.

       -p[rev]
	      prints the retrieved revision on the standard output rather than storing it in  the
	      working file.  This option is useful when co is part of a pipe.

       -q[rev]
	      quiet mode; diagnostics are not printed.

       -I[rev]
	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and questioned even if the standard input is
	      not a terminal.

       -ddate retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch  whose  checkin  date/time  is
	      less  than  or  equal to date.  The date and time can be given in free format.  The
	      time zone LT stands for local time; other common time zone  names  are  understood.
	      For  example, the following dates are equivalent if local time is January 11, 1990,
	      8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):

		     8:00 pm lt
		     4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990	      default is UTC
		     1990-01-12 04:00:00+00	      ISO 8601 (UTC)
		     1990-01-11 20:00:00-08	      ISO 8601 (local time)
		     1990/01/12 04:00:00	      traditional RCS format
		     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT      output of ctime(3) + LT
		     Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990     output of date(1)
		     Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
		     Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800  Internet RFC 822
		     12-January-1990, 04:00 WET

	      Most fields in the date and time can be defaulted.  The default time zone  is  nor-
	      mally  UTC,  but	this  can be overridden by the -z option.  The other defaults are
	      determined in the order year, month, day, hour, minute, and second (most	to  least
	      significant).   At  least one of these fields must be provided.  For omitted fields
	      that are of higher significance than the highest provided field,	the  time  zone's
	      current values are assumed.  For all other omitted fields, the lowest possible val-
	      ues are assumed.	For example, without -z, the date 20, 10:30 defaults to  10:30:00
	      UTC  of the 20th of the UTC time zone's current month and year.  The date/time must
	      be quoted if it contains spaces.

       -M[rev]
	      Set the modification time on the new working file to be the date of  the	retrieved
	      revision.  Use this option with care; it can confuse make(1).

       -sstate
	      retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state is set to state.

       -T     Preserve the modification time on the RCS file even if the RCS file changes because
	      a lock is added or removed.   This  option  can  suppress  extensive  recompilation
	      caused  by  a  make(1) dependency of some other copy of the working file on the RCS
	      file.  Use this option with care; it can suppress recompilation  even  when  it  is
	      needed,  i.e. when the change of lock would mean a change to keyword strings in the
	      other working file.

       -w[login]
	      retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch which was checked  in  by  the
	      user  with  login name login.  If the argument login is omitted, the caller's login
	      is assumed.

       -jjoinlist
	      generates a new revision which is the join of  the  revisions  on  joinlist.   This
	      option  is  largely obsoleted by rcsmerge(1) but is retained for backwards compati-
	      bility.

	      The joinlist is a comma-separated list of pairs of the form rev2:rev3,  where  rev2
	      and  rev3  are  (symbolic or numeric) revision numbers.  For the initial such pair,
	      rev1 denotes the revision selected by the above options -f, ..., -w.  For all other
	      pairs, rev1 denotes the revision generated by the previous pair.	(Thus, the output
	      of one join becomes the input to the next.)

	      For each pair, co joins revisions rev1 and rev3 with respect to rev2.   This  means
	      that all changes that transform rev2 into rev1 are applied to a copy of rev3.  This
	      is particularly useful if rev1 and rev3 are the ends of two branches that have rev2
	      as  a  common  ancestor.	If rev1<rev2<rev3 on the same branch, joining generates a
	      new revision which is like rev3, but with all changes that lead from rev1  to  rev2
	      undone.	If  changes  from rev2 to rev1 overlap with changes from rev2 to rev3, co
	      reports overlaps as described in merge(1).

	      For the initial pair, rev2 can be omitted.  The default is the common ancestor.  If
	      any  of the arguments indicate branches, the latest revisions on those branches are
	      assumed.	The options -l and -u lock or unlock rev1.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n, where n can be 3, 4, or 5.  This can be useful  when  inter-
	      changing RCS files with others who are running older versions of RCS.  To see which
	      version of RCS your correspondents are running, have them invoke rcs -V; this works
	      with  newer  versions  of RCS.  If it doesn't work, have them invoke rlog on an RCS
	      file; if none of the first few lines of output contain the  string  branch:  it  is
	      version 3; if the dates' years have just two digits, it is version 4; otherwise, it
	      is version 5.  An RCS file generated while emulating version 3  loses  its  default
	      branch.	An RCS revision generated while emulating version 4 or earlier has a time
	      stamp that is off by up to 13 hours.  A revision extracted while emulating  version
	      4  or  earlier contains abbreviated dates of the form yy/mm/dd and can also contain
	      different white space and line prefixes in the substitution for $Log$.

       -xsuffixes
	      Use suffixes to characterize RCS files.  See ci(1) for details.

       -zzone specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies the default
	      time  zone  for date in the -ddate option.  The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC
	      offset, or the special string LT for local time.	The default  is  an  empty  zone,
	      which  uses  the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone indication and
	      with slashes separating the parts of the date; otherwise, times are output  in  ISO
	      8601  format  with time zone indication.	For example, if local time is January 11,
	      1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time, eight hours west of UTC, then the time  is  output
	      as follows:

		     option    time output
		     -z        1990/01/12 04:00:00	  (default)
		     -zLT      1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
		     -z+05:30  1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30

	      The -z option does not affect dates stored in RCS files, which are always UTC.

KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION
       Strings	of  the  form  $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded in the text are replaced with
       strings of the form $keyword:value$ where keyword and value are pairs listed below.   Key-
       words can be embedded in literal strings or comments to identify a revision.

       Initially,  the user enters strings of the form $keyword$.  On checkout, co replaces these
       strings with strings of the form $keyword:value$.  If a revision containing strings of the
       latter  form  is checked back in, the value fields will be replaced during the next check-
       out.  Thus, the keyword values are automatically updated on checkout.  This automatic sub-
       stitution can be modified by the -k options.

       Keywords and their corresponding values:

       $Author$
	      The login name of the user who checked in the revision.

       $Date$ The  date  and  time  the revision was checked in.  With -zzone a numeric time zone
	      offset is appended; otherwise, the date is UTC.

       $Header$
	      A standard header containing the full pathname of the RCS file, the  revision  num-
	      ber,  the  date  and time, the author, the state, and the locker (if locked).  With
	      -zzone a numeric time zone offset is appended to the date; otherwise, the  date  is
	      UTC.

       $Id$   Same as $Header$, except that the RCS filename is without a path.

       $Locker$
	      The login name of the user who locked the revision (empty if not locked).

       $Log$  The  log	message  supplied during checkin, preceded by a header containing the RCS
	      filename, the revision number, the author, and the date and time.   With	-zzone	a
	      numeric  time  zone  offset  is appended; otherwise, the date is UTC.  Existing log
	      messages are not	replaced.   Instead,  the  new	log  message  is  inserted  after
	      $Log:...$.  This is useful for accumulating a complete change log in a source file.

	      Each  inserted  line  is	prefixed by the string that prefixes the $Log$ line.  For
	      example, if the $Log$ line is "// $Log: tan.cc $", RCS prefixes each  line  of  the
	      log  with  "// ".  This is useful for languages with comments that go to the end of
	      the line.  The convention for other languages is to use a " *  "	prefix	inside	a
	      multiline comment.  For example, the initial log comment of a C program convention-
	      ally is of the following form:

		     /*
		      * $Log$
		      */

	      For backwards compatibility with older versions of RCS, if the log prefix is /*  or
	      (*  surrounded  by optional white space, inserted log lines contain a space instead
	      of / or (; however, this usage is obsolescent and should not be relied on.

       $Name$ The symbolic name used to check out the revision, if any.   For  example,  co -rJoe
	      generates $Name: Joe $.  Plain co generates just $Name:  $.

       $RCSfile$
	      The name of the RCS file without a path.

       $Revision$
	      The revision number assigned to the revision.

       $Source$
	      The full pathname of the RCS file.

       $State$
	      The state assigned to the revision with the -s option of rcs(1) or ci(1).

       The  following  characters  in  keyword values are represented by escape sequences to keep
       keyword strings well-formed.

	      char     escape sequence
	      tab      \t
	      newline  \n
	      space    \040
	      $        \044
	      \        \\

FILE MODES
       The working file inherits the read and execute permissions from the RCS	file.	In  addi-
       tion,  the  owner  write permission is turned on, unless -kv is set or the file is checked
       out unlocked and locking is set to strict (see rcs(1)).

       If a file with the name of the working file exists already and has  write  permission,  co
       aborts  the  checkout, asking beforehand if possible.  If the existing working file is not
       writable or -f is given, the working file is deleted without asking.

FILES
       co accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it does not need  to  read  the  working
       file unless a revision number of $ is specified.

ENVIRONMENT
       RCSINIT
	      options  prepended  to  the  argument  list,  separated  by  spaces.  See ci(1) for
	      details.

DIAGNOSTICS
       The RCS pathname, the working pathname, and the revision number retrieved are  written  to
       the  diagnostic	output.   The exit status is zero if and only if all operations were suc-
       cessful.

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 1.1.1.1; Release Date: 2002/04/30.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 Paul Eggert.

SEE ALSO
       rcsintro(1), ci(1), ctime(3), date(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice & Experience 15, 7
       (July 1985), 637-654.

LIMITS
       Links to the RCS and working files are not preserved.

       There is no way to selectively suppress the expansion of keywords, except by writing  them
       differently.  In nroff and troff, this is done by embedding the null-character \& into the
       keyword.

GNU					    2002/04/30					    CO(1)


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 05:29 AM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
UNIX.COM Login
Username:
Password:  
Show Password